Figure 11.33 The yearly drought area index for the Indian subcontinent for the period 1891 to 1988, based upon the percentage of the total area experiencing moderate, extreme or severe drought. Years of extreme drought are dated. The dashed line indicates the lower limit of major droughts.

Source: After Bhalme and Mooley (1980). Updated by courtesy of H. M. Bhalme, reproduced by permission of the American Meteorological Society.

clouds over central and eastern Tibet in July. Late afternoon rain or hail showers are generally accompanied by thunder, but half or more of the precipitation falls at night, accounting for 70 to 80 per cent of the total in south-central and southeastern Tibet. This may be related to large-scale plateau-induced local wind systems. However, the central and eastern plateau also has a frequency maximum of shear lines and associated weak lows at 500 mb during May to September. These plateau systems are shallow (2 to 2.5 km) and only 400 to 1000 km in diameter, but they are associated with cloud clusters on satellite imagery in summer.

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