Wilderness Survival Skills

How to Bug Out Forever

This eBook avails a lot of content on how best to face catastrophes and disasters that may strike. The program covers preparations for all forms of disasters, including fires, floods, earthquakes, and several others. It is a survival plan manual proven to be a savior for so many people and their families out there. Bugging out simply means to leave or evacuate. While bugging in may be quite simple, bugging out is even more complicated. It may be unsafe to evacuate when a calamity occurs, and you may be forced to take shelter; this is called bugging in. Bugging out is where you now evacuate when it is safe to seek safer places where the disaster has not stricken. This guide, therefore, provides you with the tips and ideas you will need to survive your 'bug out' phase. The How to Bug out Forever course will teach you how best to carry concealed licensed firearms and also how to use them. Firearms experts provided this information. It goes further to teach you how best to defend your family and keep them safe even when in crowded places. This also includes the assessment of risks associated with crowds. More here...

How to Bug Out Forever Summary

Rating: 4.7 stars out of 12 votes

Contents: Ebooks
Author: Dan F. Sullivan
Official Website: www.bugoutforever.com
Price: $51.00

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My How to Bug Out Forever Review

Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this ebook and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Historical Roots Running out of Wilderness Running into Opposition

The natural world of Thoreau's day needed little defending, in spite of the polluting factories of the industrialized northeast United States. The rest of North America contained vast amounts of unclaimed, unsettled land. Wilderness might be daunting, but it appeared to be inexhaustible, and our technology at the time did not seem to have the potential to exhaust it.

The New England Wilderness Transformed

The environmental history of the New England forests focuses on three stages of use Indian subsistence the colonial forest economy and wilderness appreciation. It also explores two core themes the human labor needed to extract useful commodities, and the transformation of the idea of wilderness. Indians used the forest for hunting and cleared openings for horticulture. Colonists introduced European livestock and crops and established permanent settlements, while extracting forest products for overseas trade. Human settlement and resource depletion brought about ecological changes in the forest, fostering a transformation in the perception of wilderness from savage to subl ime.This chapter investigates how Native Americans and European immigrants both used and viewed the forest environment.

The City as Wilderness

In reaction to all these changes, a new perception of the city as wilderness emerged. In 1898, writer Robert Woods described The City Wilderness as a dark, dismal, depressing place filled with squalid alleys and poverty-stricken inhabitants. Novelist Upton Sinclair's The Jungle (1905), written to expose the unsanitary conditions and working-class misery in Chicago's meatpacking industry, depicted the urban environment as dingy, smoky, and rancid with stockyard odors. Booth Tarkington's The Turmoil (1914) characterized the city as a locale dedicated to growth and the production of wealth at any cost to its inhabitants. Evil wilderness was embedded in the city, by contrast with the good wilderness of clean air and pristine, unblemished nature found in the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. In American Hunger (1944), novelist Richard Wright recalled vividly his impressions of the city wilderness on reaching Chicago in 1927 as an African-American refugee from southern racism My first...

The Idea of Wilderness

The concept of wilderness is one of the most complex ideas in environmental and human history. As environmental historian Roderick Nash pointed out in Wilderness and the American Mind (1967), the word wilderness comes from old English and Germanic words, wildern and wildeor. Nash notes, The root seems to have been 'will' with a descriptive meaning of self-willed, willful, or uncontrollable. From 'willed' came the adjective 'wild' used to convey the idea of being lost, unruly, disordered, or confused. 6 To many people living in medieval Europe, the ancient forests contained dense trees and underbrush, deep shadows, and frightening beasts. The word was likewise associated with barrenness and the desert. In the Bible, the book of Deuteronomy is called In the Wilderness, and many of the connotations of wilderness come from the desert lands in which the Israelites sought enlightenment and in which they wandered for forty years. Wilderness, therefore, means not only a dense forest, but also...

The Fundamental Laws Governing Energy Consumption

There are a number of basic fundamentals to all energy processes, and in order to understand why some processes are better than others, it's worth looking into the basics. There is only so much that can be done to improve the energy situation, and there are hard limits. Most people seem to believe that energy efficiency and conservation can lead us out of the wilderness, but in this section I explain why this is going to be a very difficult road to travel.

Toward creative responsibility

Feature of human social relations as of our relations with nature, and as much a feature of our treatment of domesticated landscapes as of wilderness areas. In its Otherness, the factory-farmed hog is no less a challenge to our sympathies and understanding than the salmon, the commonplace chickadee no less than the grizzly bear. We do not excel in the art of conversation. If the grizzly is absent from the distant mountains, perhaps it is partly because we have lost sight of, or even denigrated, the wild spirit in the chickadee outside our doors. The point is not to pronounce any landscape good or bad, but to ask after the integrity of the conversation it represents. None of us would want to see the entire world reduced to someone's notion of a garden, but neither would we want to see a world where no humans tended reverently to their surroundings (Suchantke 2001). We should not set the creativity of the true gardener against the creativity at work in our oversight of the Denali...

What is the Value of a Soaring Hawk

Some environmental goods are bought and sold in markets, and we can use their prices to estimate the benefit we receive from them. Other environmental goods, however, are not bought and sold in markets and consequently do not have a market price that we can use to estimate their value. Have you tried to buy any species diversity over the Internet recently Camping in the wilderness, watching a beautiful sunset, and enjoying the sight and sound of a soaring hawk are examples of valuable experiences that don't come with a price tag attached. For such nonmarket goods, which have no market price, determining value can be difficult. Without knowing some relative value, we have difficulty deciding whether society would be better off if the wilderness were left alone or cleared for farming whether the air should be clearer for better views of sunsets or filled with factory smoke as a cheap way of carrying on manufacturing or whether we should protect the hawk's habitat or construct a new...

Mind Labor and Nature

Find a way to break the borders that imprison nature as much as ourselves. Work, then, is where we should begin. 5 White's view about the split between mind and nature is reinforced by the transformation of the image of wilderness in the minds of the Pilgrims and Puritans who lived directly in the New England forest, to that of the elite and urban dwellers who appreci ated and preserved it for its aesthetic and recreational values. What did wilderness mean at the time of New England colonization, and how did it change

The Recovery Of The Primitiveenergy Ecology And

If, in the later twentieth century, the country was once more to be called in to restore and recreate human settlements, much would be found to have changed. Not only have cities spread and a wilderness cult arisen but a new vision of the natural world has taken shape, its roots in history but its overall perspective fresh, vital and highly often disconcertingly distinctive. It is this vision, or elements of it, which since the 1960s has fuelled the movement known as environmentalism, and this vision which is reshaping our cities and our ideas of what constitutes the human home, or oikos. Hopkins, the first recognizably 'modern' poet, both in his radical experiments with language and in his attitude to wilderness, gives us a unique glimpse of the post-Darwinian mind transfixed by the numinous and attempting to embody it in language. Once Hopkins's world is stripped of its transcendent dimension, however, 'real existence' floods back through nature a 'fall into life' is produced. The...

Pacific Coast Mountains

The high, jagged peaks of America's coastal Pacific mountains are a defining feature of the West Coast and represent some of America's most spectacular and beloved scenery. The Sierra Nevada were the spiritual home of John Muir, who was instrumental in the creation of Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks in 1890. The dramatic landscapes of Yosemite were further immortalized in the stunning black-and-white photographs of Ansel Adams. In Washington, the North Cascades National Park complex encompasses the largest, most rugged alpine wilderness in the Lower 48 and is home to grizzly bears, wolves, and virgin Douglas fir and Western red cedar forests. Its 300 glaciers cover more area than glaciers in any other U.S. national park south of Alaska (Post, 1971).

Broader Considerations Of Risk And Individualism

In fact, real individualism in navigating one's life is all but impossible today. The public reacts with wonder when a person manages to survive on his own out in the wilderness. Even Defoe's Robinson Crusoe had the advantage of a slave and the materials that his ship offered to him. Community is far more real than the imagined individualism of contemporary ideologues.

Ecology and Biodiversity

Mathematically intense field of science, evinced a degree of dismay at the invasion of their specialty by people whose agendas were more oriented toward politics and social concerns. Many college courses, TV programs, and articles on ecology were devoted to a single theme the negative impact that man and technology were having on the ecology of the planet. To be fair, I should state that not all who became concerned with ecology during this period (and later) were wild-eyed hippies and peaceniks looking for a new cause. In fact, there were never very many people who fit that description at any point in time, but the few that did just happened to be very visible. Conservationists, hunters, fishermen, and eventually large portions of the general public (who like to go on vacation in the beautiful American wilderness and didn't appreciate the sight of tires in the streams, beer cans in the forests, dead birds, scarce game, no fish in the streams and lakes, bad smells from waste dumps,...

The Rights Of Future Generations

Second, the tastes of future individuals will depend not only on what is advertised but on what is available. People may come to think that a gondola cruise along an artificial river is a wilderness experience if there is simply nothing to compare it with. When I moved from a rural area to an urban one, I was appalled at the changes noise, pollution, ugliness, congestion. People said I would get used to it - that I would come to like the convenience stores and the fast-food stands. They were right. This is what happens. Preference adapts. If individuals in the future have no exposure to anything that we would consider natural or unspoiled, they will not acquire a taste for such things. What they will want will be determined more or less by what we leave to them, however dreary it may be. To protect a wilderness, however, we may have to prohibit a resort to provide a resort we may have to destroy a wilderness. So we must make decisions that affect the preferences or values future...

Compromise And Community

The students in the class I taught had no trouble understanding the difference between the judgments they make as citizens and the preferences they entertain as individuals. They also understood the importance of their positive freedom to lobby for their views politically and their negative freedom to pursue their personal interests without undue interference from the state.34 Plainly, these freedoms, like these values and preferences, are bound to come into tension or conflict. If the nation preserves every mountain as a wilderness heritage, there will be no place for these young people to ski. The students in my class found it fairly easy to resolve the tension between their consumer interests and their public values with respect to the example of Mineral King. They recognized that private ownership, individual freedom of choice, and the profit motive (to recall the remarks of Dr. Kneese I quoted earlier) would undoubtedly lead to the construction of the Disney paradise. They...

The loss of authenticity

The effect of the technological trust is indeed an alienation from political sphere and a lost of political control in tackling even vital threats to our lives from environmental disaster .9 This alienation from political sphere forces people into a sort of iron cage .10 However, Taylor argues that there are many points of resistance and that one of these is the whole movement since the Romantic era, which has been challenging the ecological mismanagement, and has been involved in the preservation of some wilderness area, for instance, the conservation of some threatened species, the protection against some devastating assaults on the environment .11

Optimal Population Size

With our colleague Gretchen Daily, we took a first cut at this question a decade ago.8 We assumed that an optimal population size would be one for which the minimum physical necessities of a decent life could be guaranteed for everyone. We also assumed that the optimum had to be few enough people that basic human social and political rights could be ensured for all. We thought the population should be large and dispersed enough to encourage maintenance and development of humanity's cultural diversity and to provide a critical mass in numerous areas of high density so that intellectual, artistic, and technological creativity would be stimulated. But the population should be small enough to permit the preservation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity at a level that could sustain natural services. Hermits and outdoor enthusiasts could find plenty of wilderness to hide in or enjoy lovers of opera, theater, and fine food could have large, vibrant cities. overall and hedge against...

Two Frameworks Of Governance

Both the Kantian and the welfare-economic approaches provide frameworks for rational choice - one by appealing to principles and procedures appropriate to the identity of the decision maker in a given situation, the other by emphasizing consequences for preferences. The first framework asks the political and ethical question What do we stand for as a society Which conception of the common will or the public interest is correct Which rules should we follow with respect to problems such as pollution, the extinction of species, or wilderness preservation, given our history, culture, and sense of shared identity The second framework asks the question posed by welfare economics Which outcome will maximize net social welfare defined or measured in terms of the aggregate satisfaction of preferences ranked by WTP and taken as they come

How new are the greens

The new activism of the late 1960s and early 1970s was the first new cross-national wave of environmentalism since the late nineteenth century when many conservation and animal welfare groups had been formed. The principal aim of the National Trust in Britain and comparable groups in most of northern Europe and the USA formed at the end of the nineteenth century was the preservation and conservation of landscapes and national monuments. In the USA John Muir founded the Sierra Club in 1892 to campaign for the protection of wilderness areas as an important part of national heritage. New nature conservation groups were established at that stage in most countries and the protection of birds killed for the trade in hat feathers was a concern of middle-class and aristocratic campaigners, particularly women, across Europe. This activity reached a peak in the 1900s but began to subside thereafter because most of its immediate legislative aims had been achieved. A wider romantic reaction...

The Conflict Within Us

If an environmentalist wants to preserve parts of the natural environment for their own sake, he might do well to concede that this is his intention. The environmentalist must then argue that the principles of justice, fairness, and efficiency that may apply to the distribution of income in our society need not apply to the protection or preservation of the natural environment. The reason is that the conflict involved, for example, over Mineral King is not primarily a distributional one. It does not simply pit the skiers against the hikers. The skiers themselves may believe, on aesthetic grounds, that the wilderness should be preserved, even if that belief conflicts with their own consumer preferences. Thus, The problem is a general one. It arises not just because of our high regard for wilderness areas, such as Mineral King, but because of broad values we share about nature, the environment, health, safety, and the quality and meaning of life. Many of us are concerned, for example,...

Giving the Earth Its

Astronauts provided the most poignant image to accompany this accusation, a photograph of the earth in its entirety, as seen from the moon. Reproduced in magazines, school textbooks, and posters, the sight of this big blue marble reinforced the argument that we dwelled in a world of finite resources, with natural boundaries that we ignored at our peril. Nor was this message lost on hundreds of thousands of people who began to join conservation groups like the Sierra Club. During the course of the 1960s, that organization saw its membership quintuple to 113,000. Similarly, the Wilderness Society doubled its membership to 54,000, the Audubon Society doubled its to 81,500, and the National Wildlife Federation doubled its to 540,000.

Settling On The Plains Of Moravia

3.10 SETTLING ON THE PLAINS OF MORAVIA In what was the treeless wilderness of the central European Plain just before the LGM, extensive archaeological evidence has been found of lengthy settlement between roughly 27 and 24 kya. This seemingly more settled lifestyle might have been the product not only of growing sophistication of human social structures, but also of the slightly less chaotic conditions prior to the LGM. So, the ability of modern humans to create this more settled existence was probably the key to their survival during the LGM, especially in refugia where conditions were that little bit more bearable.

Conclusion Ask Who Benefits

In countries that collect and analyse fewer numbers (and at times within the UK when this has been so) it is not surprising to find the social gaps between groups of people growing. The most socially surveyed populations in the world live in Scandinavia. The least socially surveyed live in the world's poorest nations. However, not all countries that survey their population in detail and not all researchers that study such information do so with the interests of people at heart. Ministries of Truth and police states abound. It is not the information that is good or evil, it is what you do with it and who then benefits. Mapping, counting, measuring and analysing may not help make the world a better place. However, given that human geographers have largely abstained from such practices in the past 30 years, I think it fair to conclude that not doing so has not helped much either (Dorling and Shaw, 2002). It is time to come in from the innumerate wilderness and start counting again.

Ecological direct action in the USA Australia and Britain

In the USA ecological direct action is more synonymous with Earth First than in Australia and Britain. Earth First was founded in the USA in April 1980 by five environmentalists disillusioned by their experiences with the major environmental organisations. They viewed the compromises of the pressure groups as inadequate in the face of the erosion of wilderness and threats to biodiversity This was brought to a head after the Forest Service's second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) in which less than a quarter of the area under consideration had been designated as protected wilderness (Scarce 1990). According to movement legend, it was after a hike in the Picante desert in Mexico that the five decided to found a more militant group. In doing so, they drew on the guidance provided by Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang (1975). This novel was a thinly disguised call to arms for wilderness defenders. It heroised the actions of four eco-saboteurs prepared to 'undermine road...

Indians and the Creation of the National Parks

But when parks came, Indians were expelled from lands they had long inhabited and ranged to create recreational resources for whites. Except as tourist attractions, Indians vanished from memory as well as from view. Wilderness was redefined as untainted by human presence, and parks were conceptualized as places where white tourists could be inspired by the sublimity of depopulated natural beauty. Generations of preservationists, government officials, and park visitors have accepted and defended the uninhabited wilderness preserved in national parks as remnants of a priori Nature (with a very capital N), writes environmental historian Mark David Spence. Such a conception of wilderness forgets that native peoples shaped these environments for millennia. 11 Many years after Yosemite's ancient inhabitants were removed, some of the refugees charged in a petition to Congress that whites were despoiling our beloved Yosemite Valley by gradual destruction of its trees, the occupancy of every...

Conclusion Green Politics

One person who thinks it does not is Bryan Norton. That Norton is a 'converger' is in no doubt, and in his search for unity among environmentalists he thinks he knows where to look 'I have . . . tried not to use environmentalists' rhetoric - the explanations they give for what they do - but their actions - the policies they actually pursue - as the fixed points on my map' (Norton, 1991, p. x). Thus environmentalists of any persuasion might agree on the founding of a wilderness preserve, but not on why it should be preserved. Norton argues that whether it is preserved because the wilderness area is sacred or because of the recreational use to which it is put is immaterial from a policy point of view. He suggests that all the objects of radical ecologists can be achieved from within a broadly anthropocentric perspective

Shifting Values in Response to Climate Change

While Butler and Nagel were both able to use their life challenges to reorient their lives, and while some people do grow out of traumas, this does not always occur. Stress, trauma, and fear often lead people to treat themselves, others, and the environment in more damaging ways. Experiments show that when people are led to think only superficially (instead of deeply) about their own death, they become more defensive, more focused on consumption and acquisition, more greedy, and more negative in their attitudes toward wilderness. Similarly, studies show that economically difficult times often increase people's levels of materialism and decrease their concern for the environment and for other people.8

Ecological direct action groups

Damage to property is usually reported as violence in the media and such actions are condemned by the major EMOs. For EDA groups, however, property damage is non-violent because it is 'aimed only at inanimate objects'. As the website of US Earth First Journal states 'It is the final step in the defense of the wild, the deliberate action taken by the Earth defender when all other measures have failed, the process whereby the wilderness defender becomes the wilderness acting in self-defense'. More controversial, however, is the question of whether violence against people is justifiable. For some activists non-violence is a principle that justifies their action, but for others this is a dogma that needs to be challenged. This debate will be examined further below. Attempts to generalise about EDA groups are made difficult by their rapid evolution and change, and their informal character. Groups of this kind can be found throughout northern and eastern Europe, but are strongest and have...

Clouded Vision of Mobility

Linked the cities and towns, but they were often little more than two ruts through wilderness. Commercial stagecoach services were widely available, but cramped, dusty and rough. On the way one might see others walking or riding horses, carts or carriages. Walking a mile or two was normal, a long walk might be 20, even 100 miles.

New Deal Conservation

Congress, the second player in the environmental policy process, is responsible for passing environmental legislation. Attempts to legislate solutions to problems of pollution and depletion during the 1960s resulted in such laws as the Clean Air Act (1963) and the Water Quality Control Act (1965), both of which have been amended and updated several times. A major effort was mounted to preserve remaining wild areas by passing of the 1964 Wilderness Act, designating certain federal lands as wilderness areas in which commercial development was prohibited. The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968) preserved free-flowing rivers for recreational and conservation purposes.

Audubon Center at Debs Park Los Angeles California

Located 10 minutes east of downtown Los Angeles, the Audubon Center at Debs Park is a nature center within a 282-acre urban wilderness owned by the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks. The total project cost (excluding the land) was 5.5 million. The design and construction of the 5020-square-foot building cost approximately 2.5 million, or 371 per square feet. Designed to use only 25,000 kWh of energy annually, the facility is operated completely off the grid all of the power used is generated onsite. Estimated to use 70 percent less water than a similar conventional building, the center treats all wastewater on site. Fifty percent of the building materials was manufactured locally and 97 percent of the construction waste was recycled.*

Environmental Interest Groups Origins

ENGOs range in territorial scope from local to global. As mentioned, local ENGOs are more likely to be grass roots groups than hierarchically ordered, top-down associations. Most formed in reaction to pollution of air or land, including toxic contamination of water, in neighborhoods. As such, they are good examples of NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) protest organizations, which focus on local developments to the exclusion of national or global patterns of environmental degradation. The largest number of ENGOs, however, are national environmental associations, for example the American Sierra Club and Wilderness Society. Their energies are directed to environmental problems and events within the national boundaries, although they may observe global environmental issues affecting that nation-state. Finally, some ENGOs are truly global (and for this reason are called INGOs, or international NGOs), and they have outposts in a large number of nation-states. The best (and perhaps the most...

Laboratory Confirmation Group Effects in Social Dilemma Games

Deborah experienced this kind of hoarding when she served as a camp cook for her husband's geology field camp one summer. Although she did her best to estimate group uses of various foods, within a week in the wilderness area, she realized that they were running low on hot chocolate. She hoped that as scarcity became apparent to other camp members, its value would go up and they would be more careful about using it, rationing it until the end. Instead, as soon as scarcity became apparent, the remainder of the hot chocolate disappeared very quickly, much faster than it was used before scarcity was obvious. Apparently, camp members wanted to be sure they got their share before it completely tan out. Being somewhat of a hoarder herself, Deborah wanted to put the chocolate away and use it only on special occasions, so that it would last. Simply perceiving a commodity as scarce will increase the demand for it. Restaurant servers use this principle when they strategically hint to their...

The Era of Environmentalism

During the latter half of the twentieth century, the resource conservation movement based on efficient use of natural resources changed to an environmental movement concerned with quality of life, species preservation, population growth, and the effects of humanity on the natural world. A multitude of government projects, policies, and laws, together with citizens' movements, increasingly regulated economic development and sought to preserve remaining wilderness areas.The rise of environmentalism is a core theme in environmental history, because it often influences the way contemporary historians look at the past and the topics they choose to investigate.This chapter examines the conservation movement of the mid-twentieth century and explores the emergence of the environmental movement of the late twentieth century, its regulatory framework, and its philosophy of nature.

Excluding those who break with the green framework

When some eco-activists have given absolute priority to ecology at the expense of equality and democracy they have been regarded as extremists both inside the green movement and by outside observers, and often have been unable to work with other greens. One of the best-known instances of this was the dispute in US Earth First over whether the movement was concerned with wilderness preservation to the exclusion of social justice and democracy. The infamous column in the Earth First journal, in which a 'Miss Ann Thropy' (Chris Manes) argued that Aids and famine in Third World countries could be beneficial in reducing human population, caused strong criticism within Earth First Arguments also raged over the status of feminism, seen as irrelevant to green concerns by wilderess defenders such as 'Miss Ann Thropy'. Underlying this was a basic disagreement about whether humanity was redeemable (Lee 1995). Many of the supporters of Miss Ann Thropy argued that human nature could not be changed...

Who We Are And What We Want

Our environmental goals rest on views or beliefs that find their way, as ethical principles and intuitions, into legislation and common-law adjudication. These goals - cleaner air and water, the preservation of wilderness and wildlife, and the like - should not be construed as personal wants or preferences to be valued by the criteria of economic

Fighting environmental racism

The environmental justice movement in the United States is different from the two previous currents of environmentalism in this country, namely, the efficient and sustainable use of natural resources (in the tradition of Gifford Pinchot), and the cult of wilderness (in the tradition of John Muir). As a self-conscious movement, environmental justice fights against the alleged disproportionate dumping of toxic waste or exposure to different sorts of environmental risk in areas of predominantly African-American, or Hispanic or Native American, populations. The language employed is not that of uncompensated externalities but rather the language of race discrimination, which is politically powerful in the USA because of the long Civil Rights struggle. In fact, the organized environmental justice movement is an outgrowth, not of previous currents of environmentalism, but of the Civil Rights movement. Some direct collaborators of Martin Luther King were among the 500 people arrested in the...

The violencenonviolence debate

Jensen's argument is essentially a call to transcend reason and act on natural instinct. He says 'Discussion presupposes distance, and the fact that we're talking about whether violence is appropriate tells me we don't yet care enough. There's a kind of action that doesn't emerge from discussion, from theory, but instead from our bodies and from the land'. It would be difficult to challenge this argument without also challenging some of the more strongly held deep ecological commitments of many US Earth First ers. Jensen compares the actions of humans defending the wilderness to grizzlies defending their cubs. Only by reaching this level of instinct and stripping away the false accretions of civilisation will people be able to act naturally.

Discursive frameworks

At the turn of the century, in the so-called progressive era when Theodore Roosevelt was president, conservation became institutionalized in federal agencies for national parks, fisheries, wilderness, etc. and conservation itself came to be justified on pragmatic grounds. Preserving natural resources became a part of the progressive era's gospel of efficiency but, by the 1920s, short-term gain and exploitation had once again come to characterize the dominant American attitude to nature (Hays 1959).

Attribution Theory Making Up Meaning

Worldviews are a coherent picture of reality, and one example of our attempt to figure out the world. Other attempts at making meaning give rise to explanations for other people's behaviors. Social psychologists call the act of creating explanations for behavior the attribution process. We rarely see the social world strictly in terms of overt behaviors. Instead, we are continuously attributing those behaviors to our constructed explanations. He smiles when he is hiking in the wilderness because he's happy. She throws paper in the trash, rather than recycles, because she doesn't care. Attributions help us make sense of our social world, create a sense of order and consistency, and provide

Social movements and industrial knowledge

In literature, too, the mechanization that characterized the first wave of industrialization was rejected outright by many influential poets and writers. William Blake decried the dark satanic mills of the industrial cities and scorned the narrowness of the mechanical philosophy, while William Wordsworth and John Keats escaped from the emerging mechanical world into a world of beauty and passion, countering the coming of the machine with new forms of personal expression (Roszak 1973). Many were the romantics - in art, music, and everyday life, as well as in literature - who turned their backs on industrial society to gain inspiration from the wilderness or from the ideals of earlier, pre-industrial epochs. Perhaps the two most significant experiments were those of Mary Shelley and Henry David Thoreau. Shelley's 1819 literary experiment imagined the industrial world-view in the shape of a monster constructed by her mad Doctor Frankenstein and Thoreau conducted his 1840s experiment in...

The Ecological Self The Self Beyond the Self

We experience our ecological self when we feel the connection between our self and other people, other life forms, ecosystems, or the planet. We experience it when we sense a deep resonance with other species and a quality of belonging and connection to the larger ecological whole. As you might imagine, people frequently experience their ecological self in wilderness settings, especially forests (K. Williams & Harvey, 2001). But we might sense it any time. For example, one evening, Deborah walked out of a seminar she was attending and suddenly saw the stars above her. They seemed to be twinkling at her, reminding her of how huge and close the cosmos is. Suddenly, the people in the seminar, in the city, and in the world seemed to be together under the twinkling benevolence of the shining stars. Deborah felt the clear connection between the planet and the rest of the universe, each twinkling at each other in their shared space. She felt herself a part of the Earth and the stars, and was...

Conservation and Preservation

A core topic for environmental history is the formation of land, water, and conservation policies how land was allocated as the country was being settled how land use policy developed and what laws allowed people to gain title to land as private property. By the late nineteenth century, most of the unsettled land had been allocated and people began to press for the conservation of natural resources for efficient use and to join a growing national movement to set aside wilderness areas for recreation.This chapter looks at the history of land use policy as it developed in the colonial and national periods, and at the emergence of resource conservation and wilderness preservation at the turn of the nineteenth century.

Australias Coral Crisis

That night I finally get some sleep, despite the surrounding jungle sounds, which include the scuttle of large lizards and a loud white cockatoo screeching in the tree next to my bungalow. In the morning I hike down to an eroded beach with a river outlet and a wooden sign Warning Esturine crocodiles inhabit this river. As naturalist author Edward Abbey said, If there's not something bigger and meaner than you are out there, it's not really a wilderness. The Australia Institute of Marine Sciences (AIMS) is located 40 minutes south of Townsville. To get to it, you drive out Cape Cleveland, a wetland and wilderness peninsula full of storks, egrets, cattle, and the occasional wallaby bouncing off into the brush. Eventually you arrive at a metal gate with a speakerphone in the middle of nowhere. The remote gate opens. On the other side of a grassy hill is AIMS' low-rise glass-and-concrete research complex, and just beyond it down a brushy path is 5 miles of wilderness beach facing out on...

Global Warming Key Concepts

Instead, behaviorism focuses on the ways in which behavior is controlled by the environment. When we say environment here, we mean the total physical, social, political, and economic situation in which a person behaves. This is a wider use of the term than has been employed up to now in this book. Previously, our use of the word has referred to the more physical dimensions of our habitat, such as resources and pollution, water and wilderness. But from a behavioral perspective, our total environment cues certain behaviors, which then are followed by rewards or punishers. Our behavior changes when environmental stimuli vary conversely, we can modify behavior by changing relevant stimuli.

Creation of the National Parks

Throughout the twentieth century, debates over the preservation of wilderness areas versus the need to exploit water and forests for the public good continued. Controversies over whether to dam the Colorado River in Glen Canyon and the Grand Canyon and the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument aroused the passions of the nation. Whether to cut the ancient forests of the Northwest for timber or to preserve the Headwaters redwood forests of California have spawned citizen demonstrations and legal battles. Such issues keep alive the concerns raised by early twentieth-century conservationists and preservationists over the vanishing West and the vanishing wilderness.

Clear Skies Healthy Forests

No sooner had the Bush administration come to power, in fact, than it began to flesh out a philosophical standpoint that treats environmental concerns as a luxury tied to economic growth. The perspective is exceptionally clear, for instance, in the Bush administration's National Energy Policy published in 2001.2 Among the many priorities listed, the administration set out to remove or reduce wilderness and wildlife protections because of the perceived need to open up more public land to oil and gas exploration. The administration also explicitly sought to relax provisions in the decades-old Clean Air Act, replacing them with a market-based system favored by power plant owners in which companies buy, sell, and trade pollution rights.

SUVs Are Not the Devil

I-80, but he's probably voting for open space in his community, supporting wilderness bills, and contributing to the Sierra Club. With a little prodding, he might support even more radical environmental measures. Same with the woman in the Winnebago. But slap a stealth climate change sticker on the bumper, and you've radicalized them. Now they hate environmentalists and begin to define themselves as something else.

The Birth of Green Politics

Before the 1970s, throughout the early and middle twentieth century, the environment was a matter, in the political context anyway, that few cared about. It didn't rank on the policy agenda except when insiders inched some specific issue up higher on the agenda, year by grueling year. So the first generation of greens worked the only way they thought possible through influence on elite leaders. Muir and Gifford Pinchot battled for President Theodore Roosevelt's approval. Years later, the Wilderness Act passed in 1964 because the Wilderness Society's director shepherded the process for ten years, almost entirely out of the public eye, lining up congressional and administration support.1 It was hard to imagine that green politics could ever work any other way.

From Reframing to Reacting

Necessary for the public to recognize that care for the earth is not only about wilderness and is not simply an interest of white, liberal elites who like to climb mountains. Religious forms of environmental concern bring us back to the essential questions of social justice, of care for our neighbors, of love for our children, of honoring life in its myriad forms.

US Department of the Interior

Department of the Interior has primary management and conservation responsibility for all federal lands and minerals, national parks, water resources, and wildlife refuges. Its secretary reports directly to the president, and the department's responsibilities are divided among a number of agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Mines, Bureau of Reclamation, Fish and Wildlife Service, Geological Survey, National Park Service, and Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. Among its primary objectives are the wise use of land and natural resources, the protection of animal and plant species, the promotion of environmental values among U.S. citizens, and environmental protection balanced with mineral resource needs. Its responsibilities include the coordination of its agencies' activities, data collection and analysis concerning natural resources, and minimization and mitigation of mining and other human activities adversely...

Nongovernmental Organizations NGOs

Wilderness Society To restore and protect the natural habitat of birds and other wildlife for the benefit of human interest and biodiversity. The largest member-supported conservation group working to protect wildlife and ecosystems. Using science and law to protect the planet's wildlife and wild places. To protect aquatic and terrestrial habitats for the survival of biodiversity. Protect the remaining wilderness in the United States by keeping roads, loggers, and oil drilling efforts out of wilderness areas. Helped create the Land and Water Fund. Were instrumental in the protection of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Everglades National Park, and Isle Royale National Park. Involved the public in bird counts across the United States to track populations. Has opened nature centers to promote understanding of birds. Helped block oil exploration near Arches National Park, created the Wilderness Act, which was passed in 1964, and the Conservation Act which was passed in 1980.

National Park Service

Established in 1916 under the National Park Service Organic Act, the National Park Service (NPS) manages over 83.6 millions acres of federal parks, including battlefields, cemeteries, historical sites, lakeshores, memorials, monuments, parkways, preserves, recreation areas, rivers, seashores, and trails. The NPS is supervised by both a director and the assistant secretary for fish and wildlife and parks, and serves as a Department of the Interior bureau funded by Congress. As its primary mission, the NPS is charged with the preservation of park lands for the enjoyment and education of current and future generations, incorporating measures such as pollution control to foster this preservation. The NPS advances its mission by serving as an environmental advocate of park lands, funding state and local governmental bodies in their efforts to develop park areas, and sponsoring educational activities to increase public awareness about parks. In addition, the NPS works in conjunction with...

Agents of Information and Action

Although reformers of the Settlement House era of the late 1800s and early 1900s organized efforts for change within city neighborhoods, the formation of prominent mainstream organizations such as the Wilderness Society and Sierra Club are widely considered to be the first major environmental NGOs. Rooted in early-twentieth-century debates over the exploitation of land, these early NGOs lobbied the government by talking with local officials and publishing works on the importance of wilderness. One of the most notable efforts to drum up public support was a series of full-page advertisements taken out by the Sierra Club from 1965 to 1968 in the New York Times vilifying the prospects of building hydroelectric dams in and flooding the Grand Canyon.

Professional environmentalism

We should remember that many of these organizations predated the environmental movement of the 1960s and thus embody traditions and residual cultural formations that have been difficult for the organizations to transcend. As conservation societies and ornithological associations, as tourist organizations and rural preservation councils, as wildlife federations and wilderness clubs, these organizations became a part ofthe political cultures of most industrialized countries in the early twentieth century, and many of them extended their reach into the so-called developing countries in the immediate postwar era, when the former colonies began to win their independence. There are thus discursive frameworks and organizational experiences - a kind of traditional knowledge - that many of these organizations are able to build upon and mobilize in their contemporary activities. But it also becomes difficult for them to escape from the limits of their histories, to transcend their traditions.

Sinks The international and the imperial

Nature, forests and trees never just are. They can be raw materials, tourist destinations, wilderness, local habitats, etc. It depends upon which perspective, which source of value, has priority (Benton and Redclift, 1994 Walker, 2002b). The transformation of the global carbon cycle into territorial sinks is indicative of modern practices of governmentality in that it moulds the environment to fit into the sovereign state system (Kuehls, 1998, p49). In his recent book on transnational water governance, Ken Conca makes the general argument applicable in this case 'The dominant understanding pervading the regime-building enterprise is that most of nature will, in fact, sit still as territory' (Conca, 2006, p49).

Micro to Macro Scale Dynamics of Blister Rust Spread

Perhaps there are additional mechanisms that serve to control the character of blister rust spread. More recent analyses of the history of blister rust transmission in individual locations have revealed the complexity of dissemination dynamics. In the Great Basin Ranges, nighttime katabatic breezes have been implicated in transporting spores to pines growing at midslope and ridgetops (Van Arsdel and Krebill 1995). Recent surveys in the Intermountain West report expansion of blister rust into areas never before impacted by the disease and considerable increases in infection levels over those documented in the 1960s (Smith and Hoffman 2000). Epidemic infestation levels have now been recorded for the sugar pine regions of the southern Sierra Nevadas of California that were once thought to be too warm and dry to support the fungus (McDonald 1992, R. Hoff, pers. comm. 1998). Data from Glacier National Park and Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex of northern Montana offer yet other salient...

Environmental Justice

Environmental Justice Idiots

The emergence of the environmental justice movement in the 1980s stimulated debate on the extent to which race, class, and political power have been or should become central concerns of modern environmentalism and environmental management. Movement leaders charged that mainstream environmental organizations and environmental policy demonstrated greater concern for preserving wilderness and animal habitats than protecting the homes and workplaces of humans. Some advocates disassociate themselves from environmentalism altogether, identifying instead with a heritage of broader social justice imbedded in the civil rights activities of the 1950s and 1960s.

The Difficulty Of Quantifying Costs

The centrality of the issue of costs and benefits to the question of how to deal with environmental change is clear. No one is against environmental protection in principle. No one enjoys pollution or argues that we need more of it. If environmental benefits were costless, regulation would generate virtually no controversy (Melnick, 1990, p. 50). However, environmental benefits are not costless, although the costs, in many cases, are hard to quantify. Some of the costs are direct, such as the cost of building a state-of-the-art sulfur-retaining refinery or that of cleanup of a toxic waste dump yet many of the costs that must be considered are not so direct but no less real. For example, Melnick (1990) noted the political reality of opportunity costs. The question of interest, he argued, is what is given up in reducing water pollution or protecting the snail darter or creating a national wilderness area. Another fundamental problem stems from the fact that many of the costs of...

Two Conceptions Of Legitimacy

What separates these questions from those that may be settled by the preponderance of WTP is this they involve matters of knowledge, wisdom, morality, and taste that admit of better or worse, right or wrong, true or false - and these concepts differ from economic optimality. Environmental questions - the protection of wilderness, habitats, water, land, and air as well as policy toward environmental safety and health -involve moral and aesthetic principles and not just economic ones. This is consistent, of course, with cost-effective strategies for implementing environmental goals and with recognition of the importance of personal freedoms and economic constraints. It is also consistent with social prosperity, which free markets may achieve through competition and innovation, concepts that have no clear connection to the WTP approach that now dominates the discussion of environmental policy and valuation.

Dean Of The Modern Environmental Movement

Brower led successful campaigns to prevent dams in Dinosaur National Monument and the Grand Canyon, aided Howard Zahniser in establishing the National Wilderness Preservation System, and helped add nine areas to the National Wilderness Preservation System, from the Point Reyes National Seashore in California to New York's Fire Island. He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize three times.

Public and media response

Public perception is critical to the future of global warming. Whether people understand that global warming is an important issue that must be dealt with will determine the future of the Earth. Many people's perceptions are shaped by the media. Information learned at school and conversations with adults are also important sources of information for students. It is important to become educated about the topic. Be aware of what scientists know, what they suspect, and of the controversy surrounding it. There are many organizations both in governments and the private sector with Web sites that have information about global warming and the environment. These include the Environmental Defense Fund, the World Wildlife Fund, the National Wildlife Federation, Greenpeace, the Nature Conservancy, the Wilderness Society, the National Geographic, the IPCC, the EPA, and many others. A listing of more sites can be found in the Further Resources section.

Historical Overview Topics and Themes

The New England Wilderness Transformed, 1600-1850 24 The New England Forest and Indian Land Use 24 The Settlement of New England 25 Colonial Land Use 21 Marketing the Forest 28 The Forest Economy 31 Mind, Labor, and Nature 33 The Idea of Wilderness 34 Conclusion 36 Chapter 6. Urban Environments, 1850-1960 100 Urbanization, Industry, and Energy 100 Industrial Cities and Labor 103 The City as Wilderness 105 Air Pollution 107 Garbage 109 Noise Pollution 111 Water Pollution 112 The Sanitary City 113 From City to Suburb 115 Minorities and Pollution 116 Conclusion 118

Nature and Ambivalence About the Market Economy

Explorers and scientists in the eighteenth century were among the first to record their appreciation of nature. Virginia planter William Byrd (1674-1744) described the delights of wilderness camping on a survey of the North Carolina boundary in his 1728 History of the Dividing Line, and depicted the Appalachians as ranges of blue clouds rising one above the other in vistas of increasing perfection. He lamented, however, that wilderness valleys lacked nothing but cattle grazing in the meadow, and sheep and goats feeding on the hill, to make a complete rural landscape. 15 Botanist William Bartram (1739-1823), after a trip through the southern Appalachians in 1773, reported that he was seduced by these sublime, enchanting scenes of primitive nature. Similarly, in 1791, British publicist William Gilpin (1724-1804) found in American forests the pleasing quality of nature's roughness and irregularity and intricacy. rational, harmonious whole rather than a tumultuous wilderness. Arriving on...

National Energy Policy

Although improvements in energy efficiency standards were made, CNEPA was not entirely environmentally friendly. The legislation did not promote an energy tax increase (which would have decreased demand), nor did it increase gas mileage standards. In fact, the bill provided 1 billion in tax breaks to independent oil and gas drillers. Finally, despite the devastating Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Bush promoted the opening of Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil exploration. The ANWR provision was dropped from the final version of CNEPA, but it initiated a long battle over the rights to drill in the arctic wilderness area (discussed later in this chapter).

Cape Wind A Case Study in the Politics of Technology Choice

Bill McKibben has argued that we have reached the end of nature. 1 In his view, the effect of human civilization on nature has become so great that it can no longer be avoided, only controlled. From now on, even wilderness areas will exist as the result of human intervention, rather than of the absence of human influence.

The growth of a green movement

Wilderness sufficiently controversial as to affect the outcome of the national election in 1983 (helping Labor to victory). In the USA Earth First was formed in 1980 as a new network using direct action to protect wilderness areas. The defence of wilderness, as earlier in the twentieth century, differentiated part of New World environmentalism from that in western Europe.

Western Values and the New World

The values of early American settlers toward the environment emphasized freedom and individuality. People then tended to believe that the land should be used as they wished. Arriving in an apparently untamed wilderness (forgetting previous occupation by American Indians), white settlers believed in their ability to dominate. As they developed improved agricultural technology and then industrial machinery, they believed that it should be used to master nature. Also, from their perspective, there were no limits to growth. Lester Milbrath calls this the dominant social paradigm, and dates it to the founding of America by settlers from Europe.6

The Promises Of Nuclear Power

Clean Air Of all practical means for generating large amounts of electricity, nuclear power is the least harmful to the environment. It emits no CO2 to cause the greenhouse effect as do coal and natural gas. It emits no sulfur compounds to cause acid rain as does coal nor nitrogen compounds as do both coal and natural gas. Nuclear power plants cause no silting of pristine river systems and no large loss of farms, homes, and wilderness to reservoirs such as do hydroelectric plants. A strong argument can be made that nuclear power has no significant harmful effect on the environment at all. In 1994, America's 109 nuclear plants spared the atmosphere about 500 million tons of CO2, five million tons of sulfur dioxide, and 2.5 million tons of nitrogen oxides. It is obvious that substitution of nuclear electricity for fossil fuel electricity would result in a cleaner atmosphere.

Production and Transportation Fossil Energies

Pipelines and oil tankers are the two main modes of transport for petroleum. Oil spills are one of the most damaging and highly publicized environmental issues associated with oil. Spills occur both on land and in the ocean and are caused by accidents on oil rigs, grounding of oil tankers, and intentional attacks against oil pipelines. It is estimated that over 45 million tons of oil per year are lost to the environment during the various stages of production and transportation (Patin 1999, 35). While significant losses occur in the ocean and on land, most of this oil (22 million tons) is lost to land spills. Because of the danger of spills, many people oppose the construction of oil pipelines across pristine wilderness areas. For example, in the 1970s, several environmental groups opposed the construction of the Alaskan Oil Pipeline because of the potential damage that a spill could cause to pristine wilderness areas. The oil crisis of the 1970s eventually allowed for the...

Conclusion Of Green Movement

The direct action networks in Britain, the USA and Australia examined in Chapter Six best approximate the ideal type definition of the green movement outlined earlier. Yet, even in such groups there have been conflicts over the status of social justice versus wilderness as in the USA in the 1980s and over violence, which reflect the need to negotiate a collective identity.

Environmental traditions

With the closing of the frontier in America, and the colonization of the planet by the European imperial powers in the closing decades of the nineteenth century, the earlier distinctions between nature and society tended to become ever more complicated and mediated. The natural landscape was becoming integrated, as component parts, into the industrializing social order. Fields were becoming food factories, and prairies were becoming sites of animal husbandry. Eventually the forests would become cultivated, as well as industrialized, and many wilderness areas would become parks, at the same time as a new breed of landscape architects like Frederick Olmsted, the designer of New York's Central Park, would selectively bring elements of the wilderness into the urban world. By the early twentieth century it had become apparent to many that a further kind of ecology was necessary - a human, or social, or cultural ecology - that investigated the borderlines and the hybridizations, the...

The authority of science

One risks making a too obvious claim by suggesting that restoration is practiced by people who hold particular values about what counts as an appropriate ecosystem, and this in turn is conditioned by our contemporary and changing views of nature and wilderness. Soule and Lease were concerned that these cultural values were being taken too seriously and at the expense of ecological verities. The concern, then, is that restoration would become a practice given over to human motivations alone and would result in what some have termed designer ecosystems (Palmer et al. 2004). A related objection is that any model of ecological restoration that embodies cultural awareness misses the significance of true wilderness areas that have little or no sustained human involvement. Examples abound of wilderness restoration, but such projects are based to some extent on an acknowledgment of human engagement with the landscape. Moreover, the idea of wilderness has been impaled in a number of important...

Does institutionalisation entail deradicalisation

Mark Dowie's trenchant critique of the major American EMOs suggests that they have betrayed the heritage of earlier environmentalists by accepting too many compromises and by giving priority to the maintenance of their own organisations. He shows that the major American EMOs were ill prepared to respond to worsening political circumstances in the 1980s. They had become too reliant on the 'good faith and authority of Federal Government' (Dowie 1995 xi) and failed to broaden their focus from wilderness and animals in response to the growth of environmental justice activism. Worse, the actions of the EMOs actually weakened the movement. This occurred when groups accepted executives from major corporations onto their boards, thus bolstering the credibility of the claim that business supported the environmental movement.

The Conservation Movement

By the late nineteenth century, laissez-faire capitalism, which had supported the free market's development of natural resources, began increasingly to be scrutinized and curtailed. The initial period of disposition of the public domain was followed by a second period of withholding lands for forest reserves, game refuges, national parks, and wilderness areas. During the Progressive Era of the early twentieth century, the government passed laws that regulated both corporations and land use, initiating a shift away from the policy of unregulated development, characterized by the term, laissez-faire, a French phrase meaning let it be. The Division of Forestry's first chief, Bernhard Fernow (1851-1923), in his 1902 book Economics of Forestry, proposed instead a policy of faire-marcher, another French term, meaning to make it work, or to give direction or guidance to development through resource conservation.

Biodiversity in Action

Whereas hordes of early human hunters decimated the North American fauna thousands of years ago, both the Native Americans and the later European explorers found a rich land teeming with life. Today we still talk about the value of pristine wilderness, although no lands are truly beyond human impact. Such places just seem that way because they hold diverse species in a smoothly functioning ecosystem. So maybe our impact hasn't been that bad, and we can afford to lose a few more species here and there. The loss of species may sadden the bunny huggers, but the earth's ecosystems will march into a new era and take us along for the ride. Or will they

Death by a thousand cuts

One of our primary strategies to reduce emissions should be to support and escalate frontline struggles against the fossil fuel industry. Fights against fossil fuel extraction are particularly strategic. By disrupting the points of extraction we can prevent those fossil fuels from being burnt and increase the costs (both political and economic) of production, while protecting the carbon-absorbing ecosystems standing above them. The majority of fossil fuel extraction takes place in wilderness areas, indigenous peoples' lands, and rural communities where people still depend on the land for at least a portion of their sustenance.

Solving the Problem of Resource Misuse

Private groups, like the Nature Conservancy, are part of a market solution to the problems of resource misuse. The Nature Conservancy, which protects biodiversity by buying sensitive ecosystems, controls 10 million acres in the United States and 1 million acres in Latin America and the Caribbean. Additionally, the Conservancy has established a number of conservation programs in Pacific Island nations and Indonesia. Other environmental groups, such as the Palmetto Conservation Foundation, buy wilderness in open markets and set it aside for posterity, thereby bidding the resource away from other potential uses such as for housing or pulpwood. Private markets are also actively supporting the protection of wildlife, wetland, and wilderness in other ways. Many private landowners have come to realize that it is profitable to abandon the growing of regular crops, trees for lumber and pulp, and cattle, and provide recreational experiences for a fee. Hunters are willing to pay a fee for access...

Allocation And Distribution

I want to approach my thesis in this chapter by way of an important distinction that between the allocation and the distribution of resources. The allocation of resources has to do with how they are used the distribution has to do with who uses them or benefits from their use.12 The Mineral King Valley, as a matter of allocation, could be used as a ski resort, kept as a wilderness, or exploited in some other way. Some Congress, by rescinding the Disney lease, for example, made a decision based on aesthetic and historical considerations such as the argument that a majestic million-year-old wilderness is aesthetically or objectively better than a commercial honky-tonk. Congress responded to the opinions citizens backed up with arguments in public hearings and not to the wants individuals might back up with money in a market or the rights they might assert in court.

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

As fossil fuel resources become increasingly scarce, and because energy security in the United States is threatened by its reliance on foreign energy sources, the federal government has expressed greater interest in promoting energy development on federal lands. As noted above, much of this development occurs on land leased from the federal government by resource extractive industries. However, the debate is increasingly being centered on whether or not to allow energy development on federal lands that were set aside for conservation purposes lands that are located in national parks, monuments, wilderness areas, and wildlife refuges. While energy development on federal lands is being debated for areas all over the country, development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is the most publicized and contentious of these discussions. ANWR is a 19-million acre stretch of land located along the eastern region of the North Slope. The refuge was established by the Eisenhower...

From vision to reality

Nature people in different countries have come to think about environmental politics through different linguistic and discursive frameworks (Hard and Jamison 1998). People living in countries like the United States and Sweden, with large wilderness areas and long, relatively formalized traditions of nature conservation, tend to approach environmental politics and environmental knowledge production quite differently from densely populated countries such as the Netherlands and Denmark. These differences are based both on the types of ideas that have been articulated through the centuries by intellectuals of various kinds and on actual developmental experiences in science, technology, and economics. What the economists refer to as competitive advantage is based on a long history of social and cultural selection in the realms both of ideas and inventions.

Estimating the Value of Nonmarket Goods

Person enjoying a lakeside worm drowning or wilderness experience may figure that the interrogator wants him or her to pay more for the experience, so he or she might get tricky and say Not one penny would I pay to fish on this lake or canoe the river. Clearly, such a response misleads the quizzer and provides misleading information for any decision makers contemplating uses for the property. Consequently, investigators have been forced to become more sophisticated than simply asking for a dollar amount.

Energy and Federal Lands

One of the most important energy issues in the United States is the use of federal lands for purposes of energy development and nuclear waste storage. Federal lands consist of more than 700 million acres of land owned and managed by federal government agencies. There are four major federal land management agencies the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) (465 million acres of land used mostly for mining and ranching) the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) (187 million acres of forestlands managed for multiple uses) the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (26.5 million acres of varied lands where wildlife populations are managed) and the National Park Service (NPS) (23 million acres comprised of national parks and monuments preserved for their unique characteristics and beauty) (Clarke and Angersbach 2001, 35). The federal government has also designated national wildlife refuges, wild and scenic rivers, and wilderness areas for the purpose of preserving wildlife habitat and pristine areas from...

National forest and grassland areas

Grassland Areas Map Canada

Source Find National Forests and Grasslands, in Recreation, Heritage, & Wilderness Resources, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Washington, DC, April 13, 2004, (accessed August 4, 2005) source Find National Forests and Grasslands, in Recreation, Heritage, & Wilderness Resources, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Washington, DC, April 13, 2004, (accessed August 4, 2005)

Evaluating Ecopsychology

Psychological, to acknowledge and better understand the human-nature relationship. This work emphasizes human relationship with nonhuman species, and would use, for example, Shepard's (1982) focus on childhood immersion in wilderness, and subsequent learning about a mature, reciprocal, harmonious relationship with the larger natural world (p. 8).

The Allocation and Distribution of Resources

In a course I teach on environmental ethics, I ask students to read the opinion of the Supreme Court in Sierra Club v. Morton.1 This case involves an environmentalist challenge to a decision by the U.S. Forest Service to lease the Mineral King Valley, a quasi-wilderness area in the middle of Sequoia National Park, to Walt Disney Enterprises to develop a ski resort. But let the Court describe the facts The response was nearly unanimous. The students believed that the Disney plan was loathsome and despicable, that the Forest Service had violated a public trust by approving it, and that the values for which we stand as a nation compel us to preserve the little wilderness we have for its own sake and as a heritage for future generations. On these ethical and cultural grounds, and in spite of their consumer preferences, the students opposed the Disney plan to develop Mineral King.

Oil in the Arctic

The search for oil has led to the exploration of the Alaskan wilderness. Since the oil supply from the existing North Slope Reserve will steadily decline and then eventually disappear, exploratory oil drillers are focusing their attention on the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) in the Arctic wilderness. The NPRA is a twenty-three-million-acre area in northwestern Alaska. (See Figure 11.11.) Geologists consider northern Alaska to be the last, great untapped oil field in North America. Environmental experts fear that oil and gas development will seriously harm the area. In 2002 the USGS assessed the NPRA and found a significantly greater supply of petroleum (5.9 to 13.2 billion barrels) than previously estimated. Only up to 5.6 billion barrels of this petroleum are technically and economically recoverable at existing market prices. The USGS suspects that there may be as much as 83.2 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in the same area. Transportation of this gas...

Complex Conservation

Conservation of wilderness lands is a noble goal, and much has been achieved through the establishment of reserves and parks, as well as attempts to restore natural ecosystems. It all sounds so simple and easy set the land aside and let nature take its course. We reap the benefits of ecosystem services and preserve higher levels of biodiversity in the process. Without conservation, we are basically outcompeting not only other species but our own human descendants for the values that biodiversity bestows.4 So conservationists are forced into intervening, and answering vexing questions. Do we cull moose in one part of the Boundary Waters Wilderness or reintroduce beavers in another part to reestablish the moose habitat Do we cull elephants in South Africa, where the beasts can be very destructive to the limited park lands they live in, or transport them to East Africa, where the local elephants are endangered after years of poaching Does this not risk diluting the genetic biodiversity...

Dont Drink the Water

The problem is that it becomes more difficult to keep the water clean as the human population expands. This is illustrated by the beautiful lakes of the Boundary Waters Wilderness of the Minnesota-Ontario border. I was privileged in my youth to spend two weeks canoeing there in pristine wilderness. The water was so clean that we did not need to carry water canteens in our canoes when we got thirsty we'd reach over and dip a cup into the lake. After portaging across short stretches of land, there would be another beautiful lake where we could canoe and watch the otters play. We were far enough from civilization to leave worldly concerns behind, and we were shocked upon returning to Ely, Minnesota, to find that the U.S. president had resigned and a new one had taken over. So you can figure out when I was there. Now more people like to experience the natural feeling of getting away from it all (and no doubt some of them would hope to return to a new government). And traffic through the...

Ties with government

In Australia during the 1980s two of the major EMOs became particularly close to the Labor Party. This followed the backing of the Hawke Labor government for important wilderness protection measures in the 1980s and the environmental vote was widely credited with swinging the 1990 federal election towards Labor. The ACF and TWS called on their members to vote Labor, Green or Democrat in 1996 but when Labor was replaced by the Coalition government led by John Howard in 1996 the ACF and TWS found that they were out in the cold (Hutton and Connors 1999 Doyle 2000). The new government preferred to deal with the state-based conservation councils and the national environmental organisations found they were moved from insiders to outsiders in the policy-process. The Labor Party, worried that it would seem

Benefit Cost Analysis

Although computing the benefits and costs is no easy task, we must consider the alternative. Even if we have no estimate for the value of a wilderness, we still must make choices, and some assumed value is used, whether we are conscious of it or not. A better understanding of the tradeoffs would improve our decision making. There are numerous examples of benefit-cost analysis leading to preservation of natural areas. For example, in the 1970s the government considered building a dam at Hells Canyon, a unique wilderness area on the Snake River in Idaho. A study of the benefits and costs showed that the preservation value was greater than the value of electricity and recreation benefits created by a reservoir. Consequently, Hell's Canyon was preserved.10

Let It Rain

Two billion people will require radical solutions. Greater efficiency in using water is of course one solution. Moving water about by pipelines is another. Novel means of moving water helps as well, such as the large polyurethane bags that have been used to haul fresh water from mainland Greece to its islands to slake the thirst of an increasing number of demanding tourists. But we can't transport large amounts of water to the Boundary Waters Wilderness or spray it over suffering tropical forests. Nature has to do that, if we let it.

Reinventing nature

Underlying the recent shifts in the environmental political agenda is the recognition that the ecological problems confronting humanity have taken on ever more awesome proportions. For some, this implies that a more ambitious, or comprehensive, response is necessary, while for others, it has inspired even more refined methods of human intervention in the affairs of the non-human world. Not only has human ingenuity continued to modify the landscape and turn it into something fundamentally man-made. In recent years, particularly with the coming of the new techniques of genetic manipulation, and the continued human encroachment into previously preserved wilderness areas, it has become increasingly apparent that an autonomous world of nature has largely ceased to exist in any meaningful sense (Turner 1996 Haila 1997). And it can be suggested that this perceived disappearance of a separate, non-human sphere of existence has helped to spawn a new definition, or conception, of the...


Another important feature of the Australian environmental movement was importance of alliances with groups outside the mainstream movement. Environmentalists worked with aboriginal communities in opposition to the expansion of uranium mines, and trade unions played an important role in urban conservation conflicts in the 1970s. The 'green bans' declared by the Building Labourers' Federation (Burgmann and Burgmann 1998) succeeded in preventing new building in areas where local residents were campaigning against developers. A similar alliance with sympathetic unions, known as the Earthworker-Green Alliance, was established in 1997 by Friends of the Earth and other groups. In contrast to the left in Britain,10 environmental themes were taken seriously by important parts of the mainstream Australian left,11 particularly in the 1970s and early 1980s, however the defeat of the Mundey forces within the unions and the decline of the anti-uranium movement, led most environmental groups to...

Scope neglect

Similar studies have shown that Toronto residents would pay little more to clean up all polluted lakes in Ontario than polluted lakes in a particular region of Ontario (Kahneman 1986) and that residents of four western US states would pay only 28 more to protect all 57 wilderness areas in those states than to protect a single area (McFadden and Leonard, 1995).

John Muir

In God's wildness lies the hope of the world.The great fresh unblighted, unredeemed wilderness. The galling harness of civilization drops off, and words heal ere we are aware.1 Muir saw in such wilderness the source of humanity's spiritual health and wholeness. His philosophy of nature as the glorious handiwork of a God who created a democracy of life forms has inspired the post-modern deep ecology movement. Muir was keenly aware of the anthropocentric character of human attitudes towards nature, including the values embedded in utilitarian conservation. In his mind, a different ethic was at work one which was to inspire Aldo Leopold, Arne Naess, John Seed and contemporary deep ecologists. For him such truth and beauty as one can know in nature answered his questions. Through immersion in wild nature one could know how best to live. As Michael P.Cohen puts it, 'ecological consciousness would generate an ecological conscience'.12 Muir moved from his own profound spiritual experiences...

Monitoring by ENGOs

Most of the mainstream environmental organizations in the United States direct some attention to endangered species and habitat issues. Perhaps most influential are the National Wildlife Federation, the Sierra Club, the National Audubon Society, the Wilderness Society, Friends of the Earth, the Environmental Defense Fund (now called Environmental Defense), and the Natural Resources Defense Council. As Rosenbaum notes, these organizations are thoroughly professionalized and sophisticated in their staffs and organization and are armed with the same high-technology tools and modern techniques of policy advocacy as any other powerful national lobby. 34 Several have membership rolls numbering in excess of 500,000 members.


A major concern for cities was the removal of refuse from horse-drawn trolleys. Miles of rails laid through cities were polluted by horses whose equine wastes created health hazards and odors, as each horse discharged several gallons of urine and 20 pounds of manure per day. By the mid-1880s, 100,000 horses and mules were pulling 18,000 horse cars on 3,500 miles of track. By 1900, there were 3.5 million horses in cities. In Chicago alone 82,000 horses produced 600,000 tons of manure per year. At night horses had to be stabled or kept in fields and barns. During the day, when working the streets, they deposited piles of manure along the rails. Such sights and smells contributed to characterizations of urban areas as wilderness.

Summing Up

Weber, John Muir the Function of Wilderness in an Industrial Society, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, 159-60. 42 For the most prominent critique of this perspective, see Ramachandra Guha, Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation A Third World Critique, Environmental Ethics, Vol. 11, No. 1 (1989) 71-83.

Policy Pathways

GLOBAL WARMING ACTIVISTS are rightly frustrated with the lack of forward movement on climate change policy in the U.S. Congress. Virtually nothing positive has come out of that body on the issue. Yet they shouldn't be surprised such is the case in environmental policy making more generally. Since 1990, Congress has enacted only two significant environmental laws. It is a far cry from the golden era of environmental policy making of 1964 to 1980, when Congress passed more than twenty major laws dealing with the control of pollution and the management of private lands, public lands, and wildlife, laws such as the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act (ESA), Superfund, and the Wilderness Act.

What Is Being Done

Slowing population growth is also a priority for many environmental organizations, including the National Audubon Society, the Sierra Club, the Wilderness Society, the National Wildlife Federation, and the Environmental Defense Fund. Most of these groups have policy statements and or education programs that deal with population issues. see also Earth Summit Ehrlich, Paul History Lifestyle Malthus, Thomas Popular Culture Poverty Zero Population Growth.