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The Equator Principles

The introduction of these Principles by leading institutional investors in the private sector is predicted to fundamentally change how projects are financed. Critics, however, maintain that much also depends on how they are implemented, and to what extent lenders are determined to enforce the Principles against their borrowers (Barrett and Mack 2004). Already in 2004, NGOs have stirred a controversy regarding the approval of a 250 million loan for the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline, which is slated to run through Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey. The 1,760-kilometer project has been criticized on the basis that it violated the Equator Principles in strategic environmental and social areas (Sohn 2004). At present the most controversial Equator Prinicpal projects include the Sakhalin Island oil and gas project involving Shell (ABN Amro), the Botania Pulp and Paper Mill in Uruguay (ING), and the Belene Bulgaria nuclear power plant (HVB).

Underwater photography

Bathysnap Design

Underwater photography has become an increasingly important tool for diving marine scientists over the past 15 years or so. Diver-held underwater cameras fall into two main categories standard 35mm land cameras and flashguns enclosed in pressure-proof housings and amphibious, waterproof cameras with dedicated flash guns of which the Nikonas system is the most widely used (Figure 3.32). Both systems can be fitted with a variety of wide-angle and close-up lenses. Housed cameras tend to be bulky but have the inherent capabilities of any single lens reflex camera allowing automatic exposure and focusing. Several amphibious cameras now have automatic exposure capability with through-the-lens (TTL) metering but to date, only one, the Nikonas VI, has automatic focusing. The high price of this model puts it beyond the reach of many divers.

China 9th Century Points South Wooden Statue Two Red Horses

South-pointing statue would have to turn the cart itself, to make it a south-heading carriage. Or a carrot would have to be dangled from the point of his finger so that the horses (now in the loop) followed it. Likewise the drinking straw would have to regulate its volume no matter how hard one sucked. Although not automatic, the south-pointing cart is based on the differential gear, a thousand-year-old predecessor to the automobile transmission, and an early prototype of modern self-pointing guns on an armored tank which aid the drivers inside where a magnetic compass is useless. Thus, these clever devices are curious stillbirths in our genealogy of automation. The very first truly automatic devices had actually been built long before, a millennia earler.

Orographic precipitation

Note This process may also operate in deep nimbostratus layers. Source After Browning and Hill (1981). Reprinted from Weather, by permission of the Royal Meteorological Society. Crown copyright . Note This process may also operate in deep nimbostratus layers. Source After Browning and Hill (1981). Reprinted from Weather, by permission of the Royal Meteorological Society. Crown copyright .

Energy Options Fossil Energy

The performance of the well depends on the properties of the reservoir rock, the interaction between the rock and fluids in the reservoir, and properties of the fluids in the reservoir. Reservoir fluids include the fluids originally contained in the reservoir as well as fluids that may be introduced as part of the reservoir management process described below. Well performance also depends on the properties of the well itself, such as its cross-section, length, trajectory, and completion. The completion of the well establishes the connection between the well and the reservoir. A completion can be as simple as an open-hole completion where fluids are allowed to drain into the wellbore from consolidated reservoir rock, to completions that require the use of tubing with holes punched through the walls of the tubing using perforating guns to allow fluid to flow between the tubing and the reservoir.

Cultural and Other Influencing Factors

Strong controls on gun ownership in Europe, and the inverse of the free flow of weapons in the United States (where there are some 60 million handguns), make for the very real personal assessments that the chances of a fatal robbery attempt while visiting a city-center market in a European city are much lower. In 1996, for example, there were a reported 9,390 handgun deaths in the United States, compared with only 30 in the United Kingdom, a country with some of the toughest gun restrictions of any nation (Overholser, 1999). There is no question that the ubiquity of guns and the frequency of gun fatalities in the United States affects the locational and lifestyle choices of Americans. An important lesson from European countries, then, may be one that is not frequently discussed in planning texts serious gun control may be a necessary element in any strategy to promote sustainable urban form.

The Sustainable Value Portfolio

Some years ago, William Ruckelshaus, former EPA administrator and CEO of Browning Ferris, made the following statement Sustainability is as foreign a concept to managers in capitalist societies as profits are to managers in the former Soviet Union ' While intended to be at least partially tongue-in-cheek, I believe that this statement showed considerable insight. There can be little doubt that sustainability is one of the most frequently used but least understood terms of our time it is right up there with the term strategy when it comes to overuse and lack of meaning. (I say this as a professor of both strategy and sustainability ) Indeed, it is with some regularity that I find myself engaged in a discussion with someone about sustainability, only to discover several minutes into the conversation that he is talking about something completely different from me.

New Deal Conservation

Attitudes toward wildlife also changed during the mid-twentieth century. The Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937 provided federal aid for the restoration of wildlife and the acquisition of wildlife habitat by taxing sales of sportsman's guns and ammunition. The goal was to restore wildlife resources for economic, scientific, and recreational purposes. The dichotomy between predators (such as wolves, mountain lions, and coyotes) and game (such as deer, antelope, and elk) also began to give way to an appreciation of the wider roles of wildlife within natural systems. Poisoning programs and sports hunters were challenged by wildlife ecologists and conservationists, who argued that animal populations were valuable parts of functioning ecosystems, rather than varmints to be exterminated. By the 1960s, the newer attitudes would set the stage for citizens' campaigns against pesticides and for the preservation of endangered species.

Fronts Jet Streams And The Tropopause 1990 Qeii

A. (1968) The organization of severe local storms. Weather 23, 429-34. Browning, K. A. (1985) Conceptual models of precipitation systems. Met. Mag. 114, 293-319. Browning, K. A. (1986) Weather radar and FRONTIERS. Weather 41, 9-16. Browning, K. A. (1990) Organization of clouds and precipitation in extratropical cyclones. In Newton, C. Browning, K. A. and Hill, F. F. (1981) Orographic rain. Weather 36, 326-9. Browning, K. A. and Roberts, N. M. (1994) Structure of a frontal cyclone. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 120, 1535-57. Browning, K. A., Bader, M. J., Waters, A. J., Young, M. V. and Monk, G. A. (1987) Application of satellite imagery to nowcasting and very short range forecasting. Met. Mag. 116, 161-79.

The Role of Emotions in Our Judgment of Risk

Clearly, affect does not always correlate with the objective risks or costs. People may respond with very little fear to guns, automobiles, and unsafe sex even though these can pose very dangerous risks. On the other hand, stimuli such as spiders, snakes, and heights can evoke profound fear reactions, despite awareness that one really has little to fear from these stimuli. This pattern can be explained from an evolu

Further Reading Books

Dynamic Climatology, Routledge, London, 620pp. Browning, K. A. (ed.) (1983) Nowcasting, Academic Press, New York, 256pp. Treats the design of forecast systems, new remote sensing tools, and simple and numerical forecasts. Conway, E. D. and the Maryland Space grant Consortium (1997) Introduction to Satellite Imagery Interpretation, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 242pp. Useful, well-illustrated introduction to basics of remote sensing, satellite systems and atmospheric applications - clouds, winds, jet streams, synoptic and mesoscale systems, air quality oceanographic applications including sea ice. Henderson-Sellers, A. (ed.) (1995) Future Climates of the World A Modelling Perspective, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 636pp. Provides geological perspective of past climate, observed climate variability and future projections, anthropogenic effects. McGuffie, K. and Henderson-Sellers, A. (1997) A Climate Modelling Primer (2nd edn), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 268pp. Explains the...

The State Capital And Hegemony

The second basic conceptual tool which we can use from historical materialism is the term hegemony, drawing primarily on Gramsci. Hegemony denotes the ideological struggles which occur over the projects of the dominant class designed to secure the basic conditions for accumulation. The process of securing those conditions requires that capital engages in continual ideological struggles to create a capacity to keep capitalist societies together. The notion of hegemony suggests that capitalist societies are not governed purely through domination, but normally through legitimating practices, in which hegemonic struggles play a central role. As Barrett puts it, hegemony is about 'the organisation ofconsent the process through which subordinated forms of consciousness are constructed without recourse to violence or coercion' (1991 54).

Economic fundamentals

Perspective, the Kyoto targets are a premature and potentially costly distraction, and moreover subject to 'leakage' of emissions if some industries migrate to countries without emission caps (Barrett 2001). Most economists however remain sceptical about the utility of governments choosing and fostering technologies, and recognize that technical change is to an important degree fostered by market conditions (for a review with reference to modelling, see Grubb, Koehler and Anderson 2002). From this perspective, the Kyoto targets can be the impetus for investment in low carbon technologies, with the view that as the associated industries develop the technologies can diffuse globally (aided by Kyoto's CDM and technology transfer provisions, and subsequently by extension of commitments), thus bringing down emissions globally as well.

Military Needs As Drivers Of Innovation

New metal-working technologies were often first applied to gun manufacturing, as in the case of the boring machine mentioned above. Another example was Eli Whitney's machine tool innovations (notably the milling machine), the French-inspired goal of interchangeable parts, and the so-called 'American system of manufacturing' later refined by Colt, Remington and Winchester. These innovations were originally intended to make guns cheaper and more reliable, but were soon adopted throughout the metal-working industries (Rosenberg 1969b Woodbury 1972 Carlsson 1984 Hounshell 1984). Significant improvements in steel casting and forming in Germany were driven by the race to build bigger and longer-range guns, especially for battleships ('dreadnoughts'). Arguably the most important chemical technology in history, the HaberBosch process to synthesize ammonia (more generally, to 'fix' nitrogen), was driven in part by the German desire to break the British monopoly of natural nitrate deposits...

The genesis of the North American and European slowdown

Later in the period, the transitional economies' growth surge caused a global commodity price boom, with oil prices reaching unprecedented highs (Figure 3.4), followed not long after by price spikes in other commodities (Figure 3.5).7 This tended to reverse the product price deflationary pressure in the United States and to justify the restoration of the US federal fund rate to more normal levels during 2004-06 (Figure 3.1). At the same time, however, it exacerbated US asset price inflation as oil-exporting countries joined the other transitional economies in building up US dollar-denominated reserve assets.8 The financial contraction in 2007 was therefore a consequence of more complex forces to which the relative expansion of the Chinese economy was a contributor. Nonetheless, the contraction originated in the United States and spread to varying degrees to other OECD countries and, particularly, to Western Europe. While Figure 3.1 shows that the easing by the Federal Reserve during...

Our climatic inheritance

In the forefront of this work has been Jared Diamond. His book Guns, Germs and Steel (see Bibliography) provides a brilliant and illuminating discussion of the reasons for the long-term advantages of Eurasia in constructing economies and diffusing technologies. In particular, the spread of plant species and domesticated animals is more effective within ecological zones where climatic conditions are not dramatically different. This is because plants and animals appropriate to one ecological zone may be completely inappropriate elsewhere. Diamond argues that this spread occurs more readily in an east-west direction along the same latitude with the same day length and the same seasonal variations, rather than in a north-south direction, which almost invariably crosses ecological zones. So, despite the wide range of climatic conditions across its huge extent, Eurasia enjoyed the benefit of its vast east-west axis concentrated in temperate ecological zones.

Toward a Grassroots Politics of Climate Sustainability

Another major driver of locale-based action for climate protection can be found in the relative diversity of the industrial makeup of many cities and states, where fossil fuel and automobile companies seldom dominate local economies. Moreover, policies to promote renewable energy and reduce overall energy demand can enhance demand for new technologies and industries that create local jobs (CEEP 2005 Hoerner and Barrett 2004 Union of Concerned Scientists 2005 Sterzinger and Svrcek 2004a, b) . Also, community-based renewable energy initiatives can enhance landowner revenue and the municipal tax base, with such investments showing the potential for a greater multiplier effect on communities' economies than that associated with fossil fuels (CEEP 2005 Hopkins 2003).

Brief Longterm Hazards Of Radiowaste Storage In Saltbed Excavations

Concern has also been expressed about the possibility that terrorists might try to acquire radioactive material for use in a so-called 'dirty' but non-nuclear bomb. Any terrorist gang who would want to break into a radiowaste repository to steal canisters of radioactive waste for some evil purpose would have to bring a truck, winch, and special engagement equipment to retrieve any. Even if a gang was able to subdue the repository guards by guns or in a gunfight, they would mostly expose themselves to radiation and could do little harm to anyone else, should they succeed with such a heist. Damage from the explosion of a 'dirty' bomb comprises mostly mechanical blast effects. Radioactive materials are easily detected and a dirty bomb blast area is readily decontaminated with so-called 'rad-waste' solvents. Anyone not killed by the bomb's concussion but covered with radiodust can and should take a quick bath, shower, or swim to wash off radioactive particles. Any gamma radiation exposure...

Reminder of Some Lessons of Basic Economics Public Goods

The second basic idea is that of property rights. The negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol, including, importantly, the COP3bis round in Bonn in 2001, reflects the gradual acceptance of one of the most important but poorly understood ideas in economics the economizing incentives that derive from private property. It is perhaps not surprising that this idea is unfamiliar to many environmental scientists. But economic theory teaches the power of property rights to serve environmental objectives and the emerging details of the Kyoto Protocol can be understood as exploiting the idea of property rights to certain levels of emissions of greenhouse gases. Some involved in the negotiating process were and are uncomfortable with this idea some readers will view the concept as raising an ideological red flag. I would urge the economists to stick more firmly to their analytical guns and the others to consider objectively the possibility of exploiting the extraordinary power of private property in...

Question feelings about public space and big event crimes

Because a top-down, all-powerful media theory (such as Gerbner's) might suggest that the saturation 'bombarding' of the public with 'big event' crimes (like the Port Arthur and Dunblane massacres, or the Atlanta Olympics bombing) would make the televiewing public even more convinced about a 'mean world', we asked people their responses to these televisual events. The Sydney group men felt that the main effect of the Port Arthur massacre was to increase the prime minister's popularity at the cost of the public as he peddled a rhetoric of 'gun reform', whereas guns in general are the result of the 'armament kings' making money. This led on to a discussion of imperialist countries using guns to control Africa, Europe and so on. 'Multinational capital is at the back of it', controlling for example development in Peru orAustralia, generating terrorism and so on. As regards the safety of public spaces, they argued for a routine return to 'more cops back on the beat', rather than any 'panic'...

Interventions for TBI

Programs is the Think First National Injury Prevention Foundation. This, and other similar programs, seeks to prevent brain injuries by providing public education, implementing specific public health programs, and affecting public policy. Resulting public health education programs frequently focus on vehicular safety (e.g. wearing seatbelts, wearing approved helmets, obeying traffic laws, etc.) and firearms safety 107 . There is good evidence that bicycle and motorcycle helmets, seatbelts, and airbags reduce severity of brain injury following accidents 108-110 . More recently, researchers are examining specific types of sports helmets designed to lessen impact of injuries during contact sports 111 .

Dream Defenders and Sprawl

On a sultry weekend in June, the Holiday Inn near the Mall of America south of Minneapolis is a busy place. African soccer players are lounging in the hot tub before a game at an international tournament across the nearby Wisconsin border. Visiting trainees from the Royal Air Force are going over the day's schedule in the pub, and the Sweet Adelines chorus is hitting high notes in unison in a second-floor meeting room. The stairway is adorned with ribbons and flowers for a wedding, and the guests pass through the automatic glass doors, each of which has a bumper-sticker-sized reminder that guns are not allowed inside the building. Into this scene the American Dream Coalition has also arrived.

Global Policy Strategy

The policy challenge becomes one of establishing a binding global agreement for the global society optimising strategy for each country to cooperate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This is an extremely difficult challenge (although as Barrett argues it is not without precedents).13 Unlike national and regional pollution

Fourteen Killed in Tana River Clashes

NAIROBI, Kenya (November 20, 2ooi)-Fourteen people were killed and thirteen seriously injured in Tana River District, Eastern Kenya, on Sunday when tensions between Orma and Pokomo communities over the use of land and water resources erupted into violence. Some seventy people have now been killed over the last year as a result of repeated clashes between the communities, and Pokomo elders have claimed that the Orma have been accumulating firearms in preparation for more attacks.62

Nature of traditional pastoralist systems

Rights to forage and water are defined within an extremely complex system. The boundaries of grazing areas are not well defined, except perhaps at the broadest, tribal level, nor is the set of users with rights to a given area (McPeak and Barrett 2001 Haro et al. 2005). Often, relatively productive areas have a primary user or manager group, and a large number of secondary users, whose use is managed by the primary user group to a greater or lesser extent (Cossins and Upton 1987 Niamir 1991 Oba 1992). Within the imprecise nature of the definition of a user group, different users can have different degrees of rights, and a number of factors can influence the ability of a given pastoralist or pastoralist group to utilize a specific resource (Cossins and Upton 1987 Coppock 1994). Kinship, networks, and other relationships, such as age groups, can all affect a group's use of a specific resource (Haro et al. 2005). Rights also vary depending on the users' livestock. In most cases, home...

Typical hazardous waste generated by small businesses

Degreasing, rust removal, paint preparation, spray booth, spray guns, brush cleaning, paint removal, tank cleanout, installing lead-acid batteries, oil and fluid replacement Plate preparation, stencil preparation for screen printing, photoprocessing, printing, cleanup Degreasing, equipment cleaning, rust removal, paint preparation, painting, paint removal, spray booth, spray guns, and brush cleaning. Pesticide application and cleanup

Altering your cooking techniques

I Toaster ovens Use a toaster oven for small jobs. Small toaster ovens (the kind that sit on your countertop) take much less energy than big conventional ovens. And if you know how to use them properly, you can get great browning effects. They don't cost much, but you're better off getting a good one with an automatic timer and temperature controls.

Forming stable agreements between large numbers of countries

Barrett (1994a, c) analyses this problem using a game theoretic model of agreement participation. Each country has the choice of either free-riding on the abatement efforts of committed parties or participating in the agreement. Countries only accede to the treaty if the net benefits (benefits minus costs) of co-operation outweigh the net benefits of freeriding. A 'self-enforcing' agreement is defined as the equilibrium number of countries where no party to the agreement wishes to leave, but no uncommitted country wishes to join. In this model the only credible reaction of the co-operating countries to a country leaving the agreement is to raise their combined emissions, and thus global damage, which reflects the smaller number of countries co-operating to reduce emissions. This limitation on the type of credible punishments by signatories on defectors removes any 'Folk Theoretic' solutions that could sustain a full co-operative outcome. Barrett concludes that, given a large number of...

Appendix Nonwarring Societies

Barrett, The Cayapa Indians of Ecuador, Indian Notes and Monographs, vol. 40 (New York Museum of the American Indian, Heyes Foundation, 1925),- John Murra, The Cayapa and Colorado, in J. Steward (ed.), Handhook of South American Indians, vol. 4 The Circum-Caribbean Tribes, 277 91 (Washington, D.C. United States Printing Office, 1948), 282.

Underwater television and video

Television cameras can be mounted on towed underwater sledges along with still cameras. The television signals give a continuous record of the strip of sea bottom traversed by the sledge, and colour photographs show greater detail of particular areas (Holme and Barrett, 1977). If the distance travelled by the sledge is measured, then quantitative estimates of fauna can be made.

Conclusion and policy implications

Compensatory payments through international treaties. But it could also take the form of a sharing rule of joint costs and benefits of utilities such as dams, canals, or hydropower plants, as for the Columbia River (Barrett 1994) and the Senegal River. Water can also be traded in exchange for other commodities, for example fuel supply on the Syr Darya River (Abbink et al. 2005) or electricity supply on the Mekong River between Thailand and the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Commission is required to meet regularly to discuss potential disputes and to plan cooperative arrangements for the development of the basin. In the case of disagreement, the matter may be taken up by intergovernmental negotiations or, failing these, arbitration (Barrett 1994). In the United States, states must follow specific negotiation procedures to sign an interstate river water compact. The disagreement outcome is a solution imposed by the federal government (Bennett and Howe 1998).

Kyotos compliance system emergence and design

Party's assigned amount at a penalty rate in a subsequent commitment period, are arguably of such a nature as to require an amendment of the protocol. The lack of clarity on these issues may result in an unclear political situation after the first commitment period, for example if certain Annex I parties that are found to be in non-compliance have not ratified an amendment that reflects the binding nature of these penalties. Indeed, those countries which find it most difficult to fulfil their obligations are also the least likely to ratify such an amendment (Barrett, 2003).

Compliance NGOs and international governance

In Chapter 10, Wettestad points out that several multilateral environmental agreements share basic features in their systems for verification, review and response. However, as he also observes, there seems to be a tendency towards compliance systems with more teeth. While the Marrakesh Accords contain both a facilitative and an enforcement approach towards non-compliance, the enforcement aspect is clearly the most striking innovation. How important this innovation will be in practice depends on the ability of the provisions for hard enforcement to induce compliance. As pointed out by Barrett (2002 2003), the Kyoto compliance regime suffers from a number of weaknesses that might potentially weaken the system. First, if a country that has been found by the Enforcement Branch to be in non-compliance in the first commitment period also fails to comply in the second period, it must presumably make up for the difference (plus 30 per cent) in the subsequent commitment period. However, this...

Challenges and prospects an effective compliance system

The Kyoto compliance system is part of a broader international institution, the climate regime - and as students of regime effectiveness have shown, institutions can influence behaviour that is relevant to addressing international challenges, such as global warming, in several distinctive ways.10 One way is to shape the incentives of parties by rendering non-compliance more costly or adherence with international norms more profitable. This 'logic of consequentially' is emphasized by contributors to the so-called enforcement school in the study of international compliance (eg Barrett, 2003 Downs et al, 1996).11 As argued by the so-called managerial school, however, the level of compliance with international agreements is generally quite good despite the fact that most international regimes have paid relatively little attention to enforcement (Chayes and Chayes, 1995). This conclusion has been

The climate change problem

The pervasiveness of fossil fuel combustion and land-use change, the two major drivers of climate change, means that the problem is implicated in almost every human activity. GHGs are emitted from a myriad small and large sources, from power plants to private cars, paddy fields to gas cookers, aluminium smelters to land-fill sites.4 There is, therefore, no single identifiable cause of climate change and no single salient solution. The ubiquity of the causes of climate change, in turn, means that almost any group within civil society could be considered a stakeholder, thereby generating great public interest in the topic, even by the high standards of global environmental issues. The economic implications of climate change have, in particular, motivated a strong presence on the part of business and industry groups. As Barrett and Chambers comment international climate change negotiations have involved a greater number of actors as well as many more kinds of actors than any of the...

Question pleasures in narrative do they prefer shows where the police always win

The Sydney group preferred good to win but they defined 'good' as the opposite of 'the acquisitive society, where it's really big to make money.exploit your fellow man'. They would like to see television show the better side of people, helping each other. The Bathurst group also preferred it when good prevails, because 'it makes you feel better'. Overall, they worried that so many TV programmes are directed towards crime and violence, and thought that it is young people (in their 30s and younger) who want it. They believed these young people may thus become desensitised to violence. One woman, picking up this theme, described her grandchildren who come from a country property and 'only want guns' because their parents shoot kangaroos.

Parameterizations Of Pbl And Stratiform Cloud Processes And Representation Of The Effects Of Surface Irregularity

Browning (1974) wrote to the directors of centers concerned with global modeling to ascertain what they regard as the priority issues on which to concentrate when parameterizing the large-scale effects of clouds and cloud-related processes. He reports, Many respondents referred to inadequacies in the present schemes for representing cloud-cover, mainly, but

United States

Discovery in the US peaked in 1930, followed 40 years later by the corresponding peak in production. Alaska provided a secondary cycle, but was insufficient to reverse the decline, and the new deepwater Gulf of Mexico offers a third (see Figure 4.8). It is doubted if the Alaska Natural Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) area, which is closed for environmental reasons after the drilling of one very confidential borehole, would make any material difference if opened. US oil imports already run at about US 130 billion a year and are set to rise unless the government can somehow introduce draconian policies to cut demand. Its gas supply is even more critical, as already discussed. It is hard to avoid the conclusion that this looming energy crisis will spell the end of the American dream and US global economic hegemony, even if the country goes down with all guns blazing.

Colin J Campbell

The foregoing discussion relates to the offshore Caspian, which seemed to be a particularly promising area, not having been explored by the Soviets. The surrounding onshore territories were thoroughly explored, so that most of the prospective basins and the larger fields within them have already been identified. There is naturally scope for more exploration and development, leading to production growth in the future, but that is another story. It is very evident that the Caspian has proved a chimera, dashing hopes that it would lessen US dependency on the Middle East. This realization perhaps explains in part why it now turns its guns on Iraq. There is at the same time a serious lesson to be learned all that glitters is not gold. When the dust settles, Iraq may also be found to be able to offer less than was at first hoped, nature being immune to military intervention.

List Of Figures

Schlumberger 10k Retrievable DST String Example, 7 Liner Schlumberger 10k Retrievable DST String Example, 9 5 8 Casing Schlumberger 10k Production DST String Example, 7 Liner Schlumberger 15k Production DST String Example HP HT DST String Design with TCP Guns Halliburton, Typical DST String with Downhole Closure SRO Sub - Schlumberger DGA DLWA LDCA Underbalance Drill Stem Testing - IRIS Tools (Schlumberger) IRIS Tools (Schlumberger)

Other publications

B. (1998) Primer on Scientific Knowledge and Politics in the Evolving Global Climate Change Regime COP 3 and the Kyoto Protocol. Tokyo, United Nations University Benedick, R. E. (1991) Ozone Diplomacy New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet.

Chapter Perforating

Wireline perforating with large underbalances should be avoided so as not to blow the guns up-hole and potentially birds nest the wireline. ( Use 200 psi) 2. Although it is possible to run 2 1 8 OD strip jet carrier guns through 2 ID test tools, this is not recommended. After firing the guns, the strips can bend and it may become impossible to retrieve the guns through the mule shoe. Consideration should also be given to the maximum burr height when selecting hollow carrier guns to ensure that they can be safely retrieved. 4. TCP guns should be run with a redundant firing head. (e.g. pressure activated and drop bar) 5. In the event that a pressure activated TCP gun fails to fire within the expected time frame, wait a further hour. Following this, re-apply tubing pressure up to the maximum allowable within pressure testing constraints. Should the guns fail to be fired hydraulically, then use the redundant firing mechanism, for example a drop bar. If a drop bar is used and becomes stuck...

Local Social Network

EUBANK and JAMES P. SMITH worked for five years together at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop the EpiSims simulation. Barrett, who oversaw a predecessor project, TRANSIMS, is a bioinformatics specialist who now directs the Simulation Science Laboratory at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) in Blacksburg. Eubank, a physicist, is deputy director of the VBI simulation lab and was EpiSims team leader at Los Alamos. Smith, also a physicist, continues to work with simulations related to TRANSIMS as the project office leader for Discrete Simulation Science in the LANL Computer and Computational Sciences Division.

Marketing the Forest

European colonists came from countries that were undergoing transformations from organically based to inorganically based economies. In the Middle Ages, wind, water, animal muscle, and human labor were integral parts of an organic economy, used to supply human needs. But by the seventeenth century, when New World colonization was taking place, inorganic resources were increasingly beginning to be exploited, such as iron ore for guns, spades, and kettles and silicon for glass-making. Charcoal from timber (an organic product) was necessary to fuel the forges and furnaces at the base of the inorganic economy of the iron industry. Forest products were also essential to building ships for trade and for the barges, locks, and warehouses used to transport and store commodities.

High Temperature

Increment Borer Diagram

FIGURE 10.7 Schematic diagram illustrating the potential difficulty presented by the formation of a partial ring (in 1847). In the lowest two sections the ring might not be sampled by an increment borer, which removes only a narrow wood sample. In the upper section the ring is thin, but present all around the tree circumference. Such missing or partially absent rings are identified by careful cross-dating of multiple samples (Glock, 1937). FIGURE 10.7 Schematic diagram illustrating the potential difficulty presented by the formation of a partial ring (in 1847). In the lowest two sections the ring might not be sampled by an increment borer, which removes only a narrow wood sample. In the upper section the ring is thin, but present all around the tree circumference. Such missing or partially absent rings are identified by careful cross-dating of multiple samples (Glock, 1937).

Spanish Expeditions

Rather than travel eastward over the Taos Mountains and then north toward the Arkansas River, Bautista de Anza traveled northward along an untried route through the San Luis Valley into Colorado in an attempt to evade discovery by the enemy. He outfitted his force of 573 men with guns, ammunition, provisions, and horses and organized his command into three divisions. On 20 August they were joined by 200 friendly Utes and Apaches just north of the present-day Colorado-New Mexico border near Antonito. From 22 August through 24 August, they moved at night in order to avoid detection. The group crossed Poncha Pass at the northern end of the San Luis Valley on 26 August, then spent the next day traveling 24 km through a very narrow canyon with almost inaccessible sides, and considerable water, costing them considerable work to conquer (Thomas, 1932 128). On 28 August 1779, after crossing the Arkansas River near where Salida is now located, they continued northeastward along the mountainous...


In Radical Evolution Joel Garreau's Hell scenario is centred on the Luddite apocalypticism of the techno-millennial apostate, Bill Joy, former chief scientist and co-founder of Sun Microsystems. In the late 1990s Joy began to believe that genetics, robotics, and nanotechnology posed novel apocalyptic risks to human life. These technologies, he argued, posed a different kind of threat because they could self-replicate guns do not breed and shoot people on their own, but a rogue bioweapon could. His essay 'Why the Future Doesn't Need Us,' published in April 2000 in Wired magazine, called for a global, voluntary 'relinquishmenf of these technologies. An example of a more successful channelling of techno-apocalyptic energies into effective prophylaxis was the Millennium Bug or Y2K phenomenon. In the late 1990s a number of writers began to warn that a feature of legacy software systems from the 1960s and 1970s, which coded years with two digits instead of four, would lead to widespread...


I doubt that there is anyone truly expert in all the areas covered in it. I have opted for breadth over depth. I know of no other way to provide the perspective the subject demands. But it is a challenge, for me at least, to achieve a reasonable command over so large an area. I have undoubtedly failed at points, and I hope the reader will bear with me when I have. I am consoled by Robert Browning Ah, but a man's reach should exceed his grasp Or what's a heaven for

Literature Cited

Oh, and B. Browning. 1976. Phytoestrogens Adverse effects on reproduction in California quail. Science 191 98-100. Smith, F. A., H. Browning, and U. L. Shepherd. 1998.The influence of climate change on the body mass of woodrats Neotoma in an arid region of New Mexico. Ecography 21 140-148.

Joint implementation

Joint implementation (JI) allows countries to gain 'credit' (sometimes 1 1 but usually lower) by investing in CO2 abatement (source reduction or sink enhancement) outside their own country this is encouraged under the FCCC4 and some schemes have already been initiated (Barrett 1994d). As joint implementation allows countries to 'shop around' for the lowest way to reduce emissions it offers potential for reducing the costs of GHG stabilisation.

Jon Hovi

Two main scenarios may be envisioned. The first is that the Kyoto Protocol enters into force and works fairly well, and that current non-parties (notably the US) join in before 2012. Clearly, this is a goal that the parties to the Kyoto Protocol have set for themselves. It should be emphasized, however, that including more parties will not necessarily make the agreement more effective. As pointed out by Barrett (1999 2002 2003), one may have to choose between a treaty that is 'broad but shallow' and one that is 'narrow but deep'. In other words, broadening the set of Member States may be possible only by making the agreement less ambitious (e.g., in terms of targets for emissions reductions). Nevertheless, should this first scenario materialize, it is reasonable to expect the agreement for the next commitment period to share many of the characteristics of the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, the basic Kyoto strategy, with a strong focus on quantitative emissions permits and flexibility...

The National Post

Jack Barrett, chemist and spectroscopist, formerly with Imperial College London, U.K. Dr. William J.R. Alexander, professor emeritus, Dept. of Civil and Biosystems Engineering, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Member, United Nations Scientific and Technical Committee on Natural Disasters, 1994-2000 Dr. S. Fred Singer, professor emeritus of environmental sciences, University of Virginia

Self Enforcement

Self-enforcement is an intuitively attractive expression when dealing with international agreements. It evokes the absence of an external authority, which is at the root of the problems raised by international type of agreements. It also contains an implicit reference to incentives. After its introduction by Barrett (1994), the appearance of a book (Barrett 2003) entirely devoted to this idea has positioned the author as its most articulate advocate. We feel that while the answer to the last question is definitely yes, the answers to the previous question are difficult to make precise. Self-enforcement is a property of a treaty that ''must satisfy three conditions individual rationality, collective rationality and fairness'' (Barrett 2003, pp. xiii-xiv). Apart from the first, which is used in its standard sense, the other expressions are given a special meaning. On the one hand, collective rationality is redefined successively in Barrett's chapters 7 and 11 as a property of a treaty...

Resources Buildup

In order to win the war, Roosevelt realized that the United States would have to become the arsenal of democracy. In the first 6 months of 1942, the US government gave out more than 100 billion in military contracts, which was more than the gross domestic product of 1940. During the 3.5 years from 1942 to 1945, US production amounted to 6,500 ships and boats 296,400 airplanes 86,330 tanks 64,546 landing craft 3.5 million jeeps, trucks and personnel carriers 53 million deadweight tons of cargo vessels 12 million rifles, carbines, and machine guns and 47 million tons of artillery shells, together with millions of tons of uniforms, boots, medical supplies, tents and a thousand other items needed to fight a modern war. 2


International agreements such as the FCCC are binding in international law, but in reality compliance with the terms of the treaty is only likely if countries think it is in their own best interest. There are no effective international mechanisms to force compliance, and the FCCC only binds parties to enter a dispute resolution procedure involving consensual discussions, not arbitration or sanctions.7 The weakness of credible sanctions against countries reneging on their treaty obligations has led many commentators to argue that international agreements can never enforce significant global emissions reductions (Haas and Sundgren 1993). This result stems from the fact that most research in this area has assumed that agreements must be formed between large numbers of countries, or smaller numbers of homogeneous countries see Barrett (1995) for a survey of this work. The possibility of agreement being dependent on strategic interactions between a small number of coalitions, which are of...