Features of Types of BLM Rightof Way Grants for Wind Energy Projects

Authorization for individual meteorological towers and instrumentation facilities Authorization for use of project area for testing and monitoring not only for individual meteorological towers or instrumentation facilities Authorization for use of project area for the construction of all facilities necessary for a long-term, commercial wind energy project, including construction of turbines, access roads, distribution lines, and associated facilities Grant authorizes use of minimum amount of...

Section Water Quality Certification

Water Quality Certification under Section 401 of the CWA is required for certain activities in wetlands and waters. Water Quality Certification sets out the conditions that have identified as being necessary to ensure that a proposed project will comply with state or tribal water quality standards and other appropriate requirements of state or tribal law. This process gives states and tribes the authority to review projects that require federal approval (such as a permit or license) and that...

Federally Managed Lands

Federal approvals and reviews under federal statutes such as NEPA, ESA, and NHPA may apply to wind projects anywhere in the United States, regardless of whether the project is located on private, local, state, or federal land. Where a project is proposed on federally-managed lands, additional federal regulations and guidelines apply. Various agencies have jurisdiction over federal lands and land management programs. The discussion in this section highlights the regulations and policies of a...

Bureau of Reclamation

The DOI's Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), makes federal lands available for renewable energy development. As of 2007, approximately 14,700 MW of hydro-generation was owned and operated by the BOR. The BOR does not have an official policy for siting wind turbines or wind project The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) developed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to evaluate issues associated with wind energy development on western public lands administered by the BLM, including Alaska. The...

Transmission System

The collection substation terminates collection feeder cables and steps up the voltage to that of the transmission system to which the project ultimately connects. Construction of a substation at the Big Horn Wind Project in Klickitat County, Washington. Photo courtesy of PPM Energy. There usually are a number of access roads into and around a wind project. These roads provide construction and service access to the wind turbines. Construction of a substation at the Big Horn Wind Project in...

Electrical Collection System

Power generated by each wind turbine is transferred to a transformer located in the nacelle or adjacent to the base of the turbine to raise the voltage of electricity produced by the turbine generator to the level of the collection system. This electrical collection system consists of underground and overhead cables that carry electricity from and within groups of wind turbines and transmit it to a collection substation and point of interconnection switchyard, which transfers the electricity...

Table of Contents

1.2 Overview of Handbook 1-2 2.1 Overview of the Development Process 2-1 2.1.1 Conduct Preliminary Site Characterization 2-2 2.1.2 Acquire Land Rights 2-4 2.1.3 Conduct Environmental Impact Analysis and Mitigation 2-4 2.1.4 Other Considerations 2-4 2.2 Components of a Wind Project 2-5 2.2.2 Electrical Collection System 2-6 2.2.3 Transmission System 2-7 2.2.5 Operations and Maintenance (O& M) Facility 2-7 2.2.6 Meteorological Towers 2-7 2.3 Building a Wind Farm 2-8 3 Critical Environmental...

State Regulatory Framework

The regulatory process for siting a wind energy project varies widely from state to state. For example, some states have vested primary siting authority in a state agency while others have left this authority to local governments to handle through their land use and zoning ordinances. Recognizing the great diversity among state programs, this section discusses the more typical state-level regulatory frameworks that a wind developer is likely to encounter. Prior to commencing a wind energy...

Electromagnetic Interference

Studies in the United States and Britain have concluded that wind turbines may interfere with radar systems. In a last-minute amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, Congress mandated that the Secretary of Defense submit a report to Congress on the effects of wind farms on military readiness and specifically whether wind facilities interfere with Long Range Surveillance Radar, often called Air Defense radar. On September 27, 2006, the DoD published its report,...

Bureau of Land Management

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency within the DOI, manages approximately 262 million acres of public lands in the United States and is responsible for the development of wind energy resources on BLM-administered lands. BLM has established a Wind Energy Development Program. On August 24, 2006, BLM issued its Wind Energy Development Policy (BLM Wind Policy) (Instruction Memorandum No. 2006-216) which supports development of wind energy in acceptable areas on BLM-administered lands and...

Federal Regulatory Framework

Several federal policies provide directives and guidance to federal agencies and developers of wind projects. On May 18, 2001, Executive Order 13212 Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use directed federal agencies involved in reviewing energy-related projects to streamline their internal approval processes and established an interagency task force to coordinate federal efforts at expediting approval mechanisms. The Energy Policy Act of 2005...

Water Resources

Two major pieces of federal legislation, the Clean Water Act (CWA) (33 USC 1251-1387) and the Rivers and Harbors Act (33 USC 401 et seq.), govern impacts to water resources. The CWA has a broad goal of restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters. Among other things, the CWA establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and managing polluted runoff. In particular, wind energy...

Components of a Wind Project

Although wind projects vary in scale, the same general components comprise any size project. The typical modern wind energy project consists of three major systems wind turbines mounted on towers, an electrical collection system, and transmission interconnection facilities. Most projects also include access roads, O& M facilities, and meteorological towers. Wind turbine in Stratford, Texas. Photo courtesy of Generation Energy and AWEA. Wind turbine in Stratford, Texas. Photo courtesy of...

Conduct Preliminary Site Characterization

Once a site has been identified for further investigation, the developer will conduct a Preliminary Site Characterization to determine the initial suitability of that site. The Preliminary Site Characterization can also be a useful tool for performing an alternative analysis of multiple potential sites. The major steps involved in this initial stage include Analyze the wind resource - The developer will review the available wind data to determine the wind speed and reliability within the...

American Wind Energy Association

1101 14th Street NW, 12th Floor Washington, DC 20005 Phone 202 383-2500 Fax (202) 383-2505 windmail awea.org Project Coordinator Laurie Jodziewicz Tetra Tech EC, Inc. www.tteci.com 617- 457-8236 Project Manager Aileen Giovanello aileen.giovanello tteci.com Nixon Peabody LLP www.nixonpeabody.com 617-345-1000 Project Manager Carolyn S. Kaplan, Esq. ckaplan nixonpeabody.com Aviation Systems Inc. www.aviationsystems.com

Glossaryof Key Terms

Access roads - Provide construction and service access to each wind turbine. Adverse visual impact - An unwelcome visual intrusion that diminishes the visual quality of an existing landscape. All Appropriate Inquiries (AAI) - Part of the Phase I Environmental Site Assessment under CERCLA relative to contaminated properties, AAI involves research to determine prior ownership and use of a property. Anemometer - One of the components of a meteorological tower, the anemometer is a sensor that...

Phase II Environmental Site Assessments

If the non-intrusive Phase I ESA establishes that there is an actual or potential REC at the site, in order to be eligible for defenses from liability, the developer must continue the inquiry, using additional methods to confirm the existence of the REC and to evaluate the potential impacts for the transaction. Such additional investigations are typically known as Phase II ESAs and typically include intrusive sampling and analysis of environmental media (e.g., groundwater, surface water,...

Assessment ESA

6.1 Purpose of Environmental Screening and Site Assessments Even if a proposed site appears relatively pristine (e.g., agricultural or vegetated lands), there may be historical contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater from prior uses such as application of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformers, leaking oil tanks, or illegal dumping. Additionally, wind developers are increasingly exploring opportunities to construct wind energy projects on or near previously...

Air Quality and Climate Impacts

Wind energy benefits the local ambient air quality and long-term health of the atmosphere because it produces electricity without emitting pollutants. Unlike conventional fossil fuel-fired electric power plants, no pollutant emissions are associated with wind power generation. To the extent that electricity produced by wind energy displaces electricity produced by fossil fuel-fired power plants, pollutant emissions are reduced and air quality is improved. Pollutants that may be reduced from...

Impact Analysis

Construction Wastes - Wastes generated during the construction of a wind energy facility will be non-hazardous solid wastes such as packing and crating materials. Some wastes with special management and or disposal requirements, such as oil wastes, may be generated. Where sites have pre-existing structures, there could be demolition wastes that must be managed appropriately. Examples of demolition-related wastes that may require special handling include asbestos-containing materials, debris...

Traffic Impacts Analysis

Traffic data for the network of existing roadways must be reviewed to determine the potential traffic impacts that may occur as a result of equipment delivery and construction vehicles entering and exiting the project site during construction. In addition, traffic data should be analyzed to determine whether alteration of access roads may be necessary for the operation of the project after construction is complete. In analyzing traffic data, one important measure often used is the Level of...

Transportation Impacts Analysis

The means for transporting the components of a wind energy project to the project site should be determined early in the development process to accurately identify risks, potential impacts, and applicable regulatory requirements. This includes identifying the origin of the components and the most efficient route to the location of the site. Knowing the origin of the components helps to identify an appropriate delivery port (if coming from an international location) as well as the nearest major...

Mitigation

Identification of communication systems near a wind project can avoid interference with signal transmission. Moving turbines outside of microwave paths and away from antennas would avoid obstructing microwave transmissions and radio broadcasts. The following mitigation measures are available when turbines cannot be moved to accommodate communication systems. Adding transmitters and receivers to the communication system Installing cable television services when available Installing directive...

LMR Operations

A LMR system is a collection of portable and stationary radio units designed to communicate with each other over predefined frequencies. LMR operations in the vicinity of wind projects include public safety organizations, such as police departments, fire departments, and medical responders, as well as private sector activities such as construction, building maintenance, and site security. In typical LMR systems, a central dispatch console or base station controls The off-air television signal...

Off Air TV Broadcast Signal Distortion

Off-air stations are television broadcasters that transmit signals that can be received from terrestrially located broadcast facilities on a tele' receiver. Off-air television signals are subject to distortion by the reflections from the turbine blades and by the attenuation of the signal passing through the wind turbines. The reflections may cause multipath distortion and ghosting. Blade motion may cause the contrast and brightness of the signal to vary. These effects apply to Analog modulated...

Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) emanate from any wire carrying electricity. Members of the general public are routinely exposed to these fields in their everyday lives. Possible effects associated with the electric and magnetic fields from transmission lines (or similar electrical sources) fall into two categories short-term effects that can be perceived and may represent a nuisance possible long-term health effects. The issue of whether there are long-term health effects associated with exposure...

Stray Voltage

The grounding of electrical systems results in some current flow through the earth. A small voltage develops at each point where the system is grounded. Stray voltage is measured between two points that can be simultaneously accessed by a person or animal. Stray voltages can arise from unbalanced neutral currents flowing into the earth through ground rods, pipes, or other conducting objects, or from faulty wiring or faulty grounding of conducting objects in a facility. Thus, stray voltage is...

Fire

During the construction period of a wind farm project, construction activities and personnel could increase the risk for fire hazard. Possible contributors to an increased risk include increased number of workers in an area, operation of powered machinery, and storage and handling of fuel. Historically, a small number of fires have been directly or indirectly attributed to operating wind turbines. The suspected causes of such fires include sparks or flames resulting from substandard machine...

Property Values

Many variables can affect property values in the vicinity of a wind farm, and these must be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. Typically, wind farms do not impact properties in a uniform manner, and the circumstances of each development can be different. Developers should work with individual landowners to discuss mitigation measures, if any, to protect property values and preserve the integrity of the property. Public outreach is a key component in addressing and mitigating any impacts to...

Mitigation Local Economy

Socioeconomic impacts are difficult to assess, as they will vary by community and region. Therefore, the developer and local surrounding communities should work together and come to agreements on project specific mitigation for each proposed wind project. It is important that the nature and extent of socioeconomic The developer and local surrounding communities should work together and come to agreements on project specific mitigation for each proposed wind project. impacts be understood...

Socioeconomics

Understanding the socioeconomic conditions of the community in which a project is proposed is important to the facility siting process. To understand the effect that a wind project would have on socioeconomic conditions, it is essential to understand the demographics (e.g., labor force, population, and housing) and economy (e.g., employment rates and opportunities, municipal budgets and taxes, and local school budgets and taxes) of the community and region. In addition, local residents may...

Cultural and Historical Resources

Cultural resources at or near proposed wind farm sites may be archaeological, architectural, or other resources that include, but are not limited to, objects, sites, buildings, structures, and traditional cultural places. In general, archaeological and architectural cultural resources may be related to either the prehistoric (before written records) or the historic (starting with written records) time periods. Traditional cultural places are generally areas that are material to an aspect of...

Visual Impact Assessment

An aesthetic or visual resource assessment that supports the siting and development of a wind farm should contain the fundamental components needed to determine and evaluate the potential for visual impacts. Those basic components include Characterization of the baseline or existing conditions. This usually requires a thorough, representative sampling of before photographs. It is suggested that these be from all directions and include near range, moderate range, and far range views of the...

Visual Aesthetics

Visual and aesthetic impacts are among the most commonly expressed concerns about the development of wind energy projects. Determination of what constitutes an adverse visual impact is highly subjective because it depends on the values, beliefs, and experiences of individual viewers. Opinions about the aesthetic qualities of wind energy facilities can vary greatly among different segments of the population and from one location to another. An adverse visual impact can be defined as an unwelcome...

Surface Waters Wetlands

Surface Waters include rivers, stream, lakes, ponds and other bodies of water easily seen or accessed above ground. Wetlands are areas of the land surface where soils are saturated for extended periods during the growing season or flooded during all or part of most years. They also are characterized by plant growth that has adapted to these saturated or flooded conditions. Many wetlands are seasonal, meaning that standing water is present only during a portion of every year. Wetlands provide...

Mitigation and Monitoring

Permanent disturbance of the smallest possible amount of surface area minimizes direct habitat losses. Impacts to native vegetation can be minimized by configuring a wind project to result in the loss of the smallest amount of native vegetation as feasible. In most cases, impacts on protected plant species or small and unique plant communities can be avoided or minimized by carefully planning and constructing the project. Mitigation measures such as segregation and storage of topsoil, soil...

State Owned Lands

A proposed project may necessitate acquiring the right to use land owned and controlled by a state government. For example, the project developer may identify a possible site that is located within a state forest, state park, wildlife management area, recreation area, scientific study area, or other state preservation area. Several agencies may have jurisdiction over the various types of state-owned lands, so it is important to identify the agency that is delegated with the authority to provide...

Other Applicable State Regulations

In addition to the above-referenced regulations, a wind energy project may be subject to myriad additional state regulatory programs. Although such matters will often be subject to state jurisdiction, in some cases, authority is delegated to local governments. For example, issues related to transportation of turbines and site access may require special approvals from state highway or transportation departments. Curb cut permits may be required, and separate approvals may be necessary to remove...

Agricultural Protection

Wind energy projects are often constructed on active agricultural lands. To ensure non-agricultural uses are compatible with farming operations, some states have developed applicable regulatory programs and mitigation policies. For example, in New York State, the Agriculture and Markets Law prevents unreasonable restrictions by local government rules on land use within agricultural districts unless it can be demonstrated that public health or safety is threatened. Mars Hill Wind Farm in...

Historic Preservation and Cultural Resources

As discussed in Section 4.1.3, State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs) administer the national historic preservation program at the state level. Federal agencies consult with the SHPO when implementing Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. The SHPO Wind energy developers should become familiar with the applicable state wetland protection programs to ensure that state regulated wetlands are identified and properly delineated according to applicable protocols and...

Section State Water Quality Certification

As discussed in Section 4.1.4.1, state Section 401 Water Quality Certification is required under the federal CWA for certain activities in wetlands and waters. Section 401 of the CWA gives states and tribes the authority to review projects that require federal licenses or permits and that might result in a discharge to state or tribal waters, including wetlands. For a wind energy facility, such federal approval might include a permit from the USACE pursuant to Section 404 of the CWA or Section...

Habitat Loss Alteration

Other wildlife species may be reluctant to cross roads, which could have adverse effects such as decreasing reproduction within the local population, causing difficulty finding mates and sufficient food, and interruption of migration routes. After construction, roads may be used as travel lanes by some predators, which could increase predation on prey species such as small mammals and herpetofauna (i.e., reptiles and amphibians). Potential avoidance of wind projects by big game such as deer and...

Collisions

Collisions of birds with turbines and meteorological towers can happen at wind energy projects. As with electricity projects in general, collisions with transmission lines may also occur. The majority of bird fatalities recorded are passerines (songbirds)(Erickson et al. 2001). The following table on the next page provides a summary of baseline studies that can performed at sites where bird fatalities are of concern. The studies listed would not necessarily be conducted at every wind energy...

Biological Impacts

The potential impact of wind energy projects on wildlife is one of the primary factors to consider in selecting sites for such facilities. The wind industry as a whole is investing a substantial amount of time and money to better understand the relationship between wind energy and wildlife. The potential impacts of wind projects include fatalities of birds and bats from collisions with wind turbines, meteorological towers, and transmission lines electrocution from transmission lines habitat...

Locally Owned Lands

Some portions of a wind energy project may be located on land owned or controlled by a municipality or local government entity. For example, the project developer may seek to place turbines on locally owned land, locate underground lines across public property (e.g., a park or open space), or make necessary road improvements on locally owned or controlled rights-of-way. In such cases, the wind energy developer will need to acquire the right to use the land. It is important for a developer to...

Formal Application and Approval Process

Once a formal zoning application is filed, local and state laws generally require notice to the public and abutters and an opportunity for public comment, followed by a public hearing or series of hearings. At the conclusion of the public hearings, the board or commission will generally issue a written decision either approving or denying the proposed project. As noted above, a wind energy project developer should consult with local counsel with respect to the applicable public notification...

Preliminary Regulatory Analysis

This list can be used as a checklist when carrying out a preliminary inquiry into local permitting requirements to identify whether or not these typical permits apply to a project. As indicated above, it is important to distinguish between permitting requirements for a meteorological tower and the actual wind turbines and equipment comprising an operational wind energy project. Often a meteorological tower can be permitted as a temporary structure, an accessory or ancillary use to the existing...

Displacement

Displacement is poorly studied compared to the other types of impacts associated with wind energy projects. Although some limited data have been obtained at wind energy facilities, most of the concerns and predicted impacts have been based on data from analogous, non-wind developments such as roads and power plants. Displacement effects are species-specific some species do not appear to be affected, while others are. Spatial displacement can occur when certain grassland and possibly shrub...

Typical Local Permitting Requirements for Wind Energy Projects

Development of wind project within county township Many counties have zoning ordinances that classify parts of the county or township into different districts. A wind project is often allowed as a conditional use in agricultural or industrial districts. A permit is required to demonstrate that the wind project will be compatible with the zoning ordinance. Many counties are incorporating requirements into their zoning ordinances specifically for wind projects, or Wind Energy Conversion Systems...

Blade Drop Throw

During normal operation, wind turbine rotor blades are exposed to centripetal, gravitational, and aerodynamic forces. In the course of each revolution, these forces create a cyclical combination of axial, bending, and torsional stress at each part of the blade. If all or any part of a blade detaches from the rotor, its trajectory will be dependent upon the loading and stress state at the time of failure, and on the type and progression of failure before separation. Acts of vandalism could...

State Environmental Impact Review Laws LittleNEPAs

Many states have their own environmental impact review or environmental planning laws. The impetus for these laws can be traced to passage of NEPA in 1969, discussed in Section 4.1.1. The review and documentation required under these state laws often parallel those required under the federal statute. As a result, these state equivalents are often referred to as little-NEPAs. In New York, commercial-scale wind projects typically have to prepare an environmental impact statement under the State...

Studies

Studies of effects using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design can provide credible evidence as to whether any post-construction changes observed are the result of the wind energy facility itself or other action, such as mitigation, instead of natural or other man-made variations or land management. Aside from fatalities, species scarcity results from displacement when species avoid the area within a certain distance of a wind turbine. To a lesser extent, before-after studies at a project...

Section National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. The CWA authorizes EPA to implement the NPDES program. However, EPA has delegated its authority to most states and some Indian tribes. In those jurisdictions where EPA remains the permitting authority, the applicable regional office of EPA issues the NPDES permits. A chart summarizing NPDES delegation...

Interim Guidelines Federal Advisory Committee

On May 13, 2003, the FWS within the DOI issued Interim Guidance on Avoiding and Minimizing Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines (Interim Guidelines). The FWS indicated its intent to evaluate the guidance over a two-year period. On December 8, 2003, AWEA submitted comments on the Interim Guidelines to the FWS. AWEA noted that the lack of consultation with the wind industry prior to issuance of the guidance had resulted in a document that has technical flaws, contains inaccurate assumptions, and...

Ground Transportation and Traffic

Ground transportation and traffic impacts associated with wind energy projects typically include impacts on the transportation system itself (e.g., the physical properties of the road system) and impacts on traffic that uses the transportation system. Such impacts arise almost entirely during the construction period. Studies in the United Kingdom and elsewhere show that while wind turbines can cause clutter on radars, there are engineering solutions that can be implemented and explored further....

Impact Analysis Microwave and Radar Systems

Microwave telecommunication systems are wireless point-to-point links that communicate between two sites (antennas) and require clear line-of-site conditions between each antenna. Obstructions between transmitters reduce the reliability of the transmission. Protection against lightning strikes is built into the electrical systems of all wind energy projects. A Licensed Microwave Search and Worst Case Fresnel Zone (WCFZ) Analysis can be carried out to identify microwave paths within a project...

Fish and Wildlife Endangered Species

The Endangered Species Act ESA 16 USC 1531 - 1544 establishes measures to prevent extinction of fish, wildlife, and plant species. The purpose of the ESA is to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved and to provide a program for the conservation of such species. ESA 2 b . Section 3 of the ESA defines terminology. Section 7 mandates interagency consultation for activities that may affect protected species. Section 9...

Paymentin LieuofTaxes PILOT

Often the key to reaching agreement with local officials on siting issues and various other local project impacts, regardless of their particular approval process used by such officials, is the size and form of annual community compensation that will be received from the project developer, owner, or operator. Virtually all wind farm facilities will be subject to property taxes and from more than one local taxing entity e.g., town, school system, county . Because the property tax obligation can...

Phase I Environmental Site Assessment

To minimize liability under federal or state law, or if the results of the screening tool mentioned above demonstrate a need to do so, the developer may consider performing a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment consistent with ASTM Standard E 1527-05 - Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process. Several major federal statues impose liability with respect to contaminated lands and waters, including the Comprehensive Environmental...

Meteorological Towers

Wind Turbine Projects

Meteorological towers, or wind measurement systems, include three major components 1 anemometers, which are sensors that measure wind speed and direction, 2 a data logger, and 3 a meteorological mast. These towers can also be equipped with sensors to measure temperature and pressure. Meteorological towers can be of steel tube or lattice construction, and can be free-standing or guyed. These towers may be temporary to assess the wind resource prior to the development of a project, or permanent...

Planning Public Outreach

Wind Turbine Humpback Whale

Planning public outreach is a crucial aspect of the siting process and should be commenced in the initial planning stages. To the extent members of the public After identifying the considerations most relevant to a particular community, the developer may prepare an outreach plan to address community concerns and build project support. Sheep grazing near the Shiloh Wind Project in Solano County, California. Photo courtesy of PPM Energy. Sheep grazing near the Shiloh Wind Project in Solano...

Ice Shedding

Wind turbines can experience periods when the weather conditions will result in ice build-up on the exposed parts of the turbine. In addition, it has been observed that the moving turbine rotor is liable to accrete heavier quantities of ice than the stationary components of the wind turbine. It has also been observed that the rotor ice can break off, and if the rotor is moving, be cast some distance. Field observations indicate that most ice shedding occurs as temperatures rise and ice thaws...

Constraints

A constraints map is a useful tool for graphically depicting the environmental and land use constraints that limit the desirable area for development at a site. The constraints map enables the developer to ascertain the number of turbines that can be located on the site. It also identifies features that may present challenges for siting ancillary facilities. The constraints map uses a base map that shows the wind resource and parcel information. Mandatory or other appropriate setbacks can be...

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection

Bald Eagle Protection Act

The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Eagle Protection Act was passed in 1940 to prevent the extinction of the bald eagle and was amended in 1962 to include protection of the golden eagles 16 USC 668-668d . The Eagle Protection Act makes it unlawful to take, possess, sell, purchase, barter transport, export or import any bald eagle or golden eagle, their parts, nests, or eggs 16 USC 668 a . Take means to shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, molest or disturb, the eagles 16...

National Environmental Policy

Environmental Scoping Process

Signed into law on January 1, 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act NEPA 42 USC 4321 was the first major environmental law in the United States. This important statute established a national environmental policy and required federal agencies to undertake an assessment of the environmental effects of their proposed actions prior to making decisions. Regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality CEQ 40 CFR Parts 1500 - 1508 implement the procedural provisions of NEPA, and...

Forest Service

Department of Agriculture USDA , is responsible for managing 193 million acres of National Forest System NFS lands. Wind energy uses are governed by the Forest Service's special use regulations at 36 CFR part 251, subpart B. Wind energy proposals and applicants are currently processed in accordance with 36 CFR 251.54 and direction in Forest Service Manual 2726 and Forest Service Handbook 2709.11 on administration of special uses. R lt for utilization of NFS...