Historic Preservation and Cultural Resources

As discussed in Section 4.1.3, State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs) administer the national historic preservation program at the state level. Federal agencies consult with the SHPO when implementing Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. The SHPO

Wind energy developers should become familiar with the applicable state wetland protection programs to ensure that state regulated wetlands are identified and properly delineated according to applicable protocols and necessary approvals are obtained.

reviews federal undertakings for their impacts upon cultural resources. To carry out this role, a state will generally have a statewide preservation program tailored to the state and designed to support and promote state historic preservation interests and priorities. The state program may also be applicable to state projects (e.g., projects that require funding, licenses, or permits from any state agency). These regulations often establish a process that mirrors the federal Section 106 regulations: identification of historic properties; assessment of effect; and consultation among interested parties to avoid, minimize, or mitigate any adverse effects. The state agency will typically work closely with tribal and local communities.

Regarding paleontological resources, wind energy developers must determine if such resources exist within the proposed project area and, if so, whether they are regulated at the state level. If regulations exist, developers should consult with the regulating agency to determine what types of activities may be required. Some requirements include: conduct surveys prior to development of final project design, consider avoidance of adverse effects, and/or action following unanticipated discovery of fossils during construction. Section 5.6 discusses impact analysis and mitigation with respect to paleontological resources.

4.2.6 Stormwater

Stormwater runoff from construction activities can have a significant impact on water quality. As stormwater flows over a construction site, it picks up pollutants like sediment, debris, and chemicals. Polluted stormwater runoff can harm or kill fish and other wildlife. Sedimentation can destroy aquatic habitat, and high volumes of runoff can cause stream bank erosion.

Mandated by the federal CWA, the NPDES stormwater program requires operators of construction sites that are one acre or larger to obtain authorization to discharge stormwater under an NPDES construction stormwater permit (Section Most states have been authorized to implement the NPDES stormwater program. EPA remains the permitting authority in a few states, territories, and on most tribal lands. States that administer the NPDES program have developed their own general permits that incorporate, at a minimum, the requirements of an EPA Construction General Permit (CGP). Even where EPA is the permitting authority and the CGP applies, federal regulations allow states, territories, and tribes to add certain conditions to the CGP that apply only in that area.

Prior to performing construction activity, developers should determine whether the state has its own regulatory program pertaining to stormwater.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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