American Wind Energy Association

1101 14th Street NW, 12th Floor Washington, DC 20005 Phone 202 383-2500 Fax (202) 383-2505 windmail awea.org Project Coordinator Laurie Jodziewicz Tetra Tech EC, Inc. www.tteci.com 617- 457-8236 Project Manager Aileen Giovanello aileen.giovanello tteci.com Nixon Peabody LLP www.nixonpeabody.com 617-345-1000 Project Manager Carolyn S. Kaplan, Esq. ckaplan nixonpeabody.com Aviation Systems Inc. www.aviationsystems.com

Glossaryof Key Terms

Access roads - Provide construction and service access to each wind turbine. Adverse visual impact - An unwelcome visual intrusion that diminishes the visual quality of an existing landscape. All Appropriate Inquiries (AAI) - Part of the Phase I Environmental Site Assessment under CERCLA relative to contaminated properties, AAI involves research to determine prior ownership and use of a property. Anemometer - One of the components of a meteorological tower, the anemometer is a sensor that...

Phase II Environmental Site Assessments

If the non-intrusive Phase I ESA establishes that there is an actual or potential REC at the site, in order to be eligible for defenses from liability, the developer must continue the inquiry, using additional methods to confirm the existence of the REC and to evaluate the potential impacts for the transaction. Such additional investigations are typically known as Phase II ESAs and typically include intrusive sampling and analysis of environmental media (e.g., groundwater, surface water,...

Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) emanate from any wire carrying electricity. Members of the general public are routinely exposed to these fields in their everyday lives. Possible effects associated with the electric and magnetic fields from transmission lines (or similar electrical sources) fall into two categories short-term effects that can be perceived and may represent a nuisance possible long-term health effects. The issue of whether there are long-term health effects associated with exposure...

Mitigation Local Economy

Socioeconomic impacts are difficult to assess, as they will vary by community and region. Therefore, the developer and local surrounding communities should work together and come to agreements on project specific mitigation for each proposed wind project. It is important that the nature and extent of socioeconomic The developer and local surrounding communities should work together and come to agreements on project specific mitigation for each proposed wind project. impacts be understood...

Impact Analysis

The construction and operation of a wind farm can have socioeconomic impacts on a region or community. The extent of the potential impacts depends on the location and the size of project with respect to the local economy and industry. This section focuses on potential impacts of a wind project to the local economy and property values. A wind project typically has a mixture of construction workers and operation and maintenance workers. Most wind farm projects tend to be located in rural and...

Visual Impact Assessment

An aesthetic or visual resource assessment that supports the siting and development of a wind farm should contain the fundamental components needed to determine and evaluate the potential for visual impacts. Those basic components include Characterization of the baseline or existing conditions. This usually requires a thorough, representative sampling of before photographs. It is suggested that these be from all directions and include near range, moderate range, and far range views of the...

Preliminary Regulatory Analysis

This list can be used as a checklist when carrying out a preliminary inquiry into local permitting requirements to identify whether or not these typical permits apply to a project. As indicated above, it is important to distinguish between permitting requirements for a meteorological tower and the actual wind turbines and equipment comprising an operational wind energy project. Often a meteorological tower can be permitted as a temporary structure, an accessory or ancillary use to the existing...

Typical Local Permitting Requirements for Wind Energy Projects

Development of wind project within county township Many counties have zoning ordinances that classify parts of the county or township into different districts. A wind project is often allowed as a conditional use in agricultural or industrial districts. A permit is required to demonstrate that the wind project will be compatible with the zoning ordinance. Many counties are incorporating requirements into their zoning ordinances specifically for wind projects, or Wind Energy Conversion Systems...

Impact Analysis Microwave and Radar Systems

Microwave telecommunication systems are wireless point-to-point links that communicate between two sites (antennas) and require clear line-of-site conditions between each antenna. Obstructions between transmitters reduce the reliability of the transmission. Protection against lightning strikes is built into the electrical systems of all wind energy projects. A Licensed Microwave Search and Worst Case Fresnel Zone (WCFZ) Analysis can be carried out to identify microwave paths within a project...

Collisions

Until 2003, the bat fatalities recorded at wind energy projects during post-construction monitoring were relatively low in number (0 to 6 bats per MW per year) and dominated by a few species (migratory, solitary tree bats such as the hoary, silver-haired, and red bat). The fatalities appeared to occur mostly during the fall migration season (NWCC 2004). The discovery of 458 bat carcasses at a 44- turbine wind project on a forested ridge in West Virginia was unanticipated (NWCC 2004). As a...

Paymentin LieuofTaxes PILOT

Often the key to reaching agreement with local officials on siting issues and various other local project impacts, regardless of their particular approval process used by such officials, is the size and form of annual community compensation that will be received from the project developer, owner, or operator. Virtually all wind farm facilities will be subject to property taxes and from more than one local taxing entity e.g., town, school system, county . Because the property tax obligation can...

Planning Public Outreach

Planning public outreach is a crucial aspect of the siting process and should be commenced in the initial planning stages. To the extent members of the public After identifying the considerations most relevant to a particular community, the developer may prepare an outreach plan to address community concerns and build project support. Sheep grazing near the Shiloh Wind Project in Solano County, California. Photo courtesy of PPM Energy. Sheep grazing near the Shiloh Wind Project in Solano...

Bald and Golden Eagle Protection

Bald Eagle Protection Act

The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Eagle Protection Act was passed in 1940 to prevent the extinction of the bald eagle and was amended in 1962 to include protection of the golden eagles 16 USC 668-668d . The Eagle Protection Act makes it unlawful to take, possess, sell, purchase, barter transport, export or import any bald eagle or golden eagle, their parts, nests, or eggs 16 USC 668 a . Take means to shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, molest or disturb, the eagles 16...

National Environmental Policy

Environmental Scoping Process

Signed into law on January 1, 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act NEPA 42 USC 4321 was the first major environmental law in the United States. This important statute established a national environmental policy and required federal agencies to undertake an assessment of the environmental effects of their proposed actions prior to making decisions. Regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality CEQ 40 CFR Parts 1500 - 1508 implement the procedural provisions of NEPA, and...