When you have read this chapter you will:
Be familiar with the major factors determining climate in many regions of middle and high latitudes, and the subtropical margins,
Appreciate the role of major topographic barriers in determining regional climate, Be aware of the contrasts between climatic conditions in the Arctic and Antarctic.
In Chapters 7 and 8, the general structure of the atmospheric circulation has been outlined and the behaviour and origin of extratropical cyclones examined. The direct contribution of pressure systems to the daily and seasonal variability of weather in the westerly wind belt is quite apparent to inhabitants of the temperate lands. Nevertheless, there are equally prominent contrasts of regional climate in mid-latitudes that reflect the interaction of geographical and meteorological factors. This chapter gives a selective synthesis of weather and climate in several extratropical regions, drawing mainly on the principles already presented. The climatic conditions of the subtropical and polar margins of the westerly wind belt, and the polar regions themselves, are examined in the final sections of the chapter. As far as possible, different themes are used to illustrate some of the more significant aspects of the climate in each area.
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