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Access roads - Provide construction and service access to each wind turbine.

Adverse visual impact - An unwelcome visual intrusion that diminishes the visual quality of an existing landscape.

All Appropriate Inquiries (AAI) - Part of the Phase I Environmental Site Assessment under CERCLA relative to contaminated properties, AAI involves research to determine prior ownership and use of a property.

Anemometer - One of the components of a meteorological tower, the anemometer is a sensor that measures wind speed and direction.

Aquifers - Underground areas (i.e., dirt and rock) with water-bearing zones.

Aquitards - Individual aquifers separated by layers of low-permeability soil or sediment through which little or no groundwater flows.

Area of potential effects (APE) - A geographic area within which a project may cause physical, visual, or audible effects on the character or use of historic properties.

Data logger - One of the components of a meteorological tower, the data logger records the measurements.

Decibel - A logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity relative to a specified or implied reference level.

Determination of Hazard (DOH) - If after the extended study there remains an operational impact, the FAA will attempt to negotiate a height that will be acceptable for a DNH. If no agreement is reached with the proponent, FAA will issue a DOH. A DOH can be appealed to FAA Washington Headquarters; if the appeal fails to secure a DNH, the proponent can bring the issue before a federal court.

Determination of No Hazard (DNH) - The FAA determines that the proposed structure(s) will not interfere with the navigable airspace or communications technology of aviation operations, and the project is allowed to proceed.


Electrical collection system - Consists of underground and overhead cables that carry electricity from and within groups of wind turbines and transmits it to a collection substation and point of interconnection switchyard, which transfers the electricity generated by the project to the regional power grid.

Electromagnetic fields (EMF) - A combination of invisible electric and magnetic fields of force. They can occur both naturally or due to human constructs.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) - A wavelike pattern of electric and magnetic energy moving together through space.

Fresnel zone - The pattern of electromagnetic radiation that is created by a transmitting station from its antenna to receiving antennas; the concept of Fresnel zones may be used to analyze interference by obstacles near the path of a radio beam. The first Fresnel zone must be kept largely free from obstructions to avoid interfering with the radio reception.

General or nationwide, and individual - Under Section 404, regulated activities in wetlands are authorized under these two types of permits.

GIS - (Geographic Information System) A system of hardware and software used for storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data.

Global warming - Refers to forms of climatic inconsistency, but is more properly used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. Climate change has also been used synonymously with the term global warming.

Hydric soils - Soils that have been subjected to extended saturation, often resulting in reduced oxygen levels in the soil.

Hydrophytic vegetation - Plants that have become tolerant to prolonged saturation or flooding and are able to survive and propagate under these conditions.

Incidental take - Unintentional removal that may occur during otherwise lawful activities. If a project may result in "incidental take" of a listed species, an incidental take permit is required. An incidental take permit allows the permittee to proceed with an activity that is legal in all other respects, but that results in "incidental taking" of a listed species.

Long Range Surveillance Radar, often called Air Defense Radar - Wind farms located within radar line-of-sight of an air defense radar facility may degrade the ability of the radar to perform its intended function and assure military readiness.

Megawatt - A unit used to measure power, equal to one million watts.

Meteorological mast - One of the components of a meteorological tower, the meteorological mast supports the anemometers and data logger.

Meteorological towers - Wind measurement systems that can be of steel tube or lattice construction, and can be free-standing or guyed; they are equipped with sensors to measure wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure.

Non-criteria pollutants - Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), including metals and other toxic compounds.

Notice of Presumed Hazard (NPH) - If an NPH is issued because the proposal exceeds an obstruction standard or impacts an operational procedure, the FAA then initiates an in-depth technical analysis (commonly called an extended study) and the document explains the basis for the NPH.

Operations and maintenance facilities (O&M) - For storing equipment and supplies required during operation. Some maintenance facilities include control functions such as the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) to provide two-way communication with each wind turbine.

PCBs - Any of a family of industrial compounds produced by chlorination of biphenyl, noted primarily as an environmental pollutant that accumulates in animal tissue with resultant pathogenic and teratogenic effects.

Radio frequency (RF) EMR - Emitted by artificial sources such as mobile phones, broadcast towers, radar facilities, remote controls, and electrical and electronic equipment.

Rime icing - Occurs when the structure is at a sub-zero temperature and is subject to incident flow with significant velocity and liquid water content.

Satellite accumulation area - An area in an individual laboratory, shop, or other facility designated by the generator for the accumulation of waste.

Sedimentation - Deposition of sediment into waterbodies and wetlands.

Shadow flicker - The effect caused by the sun's casting shadows from moving wind turbine blades.

Soil erosion - A natural process in which soil particles are detached and removed by wind or water.

Sole-source aquifer - Aquifer with federally protected status.

Television - The transmission, reception, and reproduction of moving pictures and audio.

Traffic management plan (TMP) - A plan to manage traffic during the construction of projects to reduce congestion.

Transmission/interconnection facilities - A collection substation terminates collection feeder cables and steps up the voltage to that of the transmission system to which the project ultimately connects.

Viewshed - The landscape or topography visible from a geographic point, especially those that have an aesthetic value.

Waters of the United States - Includes surface waters that are navigable and their tributaries, all interstate waters and their tributaries, natural lakes, all wetlands adjacent to these waters, and all impoundments of these waters.

Wetland hydrology - The presence of water at or above the soil surface for a sufficient period of the year to significantly influence the plant types and soils that occur in the area.

Wetlands - Lands on which water covers the soil or is present either at or near the surface of the soil or within the root zone, all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season.

Wind project - Wind projects vary in size, from small projects of one to a few turbines (known as "behind the meter" or "distributed wind systems") serving individual customers, to large projects ("utility" or "commercial-scale" or "wind farms") designed to provide wholesale electricity to utilities or an electricity market.

Wind turbine - Consists of three major mechanical components: tower, nacelle, and rotor.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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