Discussion Topics

How have technological advances contributed to the evolution of meteorology and climatology?

Consider the relative contributions of observation, theory and modelling to our knowledge of atmospheric processes.

FURTHER READING Books

Allen, R., Lindsay, J. and Parker, D, (1996) El NiƱo Southern Oscillations and Climatic Variability, CSIRO, Australia, 405pp. [Modern account of ENSO and its global influences.] Fleming, J. R. (ed.) (1998) Historical Essays in Meteorology, 1919-1995, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 617 pp. [Valuable accounts of the evolution of meteorological observations, theory, and modelling and of climatology.] Houghton, J. T. et al. eds (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis; The Climate System: An Overview, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 881pp. [Working Group I contribution to The Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change (IPCC); a comprehensive assessment from observations and models of past, present and future climatic variability and change. It includes a technical summary and one for policy-makers.] Peterssen, S. (1969) Introduction to Meteorology (3rd edn), McGraw Hill, New York, 333pp. [Classic introductory text, including world climates.] Stringer, E. T. (1972) Foundations of Climatology. An Introduction to Physical, Dynamic, Synoptic, and Geographical Climatology, Freeman, San Francisco, 586pp. [Detailed and advanced survey with numerous references to key ideas; equations are in Appendices.] Van Andel, T. H. (1994) New Views on an Old Planet (2nd edn), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 439pp. [Readable introduction to earth history and changes in the oceans, continents and climate.]

Articles

Browning, K. A. (1996) Current research in atmospheric sciences. Weather 51, 167-72. Grahame, N. S. (2000) The development of meteorology over the last 150 years as illustrated by historical weather charts. Weather 55(4),108-16. Hare, F. K. (1951) Climatic classification. In L. D. Stamp, L. D. and Wooldridge, S. W. (eds) London Essays in Geography, Longman, London, pp. 111-34.

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