Woodwork Projects

Ted's Woodworking Plans

Teds Woodworking Plans is a detailed guide by Ted McGrath which will help you earn lots of praises and money. You will learn a number of superior skills which only professional woodworkers possess and you will be equipped with superior problem solving skills as well. Tedswoodworking will help you deliver high quality products by telling you various tricks which the professionals use. It will expose all the technicalities that are present while creating a wood craft, and will tell you ways to perfectly get over the technicalities. You will also be told tricks to handle various issues in the woodworking process so that you create a product which is error free. No matter what type of wood product you want to make, you will find the idea present in the comprehensive book.Once you implement the ideas and make a unique wood craft of high quality, you can do two things to it. You can either decorate your home with the amazing woodcraft to surprise every family member, or you can sell the woodcraft to earn lots of profits. Read more here...

Tedswoodworking Plans Summary

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Contents: Ebooks, Plans
Author: Ted Mcgrath
Official Website: www.tedswoodworking.com
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My Tedswoodworking Plans Review

Highly Recommended

This is one of the best e-books I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Marketing certified wood products for green building

Certified wood products represent a special case for marketing green products, since wood is not typically a large percentage of the total costs of a commercial or institutional building. The certified wood credit (Materials and Resources credit 7) requires that 50 percent of the value of all new wood-based materials used in a project pass through an FSC-certified chain of custody (COC). For nonprofits, universities and other green building clients, the use of sustainably harvested wood could be an important selling point for a LEED project. Looking at various LEED-certified projects, we often see very different results in terms of certified wood use. The lesson for marketers of certified wood products is to know an architect's and owner's project goals intimately and be prepared to argue that the public relations benefit is worth the extra money that would be spent on certified lumber for rough carpentry or finish items. In many cases, the cost premium for dimensional lumber is not...

Certified Wood Products

Certified wood products are those made from lumber harvested in a sustainable manner and certified by a reliable third party. The certifying groups most active at this time are the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). The LEED rating system only awards points for FSC-certified wood, partly for historical reasons and partly because it is the most rigorous third-party rating system. However, Green Globes and the National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB) Green Home Building Guidelines also recognize the SFI and CSA systems. As a practical matter, most of the timber harvested in the US comes from public lands and is not certified to Certified wood products all carry a chain of custody certificate that tracks the lumber from the forest to the end-user. LEED-certified projects must use certified wood products for 50 of the value of all permanent wood-based materials in a building, including flooring,...

Wood and wood products

The findings for wood and wood products also show that a better fit is generally obtained using the German (EU) rather than the US (world) price. In all cases that use the German price, the adjustment coefficient is significant, at least at the 5 per cent level. The results for Sweden may be anomalous. For the other countries examined, the coefficient on domestic costs is highly significant and greater in magnitude than that on the foreign currency price.

The Green Design Team

Aluminum windows with thermal break Operable double glazed Low-E windows Sloped sill with self-adhering flexible flashing pan OSB in lieu of plywood Vapor barrier FIGURE 2.3. The above cross sections show how the various envelope elements can be integrated to achieve an enclosure that is thermally effective, avoids moisture intrusion, and also allows for flow of fresh air into the living space and exhaust of stale air to the exterior. While the specific design approach and material relationships differ between concrete masonry (2.3b) and wood frame construction (2.3a), similar practices such as the effective placement of insulation, providing continuous drainage plain, thorough flashing, and planning for ventilation apply to both construction types.

Lessons Learned And Fixes

2 The exterior insulating sheathing of 4 cm of dense fibreglass was found not to be vermin-proof. The problem was solved by additional sealing at the bottom of the exterior wood siding. It would be better to use uninsulated plywood sheathing in the first place, adding further insulation if desired.

Box Lobsters wild ride

UPS once leased old gas stations, furnished them with sawhorses under four-by-eight plywood sheets, and used the old gas stations as centers for sorting packages. Now they have the Worldport, as they call it - a sorting facility that requires four million square feet 370,000m2 of floor space and is under one roof. Its location is more than near the Louisville International Airport it is between the airport's parallel runways on five hundred and fifty acres 223ha that are owned not by the county, state or city but by UPS. The hub is half a mile 0.8km south of the passenger terminal, which it dwarfs. If you were to walk all the way around the hub's exterior, along the white walls, you would hike five miles. You would walk under the noses of 727s, 747s, 757s, 767s, DC-8s, MD-11s, A-300s - the fleet of heavies that UPS refers to as 'browntails'. Basically, the hub is a large rectangle with three long concourses slanting out from one side to dock airplanes. The walls are white because...

Incorporating energyefficient technology

I Structural insulated panels Prefab panels made of Styrofoam sandwiched between plywood. You can build a very solid, well-insulated home from these panels at low cost. Look to see a lot more of these in the future because they take less invested energy, which is the amount of energy consumed in the manufacturing process.

Preparing for Climate Shifts

Some of the changes that may be necessary for buildings to respond to climate change can be expensive. Long-term measures to improve your home's ability to withstand adverse conditions should be carefully planned. Also consider what steps would be necessary to undo those measures if they turn out to be wrong. This is one area where some expert planning can help. For example, it is time to re-roof and you want to upgrade the roof's ability to withstand damage by covering the entire underlayment with a peel and stick membrane. Will this result in moisture being trapped in your attic space and condensing on the cold underside of the roof in winter Might it be better for your geographical area to use peel and stick membranes only on the seams and use plywood panels which are better able to breathe than OSB for the underlayment

Enhancing efficiency by burning the right wood

Hardwoods versus softwoods Hardwoods are almost always better than softwoods for burning because you get a lot more Btu per unit weight and volume, which means a lot less work on your part per Btu generated. Hardwoods also deposit less creosote in your chimney and vent system, making them safer and cleaner for the environment. Some people are suckers for the fact that softwoods are so much cheaper than hardwoods, but in fact, hardwoods are more cost effective. Check out www.hearth.com fuelcalc woodvalues.html for a calculator on different types of firewood and the Btu you can expect from them.

Burning the right wood

Hardwoods are almost always better than softwoods for burning because you get a lot more Btu per unit weight and volume, which means a lot less work on your part per Btu generated. Hardwoods also deposit less creosote in your chimney and vent system, making them safer and cleaner for the environment. Some people are suckers for the fact that softwoods are so much cheaper than hardwoods, but in fact, hardwoods are much more cost effective. Check out www.hearth.com fuelcalc woodvalues.html for a calculator on different types of firewood and the Btu you can expect from them. smokes a lot, won't burn at a hot temperature, hisses and pops and may be dangerous, and puts a lot of crud into your vent system). To season wood, split logs as soon as possible into the size that will fit into your stove and stack them in a dry spot for 6 to 18 months. Pile the wood so that air can circulate. Hardwoods take longer to dry than softwoods do. Humidity and temperature also affect drying times. Although...

Maintaining a Wood stoVe

Wood stoves require chimney maintenance. Burning wood creates creosote gunk on your vent or chimney liner, and this can catch on fire if you're not diligent. Softwoods are much worse in this regard than hardwoods. Over the course of the burn cycle, raw wood turns to ashes. Ashes build up and change the dynamics of the combustion process.

Procurement and Investment Policies

T h e re are a variety of specific strategies local governments have adopted in o rder to operate more sustainably. One important strategy involves purchasing and pro curement. In Fre i burg, for example, an environmental impact assessment has been required since 1992 for all municipal purc h a s e s . The city of Albertslund re q u i res all suppliers to fill out a questionnaire and to indicate whether they have adopted an environmental management system (EMS) and, if so, which standards have been adopted. The London borough of Sutton has been a leader in promoting sustainable practices t h roughout the local government and has become the first local govern m e n t to become certified under the EU's Eco Management and Audit System (EMAS) program, which has typically been utilized by private companies. Its pro c u rement policies are already very strong from a sustainability point of view, and they are gradually becoming more stringent. The borough has for some time had a green...

Using a Wood Burning Stove

Wood-burning stoves are the most common stove simply because wood is available virtually everywhere. Because the supply of wood is self-replenishing, it has the further advantage of being renewable. Wood-burning certainly has the most tradition on its side, so more equipment is available, as well as a wider range of raw wood resources to choose from. i Wood stoves require chimney maintenance. Burning wood creates creosote gunk on your vent or chimney liner, and this can catch on fire if you're not diligent. Softwoods are much worse in this regard than hardwoods.

Development and the Environment

Donesia, in recent years a growing middle class has worked to protect the country's unique biodiversity. Yet, when the Indonesian economy experienced a serious recession in 1998, which brought annual inflation rates of 80 and a tripling of the poverty rate in some areas, environmental concern decreased. Indonesians increased clear-cutting of ancient hardwoods, fished coral reefs with dynamite, and sold rare species such as macaques for consumption. The rarest species sold for little more than the most common wild-pig meat. Indonesians increasingly harvested wildlife, including many species of plants and animals threatened with extinction.5 This is especially troubling because Indonesia is home to more plant and animal species than any country in the world, except for Brazil. Similarly, the Brazilians' slash-and-burn methods, aimed at increasing food and output, have significantly reduced the Amazon rain forest. Because many species exist only in Indonesia and Brazil, we are witnessing...

Furniture and Finishes

Furniture plays a significant role in green offices and homes. The life-cycle impacts of the materials used in chairs, tables, desks, partitions and similar systems, the source of the wood products and the ecological footprint of fabrics are all considerations in green interior design. One of the easiest ways in which companies can start on the journey to sustainability is to evaluate their furniture and furnishings purchases and to incorporate such criteria. The LEED for Existing Buildings system explicitly incorporates environmentally preferable purchasing policies into the rating system. LEED for New Construction also rewards furniture made from salvaged and reclaimed materials recycled-content materials, rapidly renewable materials, certified wood products and composite materials that are free of urea-formaldehyde resins. Consider the new Steel-case Think chair, which is up to 99 recyclable by weight. Disassembly for recycling takes about five minutes using common hand tools. The...

Cedar as a Construction Material

Western Red Cedar is dimensionally stable it seldom changes shape through shrinking, swelling, or warping in all climates. This stability is unique among softwoods. It holds nails, screws, and glue well, and is easy to work with. Without other treatment, cedar resists moisture, insects, and decay.

Putting the Commons into Community

He has invested in three corn ethanol plants, three cellulosic ethanol companies, and two companies that are working to develop over-the-horizon means of creating ethanol using even more distant technologies. In February 2007, he announced the opening in Georgia of the world's first cellulosic ethanol plant to use wood fibers from trees. One might liken his personal investment commitment to short, medium, and long-range strategies for the whole country, a combination our nation could follow.

Institutional Investment In Australias Forestry Sector

The ownership is skewed however, with about 85 percent of hardwood plantations owned by private investors and 73 percent of softwood plantations owned by government. The other trend is that about 90 percent of new plantations in recent years (say, from 1999 to 2003) have been hardwood, primarily Eucalyptus globulus.3 Governments, it could be said, are largely sitting on a pool of assets that are increasingly linked to world-scale processing facilities operated by major forest industry corporations.

Hurricane Wilma and the Florida Keys

In the cases where the residents quickly removed and discarded the water-damaged gypsum wallboard, they simply left the wet wood framing in the homes exposed to allow natural air circulation for drying. What I found surprising was that even after three months of air drying the wood framing materials and furring strips had a wood moisture content greater than 30 percent. It became apparent that mechanical drying using dehumidifiers and air circulation would be necessary to get these buildings dry enough for reconstruction. Experience has shown that if the wood surface is exposed to air circulation it is rare for mold to grow even if the center of the wood still has elevated levels of moisture. Fortunately, leaving the walls open and not rushing reconstruction avoids the problem of mold growing.

Getting More from Less

With so many people concerned about deforestation, you might not expect wood products to be the first things mentioned in this book. But some engineered wood products like these are made more efficiently. The result is high-quality new construction and remodeling with reduced overall consumption of natural resources. According to APA, an industry group, wood products make up nearly half of the industrial raw materials manufactured in the United States, but consume only four percent of the energy needed to manufacture those materials. The forest products industry recognizes the importance of trees not just after they are harvested, but while they are growing. For every ton of wood grown, a young forest produces 1.07 tons of oxygen and absorbs 1.47 tons of carbon dioxide. Recent figures show that, for every 100 trees harvested, 125 are planted.

Benefits of Using Cedar

The LEED system, mentioned in Chap. 4, uses several criteria for judging a building project. The principles underneath those criteria are reducing energy use, reducing resource use, minimizing pollution, and reducing environmental impact. Wood products perform exceptionally well in all four areas. One more unique property of wood products during the entire time it takes for a tree to mature, it consumes carbon dioxide and produces oxygen. The environmental benefits of using cedar begin the moment each new tree is planted. The benefits continue from there.

Terrestrial carbon budget

The forest inventory data estimated that forests in China represent a net sink of atmospheric CO2 of 0.021-0.112PgC yr-1 from the 1980s to present. Estimates vary, in part, because they pertain to different years and often include only partial accounting of carbon. Fang et al. (2001) reported an average release of carbon (0.022 PgCyr-1) for the years 1949-1980 and an average uptake (0.021 PgC yr-1) for the years 1980-1998. Their estimates are based on changes in forest biomass only they did not include soils or changes in wood products. The same is true for the estimate of Chinese forests from Goodale et al. (2002), including soils as well as living vegetation. Zhou (2000) calculated a net forest uptake of 0.048 PgCyr-1 for the period 1989-1993. Streets et al. (2001) reported an annual sink of 0.098PgC in 1990 and of 0.112PgC in 2000.

Nonsustainable Harvesting Of Forests And Forest Products

The worldwide demand for wood and wood products has kept pace with the increasing world population. The demand comes from developed and undeveloped countries alike, but the supply has come, more and more, from parts of the world (e.g., West Africa and Southeast Asia) where old-growth forests have represented an opportunity to generate much-needed cash. The rush to meet the demand for wood and wood products has led, in several tropical countries, to a boom-and-bust pattern of forest harvesting and exportation, in which initially high earnings give way to forest depletion and economic decline (Repetto & Gillis, 1988 Vincent, 1992).

How Organic Matter Decomposes in Landfills

Organic material (material that was once alive, such as paper and wood products, food scraps, and clothing made of natural fibers) decomposes in the following way first, aerobic (oxygen-using) bacteria use the material as food and begin the decomposition process. Principal by-products of this aerobic stage are water, carbon dioxide, nitrates, and heat. This stage lasts about two weeks. However, in compacted, layered, and covered landfills, the availability of oxygen may be low.

Summary and conclusions

The vulnerability of wood and paper depends on the criteria used. In the middle range of vulnerability in terms of pricing power were the wood and wood products and pulp and paper sectors, the former being vulnerable by dint of scarce technology options for improving energy efficiency, while the latter has scope for such adjustments (using evidence from the UK). The non-metallic minerals sector along with food, beverages, and tobacco are the least vulnerable on these criteria of technological potential and pricing power.

Mechanisms Responsible for the Terrestrial Carbon Sink

Human activities also directly influence terrestrial carbon storage by the production and redistribution of agricultural products, paper, and other wood products. The carbon stored in these products is returned to the atmosphere at a variety of rates that are related to the consumption of food, the burning and decomposition of trash, and the deterioration of wooden structures in buildings, bridges, etc. As a result of trade, many of these products may decompose or deteriorate in places far removed from the site where the biomass was created. Thus, regional terrestrial carbon sinks may be overestimated if this product flux of carbon back to the atmosphere is not considered properly.

Information Processing Models

One of the most influential information-processing models built on Hebb's (1949) idea that when events occur close together in time, associations are formed between the elements in the brain (neurons) that represent those events (S. Kaplan & R. Kaplan, 1981). Neural networks are built from interconnected units of conceptual information (Collins & Loftus, 1975), and learning occurs via this associative mechanism Connections between nerve cells (neurons) are changed by experience in ways that subsequently alter behavior. For example, we can learn to associate paper with recycling bins rather than trash bins. Neural network theory predicts that when one concept in a network is activated during cognitive processing or memory retrieval, activation spreads to all related concepts. Individuals create different associative networks based on their specific experiences, memories, and beliefs, and thus can have very different responses to the same concept. For example, when an environmentalist...

Important Points about Burning Wood Efficiently

Wood-burning stoves are the most common stove simply because wood is available virtually everywhere. Because the supply of wood is self-replenishing, it has the further advantage of being renewable. Wood-burning certainly has the most tradition on its side, so more equipment is available, as well as a wider range of raw wood resources to choose from.

Modern conventional stoves

The oxygen intake to the combustion process is regulated so that the wood burns at a higher temperature, which results in more heat output with less pollution byproducts. The higher temperatures also result in more heat per unit weight of raw wood fuel. The units are heavier, and have more insulation around the combustion chambers. While the emissions are not quite as good as with a catalytic type stove, the performance is far better than with old stoves. The new style stoves are also capable of burning a wider variety of woods.

Locally Sourced Materials

Here are examples of some specific materials that could come from just about any locality or 500-mile radius, without traveling long distances foundation piers compost and mulch concrete storm drains masonry, pavers and hardscape materials reclaimed lumber wheatboard panels most wood products, including laminated beams, cabinets, sub-flooring, roof decking, composite wood siding, engineered wood products and oriented strand board millwork, both new and reclaimed and cellulose insulation. The list is seemingly endless.99

Chemicals in Household Products and Their Effects

A common class of pollutants emitted from household products is volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Sources for these pollutants include paint strippers and other solvents, wood preservatives, air fresheners, automotive products, and dry cleaned clothing. Formaldehyde is a major organic pollutant emitted from pressed wood products and furniture made from them, foam insulation, other textiles, and glues. Exposure to very high concentrations of formaldehyde may lead to death.

Improving the material life cycle the case of reusable packaging

Figure 7.4 shows the contribution of individual material strategies to greenhouse gas emission reductions in Western Europe according to the model. It is apparent that the end-of-pipe strategy is important. The contribution of biomass as feedstock for the petrochemical industry is also significant (both fermentation and flash pyrolysis processes). The 'other resources substitution' in Figure 7.4 refers to the use of slag materials and Pozzolan for the production of cement and the use of tropical hardwood substitutes. There is some material substitution, such as the substitution of steel for aluminium in the transport sector and the substitution of concrete for wood in the building sector. Material substitution proves to be important because it induces emission reductions in the energy system (e.g., lightweight vehicles reduce fuel demand during transportation).

The Basis Of Pollen Analysis

Pollen Types

Northern hardwood forest may reach 80 kg ha 1 a 1 (Faegri and Iversen, 1975). Pollen production by entomophilous species is generally several orders of magnitude lower and autogamous species produce even less. In some cases, an entomophilous species, such as Tilia, may produce fairly large amounts of pollen but the relatively efficient dispersal mechanism (via insects) means that pollen grains are rarely found in large numbers, even in forests where Tilia is abundant (Janssen, 1966).

Historic Preservation

Ing, and a green roof covers 50 of the roof area. An outdoor deck was added to host local receptions. The first floor contains a retail store, a local coffee house, a pharmacy and a pizzeria. Partly as a result of this project, the surrounding neighborhoods began to sprout high-density residential, retail and restaurant uses. In recognition of its improved energy efficiency, use of recycled content, focus on locally sourced materials and extensive use of certified wood products, the Center became the second LEED Gold-certified project in the US when it was completed in 2001. As a center for environmental education, Ecotrust's conference room is the most frequently booked meeting place of its type in the entire city, hosting hundreds of events each year. Everyone who visits the center can see the value and beauty of building renovation first-hand.

Present Uses of Methanol

Methanol Economy

Today, methanol is mainly a primary feedstock for the chemical industry. It is manufactured in large quantities (over 32 million tons per year in 2004 114 ) as an intermediate for the production of a variety of chemicals (Fig. 11.1). Worldwide, almost 70 of the methanol production is used to produce formaldehyde (38 ), methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 20 ) and acetic acid (11 ). Methanol is also a feedstock for chloromethanes, methylamines, methyl methacrylate, and dimethyl terephthalate, etc. 108 . These chemical intermediates are then processed to manufacture many products of our daily life, including paints, resins, silicones, adhesives, antifreeze, and plastics 115 . Formaldehyde, the largest consumer of methanol, is mainly used to prepare phenol-, urea- and melamine-formaldehyde and polyacetal resins as well as butanediol and methylenebis(4-phenyl isocyanate) (MDI). MDI foam is, for example, used as insulation in refrigerators, doors, and in motor car dashboards and fenders. The...

Differences Between Quaternary And Tertiary Megathermal Forests

Refuge Hypothesis

(e.g., Dick et al, 2003), emphasizing that rainforests contain many species of great antiquity Kutschera and Niklas (2004) estimate that shrubs and hardwoods have mean species durations of 27-34 Myr. With respect to comparing Quaternary and Tertiary ecological successions, the classic study of a Middle Miocene coal from Brunei (Anderson and Muller, 1975), that showed a peat swamp succession with phasic communities with close similarities to those seen in present day peat swamps (Morley, in press), demonstrates close ecological parallels between Neogene and Quaternary vegetation. There is therefore a just case for using Quaternary analogs to interpret Tertiary vegetational scenarios, particularly back as far as the Oligocene.

The New England Forest and Indian Land

The New England forest provided rich, although different, resources for Native Americans and European colonists. It is made up of three primary ecological regions. The northern forest is composed of conifers, such as balsam, fir, and spruce, and hardwoods, such as aspen and birch food for the beavers prized by Indians and colonists for their furs. In the middle band, where Indians established horticulture and hunted deer, immigrants found white pine for ship masts, red and white oak for barrel staves, and hickory for farm tools. The southernmost band of the forest is the oak and pitch pine region, suitable for agriculture and for naval stores products such as pitch, tar, and turpentine, needed by the colonial shipping industry. The bands vary with topography and blend together in transition zones, but foster different patterns of settlement and economic use.

The Embodied Energy Of Different Building Materials

Timber is a material that is generally considered to have excellent environmental credentials. As a renewable resource, its main attributes are that it reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere until it decays or is burnt and it is easily worked. There are, however, possible disadvantages associated with timber, the principal one resulting from imported timber. This may have been transported over long distances, for example from Canada to the UK. Another potential problem has to do with the way the timber is grown and if trees are replanted when mature ones are cut. Most commercial softwood comes from forests that will be replanted, however these commercial softwood forests are often planted with very few species of trees and provide little potential for bio-diversity. In the case of imported non-European hardwoods, there is a high probability that these come from tropical rainforests and will not be replaced. The Forestry Stewardship Council, based in the UK, does run a scheme for...

The Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest encompasses extensive forests, topography that creates abrupt changes in climate and ecosystems over short distances, with mountain and marine environments in close proximity. The Northwest provides about one-fourth of the nation's softwood lumber and plywood. The fertile lowlands of eastern Washington produce 60 percent of the nation's apples and large fractions of its other tree fruit. Population and economic growth of this area has been twice the national rate since 1970, its population nearly doubling during this period. The area provides moderate climate, a high quality of life, and outdoor recreational opportunities, which are becoming increasingly stressed because of the rapid development occurring in the area. Stresses are occurring today from dam operations, land-use conversion from natural ecosystems to metropolitan areas, intensively managed forests, agriculture, and grazing. The result has been in the loss of old-growth forests, wetlands, and native...

Energy Crops and Biofuels

Because it is more economical to produce ethanol from wastes than from grain crops, much research is devoted to producing ethanol from inexpensive cellulosic sources, including organic and municipal wastes. Hurdles to increased biomass energy production and use include competition for organic residues from other industries, such as wood products, and the low energy density of biomass relative to fossil fuels. Other significant drawbacks include particulate emissions and, for certain fuel cycles, the destruction of forests for fuel or the removal of excessive amounts of organic residues from fields or forests, to the detriment of soil fertility and integrity. Despite these risks, which are primarily a consequence of resource mismanagement, the use of organic wastes as biomass fuel has a promising future.

Effects of Globalization on LDCs

The result is that sophisticated manufacturing activities have gained relative to resource-based and low technology industries, as the former grew at around 7 during 1980-2000 compared to about 4 for the latter. In LDCs over the same period, the five fastest-growing activities were electrical machinery (8 per year), industrial chemicals (over 6 ), instruments (near 6 ), transportation equipments (5.6 ), and other chemicals (5 ), and the five slowest were furniture (slightly above 2 ), apparel (about 2 ), textiles (1.5 ), footwear (over 1 ), and wood products (1 ). Similar patterns are also observed in MDCs the five fastest growing manufacturing activities are other chemicals (3.7 ), tobacco (3.4 ), electrical machinery (3.2 ), printing and publications (3.1 ), and plastic products (about 3 ) the two slowest are pottery and china (0.2 ), iron and steel (0.1 ) and the last three contracting are textiles ( 0.1 ), apparel ( 0.9 ), and footwear ( 1.9 ).

Sustainability also a global challenge

Some is to harvest valuable hardwoods unsus-tainably some is to create grassland to raise cattle to provide beef for some of the world's richest countries or to grow soya beans mostly to use as animal feed again for the rich countries of the world. This level of deforestation adds significantly to the atmospheric greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane so increasing the rate of human-induced climate change. It also alters the local climate close to the region where the deforestation is occurring. For instance, in the Amazon if current levels of deforestation continue, some of Amazonia could become much drier, even semi-desert, during this century. Further, when the trees go, soil is lost by erosion again in many parts of Amazonia the soil is poor and easily washed away. Tropical forests are also rich in biodiversity. Loss of forests results in irreplaceable species loss.

Leed Certification Level

Level of LEED certification sought is clearly an issue. As you move to higher levels of LEED certification, even with an integrated design process, you are likely to add higher cost elements such as green roofs, photovoltaics, and certified wood products. You are also likely to want a larger number of studies in the design phase, including natural ventilation analyses, computational fluid dynamic studies, more frequent energy modeling, and the like. In some cases, nonetheless, we have examples of LEED Platinum being accomplished for zero or low cost premium, considering both design and construction costs, because teams find ways to cut capital costs by right sizing equipment, for example. (Read Leith Sharp's Foreword, for one such example.) For argument's sake, Table 7.1 presents estimates I have found for LEED project costs, including both design and construction. You can find studies with both higher and lower estimates, so please use these numbers only as a rough guide. The cost...

Pros Cons and Other Countries

In Libby, Montana, the remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with pentachloro-phenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been under way since 1985. PCP and PAHs are chemicals used to preserve wood products such as telephone poles and railroad ties. The responsible party, Champion International Corporation, caused soil and groundwa-ter contamination at its lumber and plywood mill in Libby. The EPA determined that wastewater and sludge from the wood-treating process were the sources of contamination. To address the issue of contamination, drinking water from a public water supply was provided to residents of the Libby area, and the use of private wells prohibited. Contaminated soil and groundwater are undergoing cleanup using biore-mediation, a technology that employs microorganisms to transform hazardous chemicals into environmentally acceptable products.

Feasibility Of Leed Measures

Another cost factor is the feasibility of LEED actions. For example, in most urban areas, recycling 75 percent of construction waste is virtually a no-cost item for the project. However, for projects in rural areas, there may be no construction waste recycling opportunities. To get the lost two points from some other LEED measures, for example, might add cost to an identical project, everything else held equal, if it wanted to qualify for the same certification level. The same would hold true for many of the materials and resources credits that might rely on a local supply chain for supply of recycled-content materials or certified wood products. (Ironically, more than a few of the LEED Platinum projects we profile in this book are located in rural areas.)

Management of University Forests

University forests often are separate from the main campus and are used for biology and forestry education and research. Because trees and other vegetation can sequester carbon from the atmosphere, management of these forestlands can help to offset or store carbon generated elsewhere by the institution. Use of university forests as a source of wood products can also store carbon for a relatively long time, rather than letting it decay back into the atmosphere. In addition to managing their own forests, universities with forestry programs can be a source of knowledge to help others learn how a range of forestry practices affect climate change. Managers of university forests should look to maximizing carbon storage capacity of existing forested lands, enhancing the long-term potential to sequester carbon in existing forests through increases in productivity, and addressing fire management and pest control. Because wood can sequester carbon for long periods, university policy should...

Furnishing the Nursery

Where does formaldehyde lurk Mostly in pressed-wood products made with adhesives that contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. That includes particle board, plywood, or fiberboard plywood paneling and medium-density fiberboard, which often gets used for cabinets and drawer fronts.

Natural Systems Under Stress

Logging for lumber also takes a heavy toll, as is most evident in Southeast Asia and Africa. In almost all cases, logging is done by foreign corporations more interested in maximizing a onetime harvest than in managing for a sustainable yield in perpetuity. Once a country's forests are gone, companies move on, leaving only devastation behind. Nigeria and the Philippines have both lost their once-thriving tropical hardwood export industries and are now net importers of forest products.12 Perhaps the most devastating development affecting the earth's remaining natural forests in this new century is the explosive growth of the wood products industry in China, now supplying the world with furniture, flooring, particle board, and other building materials. In supplying domestic and foreign markets, China has gone on a logging orgy outside its borders, often illegally, to procure logs from Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Siberia. And now Chinese logging firms are moving into the...

Climate Change Impacts

According to the FAO, people who will lose the most as far as forest resources are concerned are those who live in extreme poverty in developing countries and depend on forest resources for their livelihood, approximately 1,080,000,000 people. For these people, their income is tied directly to not only wood products but also to nontimber forest products as well, such as fuel, forest foods (nuts, fruits), and medicinal plants. Because forests also provide for the health needs of about 80 percent of the population, a health-related crisis threatens these communities. When a medicine man dies in the rain forest, it is like losing thousands of years worth of knowledge about the medicinal qualities of the plants in the rain forest.

Industrial Revolution

Resources in North America allowed the dependence on biomass energy to continue longer than in Europe. Transportation and domestic heating were the two primary uses of wood in the nineteenth century. In the 1850s, it was estimated that eighteen cords of wood annually were used for home heating (Melosi 1985, 19). (A cord of cut wood is 128 cubic feet and equals a stack that is 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft. The energy content of a cord of wood varies from 18,700 MJ cord for softwood to 30,600 MJ cord for hardwoods.) Steam engines used approximately 3 million cords of wood per year by the 1830s, and railroads consumed 140 cords per mile per year as late as the 1870s (21). The reliance on wood during the nineteenth century had established a wood-based infrastructure for energy consumption. Industry was designed for charcoal combustion and wood fireplaces dominated space heating applications (23).

Western Values and the New World

And enhancing national political and military strength. Government programs subsidized the infrastructure needed to support modern forms of agriculture, resource extraction, industry and commerce, and helped establish new settlements to accommodate an expanding population and integrate new lands into the national economic, political and social systems. Policies supporting this social paradigm included wars against and forced resettlement of indigenous peoples, the Homestead Act of 1862, and large grants of public lands to private entrepreneurs as incentives for building railroads. Diversions from this strategy, when they occurred, were not aimed at basic cultural or ideological changes, but rather at either conserving valuable natural resources from utter depletion or preserving charismatic landscapes and creatures from destruction. Conservation strategies might include the replacement of logged-out forests with plantations of rapidly growing species to insure steady supplies of wood...

An overview of the GCubed multicountry model

The range of countries modelled to date include the United States, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the rest of the OECD, China, oil exporting developing countries (OPEC), Eastern Europe and states of the former Soviet Union (EFSU), and all other developing countries (LDCs)) with 12 sectors in each region. There are five energy sectors (electric utilities, natural gas utilities, petroleum processing, coal extraction, and crude oil and gas extraction) and seven non-energy sectors (mining, agriculture, forestry and wood products, durable manufacturing, non-durable manufacturing, transportation and services). Each economy or region in the model consists of several economic agents households, the government, the financial sector and firms in the 12 production sectors listed above. The behaviour of each type of agent is modelled. Each of the 12 sectors in each country in the model is represented by a single firm in each sector that chooses its inputs and its level of investment in order...

Boycott of noncertified timber

However, further consideration modifies this first impression. First, quite a few ecological labels exist (SmartWood, Scientific Certification Systems, Certified Wood Products Council, Good Wood, Forest Stewardship Council), which may create confusion and decrease the clarity of the boycott. Consumers may be uncertain which labels are most environmentally friendly, and an indirect cost may be incurred searching for information.

Chemical Conversion of Lignocellulosics as Treated by Two Step Hot Compressed Water

Abstract Chemical conversion of lignocellulosics in two-step semi-flow hot-compressed water treatment was investigated for Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) as one of the hardwoods and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) as one of the softwoods, with the first step at 230 C 10 MPa for 15 min to decompose hemicel-lulose and lignin, and the second step for cellulose at 270 C 10 MPa 15 min and 280 C 10 MPa 30 min for Japanese beech and Japanese cedar, respectively. As a result, totally 97.2 of Japanese beech and 87.8 of Japanese cedar could be solu-bilized by the hot-compressed water with 2.8 and 12.2 water-insoluble residue composed mainly of lignin, respectively. In addition to the hydrolyzed products, the dehydrated, fragmented and isomerized products as well as organic acids were additionally recovered in the water-soluble portion. The differences observed in lignin between Japanese beech and Japanese cedar would be due mainly to the inherent differences in lignin structure between...

Two Step Semi Flow Hot Compressed Water Treatment

Figure 2 shows the temperature profiles at 10 MPa and various products obtained from Japanese beech and Japanese cedar as treated by two-step hot-compressed water. In the first step, hydrolyzed products of Japanese beech were xylo-saccharides such as xylose and xylo-oligosaccharides, glucuronic acid and acetic acid from the major hardwood hemicellulose, O-acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylan. In addition, lignin-derived products mainly recovered were sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol from syringyl and guaiacyl units of hardwood lignin (Fig. 2a). Dehydrated, fragmented and isomerized products as well as organic acids were also recovered in the water-soluble portion (data not shown). Totally, 97.2 of Japanese beech and 87.8 of Japanese cedar could be solubilized with 2.8 and 12.2 water-insoluble residue composed mainly of lignin, respectively. In comparison with the hardwood, softwood showed higher resistance to be hydrolyzed. This might be due to a greater condensed type lignin in...

Recipes for Special Cleaning Jobs

Furniture polish Add a few drops of lemon oil to a cup of warm water. Mix well and use to dampen a soft cotton cloth. Wipe furniture with damp cloth follow with a dry, soft cloth. Glass cleaner Mix two teaspoons of white vinegar with one quart warm water apply with a clean cloth and wipe dry. Hardwood floor polish Combine equal parts white vinegar and vegetable oil rub in.


The basic rectangular, single-storey, wood-frame house is one of the safest structures in an earthquake. The amount of damage incurred should be minimal if the house is properly engineered and built. The key to a well-designed building is the ability of the structure to withstand an earthquake as a single unit. the wall studs must be sheathed (tied) with plywood or some other material to reduce deflection and provide strength Almost all existing structures can be strengthened to be more earthquake-resistant (but not earthquake-proof). Masonry chimneys should be reinforced with steel and tied to the roof and upper-floor framing with steel straps. Un-reinforced masonry chimneys should either be removed and replaced with a properly braced metal flue and enclosure system (e.g. a wood-frame), or measures should be taken to mitigate the effects of potential damage.


This house is a simple two-storey home, rectangular in plan. It is located in the centre of Ostend, the administrative centre of Waiheke Island. This village also contains the island's only supermarket and building supply store. This house was designed by Graham Duncan and intended to be simple and cheap. Its pitched roofs face north and south. The north and south facades are 6 m long and the east and west facades are 7 m. The entry is from the west with the main views from the house directed towards Anzac Bay (south). The north side of the roof is uninterrupted by dormers, giving the full area for solar energy collection systems. The house is conventionally built of New Zealand timber frame construction with R2.2 glass fibre insulation, internal linings of plasterboard on the ground floor and plywood on the first floor. External finish is plywood sheeting and the roof is a typical corrugated iron roof. Windows are locally made with single glazing in aluminium frames (with built-in...

The Ideal Roof

The plywood panels for this roof assembly have been secured to one another using H-clip fasteners. Note that the peel and stick membrane only covers the may be some challenges to developing one ideal roof that will perform under any condition. It appears that a better strategy would be to install a roof that will be likely to perform well under most circumstances. When extreme conditions occur, keeping the roof intact and the interior dry is the first and most important goal. A durable roof that remains intact is the ideal, but if the exterior roofing materials fail, then there should be a second line of defense to prevent water getting into the interior environment. The use of exterior-grade plywood, with hurricane clip fasteners to space and secure the panels for roof sheathing, can provide a good second line of defense and a very strong assembly. The seams for the joints between the plywood need to be sealed with the peel and stick membranes previously described. plywood panels for...

Rock Store

There will be two rock stores designed to deal with fluctuations in heating demands over a number of days. The primary rock store will be 30 m3 in size and located under the dining room. It will be fed heat from the solar air system. A secondary rock store bed using demolition waste will be located underneath the rooms adjoining the corridor. This secondary rock bed is a short-term subsidiary heat store to the primary rock store. It will be encased by 30 mm softwood, a 50 mm air space, 500 mm of rock, 30 mm plywood and 200 mm expanded polystyrene. It is located around rooms that are some distance from the hotter core of the building and which are deemed to require their own store of heat.

Building integration

Aluminium edge frames were incorporated onto the individual panels. To prepare the roof for the mounting of the array a layer of very flat 18-mm marine plywood was laid flat and level over the conventional rafters of the roof. Onto this was laid a layer of good-grade bitumen felt sarking, that could withstand the high temperatures that develop behind the modules. On to this was built a grid work of aluminium extruded profiles designed with a lower foot screwed to the sarking with drip channels on each side to carry any water that penetrates around the sides of the panels down the roof. Some 7.5 mm above this is a lateral shelf onto which the modules are laid, providing an air gap behind the array.

Seasoned wood

Any wood you burn must be properly seasoned, or dried out (wet wood smokes a lot, won't burn at a hot temperature, hisses and pops and may be dangerous, and puts a lot of crud into your vent system). To season wood, split logs as soon as possible into the size that will fit into your stove and stack them in a dry spot for 6 to 18 months. Pile the wood so that air can circulate. Hardwoods take longer to dry than softwoods do. Humidity and temperature also affect drying times.


Rectangular space in between holds our cedar-sided house and one and a half acres of open space. Our house and garden are bordered on one side by a dirt road that leads steeply to the end of the hollow, where a collection of broken-down trailers marks its end. For the most part, our place is surrounded by forests, young stands of deciduous hardwoods that are interrupted here and there by hundred-year-old hemlocks. To the north of the house there is a Norway spruce plantation, planted in the 1940s when agriculture was declining and before the land was divided up into smaller tracts and sold to new folks like us. Our predecessors chose Norway spruce for its straight, strong, fast-growing lumber, wood that could be used to frame houses and barns, that had market value for a struggling town emerging from the Depression. Little else grows in these monoculture stands, a few ferns and a bit of sphagnum moss. The spruce litter is too acidic for the understory plants that enrich the hardwoods...

Us Land Management

In the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV), where land restoration activities have recently begun, 87 percent of the area is privately owned and the remaining 13 percent consist of national forest and wildlife refuges, state wildlife management areas, cities, roads, and permanent open water bodies (Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture, 2002). Fewer than 4 million acres of the original 22 million acres of bottomland hardwoods remain, with most of this acreage in private land ownership (see Figure 4) (Hodgetts, 2000). Similar ownership patterns exist in the Great Plains of the north central U.S., where expansive tracts of grasslands have been converted to agriculture.

Making a Difference

As individuals, we can buy recycled paper products so that original wood fibers are used again and again. The same thing can be done with recycled glass and plastics. And it's easy Many cities have recycling programs that allow people to recycle right at their door or driveway.


When it comes to what's underfoot, you've got lots of green choices. If you're installing hardwood floors, be sure to buy FSC-certified (page 28) materials. Consider using reclaimed or salvaged wood, as well, and make sure that any finish applied to the wood is low in VOCs (page 12). Here are some other natural flooring options

Toward The Future

Australia is a country with the capacity to expand its forestry sector, not only to reduce current wood products deficits, but to expand export opportunities in both softwood and hardwood timber. In addition, Australia can make use of its forestry sector to contribute to solutions to large scale or chronic environmental issues. As these opportunities unfold, we are likely to see substantial expansion of institutional investment in the sector, linked to the privatization of government assets, and emergence of new reforestation-type investment structures.


The paper industry has been at the leading edge of the recycling revolution. Used paper-based products can be de-inked in chemical baths and reduced to a fibrous slurry that can be reformulated into new paper products. Paper can undergo this process several times before the fibers become too damaged for reuse. Paper products vary greatly in the type (hardwood versus softwood) and length of fibers that are used to make them. Recycled papers must typically be sorted into particular usage categories (for example, newsprint or fine writing papers) before being reprocessed. Recycled paper is slightly more costly to produce than virgin paper.

Biological impacts

The character of the land surface, whether it is hardwood forest or grassland for example, is determined to a large extent by climatic forcing. Temperature is important of course, although it may be the coldest temperature of the year, or the warmest, rather than the annual average. Precipitation also plays a huge role in shaping the natural landscape.

Taking Cover

The safest place to be, should a tornado directly strike in your vicinity, is several meters underground in an old-fashioned storm cellar. This type of shelter is completely separate from the main living structure and has an entrance like a trap door, made from heavy steel or reinforced hardwood. Another excellent refuge is a fallout shelter. These heavy structures are practically immune to demolition from anything less than a direct hit by a nuclear bomb. Because the storm cellar is completely autonomous, people inside are totally safe from flying debris. Unfortunately, most homes built today, even if they have basements, have neither storm cellars nor fallout shelters.

The Environment

Each year the U.S. alone consumes around 200 million tons of wood products, and this number increases 4 percent each year. The biggest source of wood consumption is paper production. U.S. paper producers consume one billion trees. That's the same as 12,430 square miles of forests each year, resulting in 735 pounds of paper for each American. Although the U.S. has less than 5 percent of the world's population, it consumes 30 percent of the world's paper. We're not just picking on the Americans here. Worldwide consumption of wood products has risen 64 percent since 1961. Industry expects that amount to double by 2050.


As you may remember from Chap. 1, nearly half of the industrial materials manufactured in the United States are wood products. To produce that much material, you might expect the wood products industry to consume nearly half the energy used in manufacturing. But in case you missed that detail, here it is again production of wood products takes up roughly four percent of the energy used in making

Biomass Basics

In general, biomass refers to organic matter of any kind, whether forest products or agricultural production or simply the plants that grow on the surface of the earth. These are broadly referred to as carbohydrates. Almost any organic-based materials can be utilized in biomass energy schemes. These include wood products from trees, crop residues (material left over after agricultural production for food sources), animal wastes (poop), aquatic plants like seaweed, landfill gas (from rotting garbage), and municipal and industrial wastes (like sewage).

Future Directions

The problem of scale is particularly challenging in the social sciences since, as noted above, the quality of the observations decreases as one moves from local to national to global scales. The patchiness of human-environment interactions presents considerable challenges to issues of scale. People tend to be concentrated in settlements, yet their impact, or footprint, can be felt very far away. How do we quantify the impact of a human population in a Japanese city on a forest in the Philippines or Brazil, from which the Japanese population derives considerable wood products The tradition of place-based research in both ecology and the social sciences, particularly in local places, has given us valuable insights into the interactions between species and of species with their immediate environment - and the feedback processes that help explain their adaptive behavior to the opportunities and constraints they face. Yet, this very tradition is challenged by the ever growing recognition...

Green Globes

Green Globes has found some market interest, partly in answer to complaints that LEED certification costs too much and is too complex. In response, Green Globes created a Web-based project information system. In the beginning, Green Globes was supported heavily by the forest products industry, because it gave credit to wood products certified by an alternative certification program, the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.53 At the end of 2006, Green Globes had registered about 100 commercial projects for certification, roughly 3 of the market, and had certified about 10, approximately 2 of the number of LEED certifications. In the residential sector, by contrast, Green Globes has teamed up with the National Association of Home Builders and local home builder associations to offer its rating system to the new home market. At the beginning of 2007,11 local home builder associations provided the Green Globes assessment system for use in their members' projects.54


Wood and wood products Given the focus on competitiveness, the sectors deemed potentially most vulnerable and selected for study were those that, in addition to being characterized by high energy intensity, were subject to trade exposure as measured by export and import intensity. Sectors were ranked according to, among other things, energy expenditure as a share of gross value added the share of exports in the total value of output and imports as a share of home demand (output plus imports minus exports). Knowledge of specific country characteristics was brought to bear on the selection in order to obtain a balanced representation of sectors, taking into account such issues as the prominence of wood and wood products in the Swedish and Finnish economies. The seven selected sectors were as shown in Table 3.2.


One sector which has so far played only a peripheral role in the development of EU environmental policy - but which nevertheless is a substantial part of the natural resource issue - is the forestry and forest-based products industry, including woodworking, pulp and paper, and printing and publishing. It brings together everything from a few large multinationals to hundreds of thousands of small and medium enterprises, accounts for about 10 per cent of the manufacturing output of the EU by value, and directly employs about 2.2 million people. Furthermore, the EU is the biggest trader and the second biggest consumer of forest products in the world (European Commission, 1998b). From an economic and social perspective, forests are a critical factor in EU calculations on the management of natural resources. They are also important from an environmental perspective, given their role in the welfare of biodiversity. All the There is no EU forestry policy, although several attempts have been...

Tree rings

Known as secondary growth and it takes place just below the outer bark, where new cells are formed. In some tree species the new cells that form in spring are much larger than the cells formed in late summer. When the cells die and turn into the heartwood of the tree, this difference is preserved. The big spring cells can be seen as a pale ring and the late summer cells as a dark ring adjacent to it. One pair of rings represents one year's growth. Not all trees produce rings in this way, though there are often other annual changes that can be used in the same way.


Earth First groups were first established in Britain in 1991. Derek Wall's (1999) research on the founders of UK Earth First shows that the early activists all had some prior experience in green or peace movement activism. The founders were influenced by the example set by Earth First USA and also by contacts with Australian anti-rainforest activists, and tactics were borrowed from both. The Green Student Network provided a means for recruitment and the first Earth First groups were based in cities and towns with substantial universities and already strong alternative left milieux. The initial targets of actions were importers of tropical hardwoods and those seen as causing direct environmental damage in Britain, notably supermarket chains such as Tesco and the Tarmac construction company. Protest against these targets drew some media coverage, but police intelligence and numbers countered most attempts at mass site invasion. It was only with protest against road building that the...

Biomass heating

Foods Rich Fibre

With woody biomass, an option to chipping and drying is ' ultrasonic wave reduction technology' as typified by the American KDS Micronex system. This uses high-powered ultrasonics to simultaneously disintegrate the wood and vaporise the moisture content. The end product is a fine wood dust dry enough to go straight into the combustion process. Biomass is available for delivery in a number of forms by a variety of transport systems. Bagged pellets come in sizes from 15-25 kg, or in 1 m3 bags. Tipper trailers or trucks are the most common form of bulk delivery. Inland waterway delivery offers a low carbon alternative to road transport. However, consideration must be given to how bulk biomass is to be offloaded from barges, as this is far from straightforward. It is also important to minimise handling, especially of wood pellets. Excessive handling can lead to the formation of wood dust in unacceptable quantities.

Auau R

Figure 5.5 shows a timber framed wall consisting of an outer layer of brickwork, a clear ventilated cavity, 10 mm plywood, 38 x 140 mm timber stud framing with 140 mm mineral wool quilt insulation placed between the studs, and two sheets of 12.5 mm plasterboard with an integral vapour check. The timber studs account for 15 of the area, corresponding to 38 mm studs at 600 mm centres, with allowances for horizontal noggins and additional framing at junctions and around openings. The thermal data for this wall is given in Table 5.8. Plywood Resistance of plywood External surface resistance Resistance of brickwork Resistance of cavity Resistance of plywood Resistance of mineral wool (85 ) Resistance of timber (15 ) Resistance of plasterboard Internal surface resistance

Losing Biodiversity

Biological diversity, or biodiversity, has three dimensions the genetic variety within a given species the millions of individual species of plants, animals, and microorganisms and the diversity of different types of ecosystems such as alpine tundra, southern hardwood bottomlands, or tropical rain forests. An alarming global homogeniza-tion and simplification of biodiversity is occurring at all three levels. Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Stephen Meyer has offered this particularly bleak assessment Over the next 100 years or so as many as half of the earth's species, representing a quarter of the planet's genetic stock, will functionally if not completely disappear. The land and the oceans will continue to teem with life, but it will be a peculiarly homogenized assemblage of organisms unnaturally selected for their compatibility with one fundamental force us. Nothing not national or international laws, global bioreserves, local sustainability schemes, or even...

Building to Last

North America's timber resources have resulted in most residential structures being built with wood frame construction. The typical home begins with a foundation made of a masonry material that holds up well to water, but once we get above ground level the types of construction materials change so they frequently don't hold up as well to moisture. Wood framing, exterior cladding and interior walls are often made of materials that could make pretty good compost, if they stay wet for a sufficient period of time. It is a given that buildings will get wet, but it is important to remember they will deteriorate rapidly if they stay wet. In order to be functional, buildings must shed water and dry reasonably quickly. If we peel wood into layers and glue those layers back together we get plywood. Plywood has more surface area than solid wood, but it is less able to withstand extended elevated levels of moisture however, it still does a pretty good job. If we flake the solid wood and then glue...

The Ideal Wall

The interior and exterior claddings of this wall consist of 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) exterior-grade plywood, sandwiching 89 mm (3.5 in.) glass-fiber insulation. The interior of this wall is finished with 7.9 mm (0.31 in.) gypsum board. Latex paint is applied to the interior and exterior surfaces. We call this wall a variable-permeance-claddings wall. The term variable permeance comes about from the moisture behavior of plywood. When plywood is exposed to ambient relative humidities below 50 , it performs as a vapor retarder. On the other hand, when plywood absorbs moisture and approaches saturation, it becomes very permeable. The properties of exterior-grade plywood are exactly what were needed to breathe in both directions in exactly the right way. The study went on to explain the performance for the system in Madison, Wisconsin The peak surface relative humidity is seen to occur at the inside surface of the exterior plywood layer during the middle of the winter and is seen to be below...


Over the past few centuries many countries, especially those at mid latitudes, have removed much of their forest cover to make room for agriculture. Many of the largest and most critical remaining forested areas are in the tropics. However, during the last few decades, the additional needs of the increasing populations of developing countries for agricultural land and for fuelwood, together with the rise in demand for tropical hardwoods by developed countries, has led to a worrying rate of loss of forest in tropical regions (see box below). In many tropical countries the development of forest areas has been the only hope of subsistence for many people. Unfortunately, because the soils and other conditions were often inappropriate, some of this forest clearance has not led to sustainable agriculture but to serious land and soil degradation.5

David Helvarg

I first heard about coral bleaching from Billy Causey, the manager of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. We were sitting in his office deep in a 67-acre hardwood hammock on Marathon Key. It is a place where ospreys, egrets, cormorants, fat black snakes, hermit crabs, parrot fish, even an old tropical fish collector like Billy can still find refuge from the Kmart mall sprawl out on Route 1. Thickset with iron-gray hair and sea-gray eyes, Causey, who moved to the Keys in 1973, sounds like some Old Testament Jeremiah as he recalls the gradual decline of the reef during the years he's been here.

Water Balances

Basin, 15-40 per cent for conifers, 10-25 per cent for deciduous hardwoods and 14-22 per cent for prairie grass. Measurements in a mature Australian wheat crop showed that about a third of the rain was held on the leaves. The amount held can be 2 mm or so in the case of grass, and 8 mm for a cotton crop. Around 5 mm was intercepted during each storm above a rainforest in north Queensland, depending on the leafiness of the foliage. It follows that deforestation increases runoff, e.g. by 5-10 per cent in northern Queensland.

The Siege Phase

As the edge of the eyewall approaches, the sound is like that of a freight train passing. The house in which you sit begins to shake, even though its exterior walls are made of solid concrete. You can hear things smacking against those outer walls and against the plywood covering the windows. The air becomes filled with tree limbs and whole palm tree tops, unsecured bicycles, lawn mowers, boats, Spanish tiles, broken glass, and big signs. Automobiles are over


Map Landfills New Mexico

Leachate The waste pile that is the landfill is permeable. As rainwater percolates through the pile it dissolves many substances, just as water passing through coffee grounds dissolves chemicals in the coffee. The chemically enriched water in the landfill is called leachate. If the only things in the landfill were chicken bones and plastic milk cartons, problems would be minimal. Unfortunately, however, along with these relatively harmless items are known hazardous materials. Common examples include batteries, plywood, drain cleaners, furniture polish, bug sprays, oven cleaner, weed killer, old paintbrushes, and turpentine. These discarded items contain an assortment of toxic materials such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and complex organic compounds known as dioxins and fu-rans. Ingesting these substances can cause congenital birth defects, disorders of the nervous system, and cancer. Pregnant women living within 1.8 miles of a landfill site have been found to have a 33 percent higher...