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Trace the possible paths of a water molecule through the hydrological cycle and consider the measurements that need to be made to determine the quantities of water involved in the various transformations.

What processes lead to phase changes of water in the atmosphere and what are some of their consequences?

What is the significance of clouds in the global water balance?

Compare the moisture balance of an air column and that of a small drainage basin.

What are the various statistics used to characterize rainfall events and for what different purposes are they important?

Consider how an annual water budget diagram might differ between a wet year and a dry year at the same location.

FURTHER READING Books

Baumgartner, A. and Reichel, E. (1975) The World Water Balance: Mean Annual Global, Continental and Maritime Precipitation, Evaporation and Runoff, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 179pp. [Statistical assessment of the major components of the hydrological cycle; one of the standard summaries.] Brutsaert, W. (1982) Evaporation into the Atmosphere:

SUMMARY

Measures of atmospheric humidity are: the absolute mass of moisture in unit mass (or volume) of air, as a proportion of the saturation value; and the water vapour pressure. When cooled at constant pressure, air becomes saturated at the dew-point temperature.

The components of the surface moisture budget are total precipitation (including condensation on the surface), evaporation, storage change of water in the soil or in snow cover, and runoff (on the surface or in the ground). Evaporation rate is determined by the available energy, the surface-air difference in vapour pressure, and the wind speed, assuming the moisture supply is unlimited. If the moisture supply is limited, soil water tension and plant factors affect the evaporation rate. Evapotranspiration is best determined with a lysimeter. Otherwise, it may be calculated by formulae based on the energy budget, or on the aerodynamic profile method using the measured gradients of wind speed, temperature and moisture content near the ground.

Condensation in the atmosphere may occur by continued evaporation into the air; by mixing of air of different temperatures and vapour pressures, such that the saturation point is reached; or by adiabatic cooling of the air through lifting until the condensation level is reached.

Rainfall is described statistically by the intensity,

Theory, History and Applications, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 279pp. [Thorough survey of evaporation processes and applications.]

Doornkamp, J. C. and Gregory, K. J. (eds) (1980) Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-6, Institute of British Geographers, London, 82 pp. [Detailed case study of a major UK drought.] Korzun, V. I. (ed.-in-chief) USSR Committee for the International Hydrological Decade (1978) World Water Balance and Water Resources of the Earth, UNESCO, Paris (translation of Russian edn, Leningrad, 1974), 663pp. [Comprehensive account of atmospheric and terrestrial components of the water balance for the globe and by continent; numerous figures, tables and extensive references.] Linsley, R. K. Franzini, J. B., Freyberg. D.L. and Tchbanoglous, G. (1992) Water-resources Engineering (4th edn), McGraw-Hill. New York, 841pp. [Chapters on descriptive and quantitative hydrology and ground water; water supply and engineering topics predominate.]

Miller, D. H. (1977) Water at the Surface of the Earth, Academic Press, New York, 557pp. [Comprehensive treatment of all components of the water cycle and water in ecosystems; well illustrated with many references.]

Pearl, R. T. et al. (1954) The Calculation of Irrigation Need, Tech. Bull. No. 4, Min. Agric., Fish and Food, HMSO, London, 35pp. [Handbook based on the Penman formulae for the UK.] Peixoto, J. P. and Oort, A. H. (1992) Physics of Climate, American Institute of Physics, New York [Ch. 12 deals with the water cycle in the atmosphere.] Penman, H. L. (1963) Vegetation and Hydrology, Tech. Comm. No. 53, Commonwealth Bureau of Soils, Harpenden, 124pp. [A survey of the literature on the effects of vegetation on the hydrological cycle through interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff, and of related catchment experiments around the world.]

Petterssen, S. (1969) Introduction to Meteorology (3rd edn), McGraw Hill, New York, 333pp. Sellers, W. D. (1965) Physical Climatology, University of

Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 272pp. Sumner, G. (1988) Precipitation. Process and Analysis, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 455pp. [Comprehensive discussion of cloud and precipitation formation, precipitation systems, surface measurements and their analysis in time and space.] World Meteorological Organization (1972) Distribution of Precipitation in Mountainous Areas (2 vols), WMO No. 326, Geneva, 228 and 587pp. [Conference proceedings with many valuable papers.]

Articles

Acreman, M. (1989) Extreme rainfall in Calderdale, 19 May 1989. Weather 44, 438-46.

Agnew, C.T. and Chappell, A. (2000) Desiccation in the Sahel. In McLaren, S.J. and Kniveton, D.R. (eds) Linking Climate Change to Land Surface Changes, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 27-48.

Armstrong, C. F. and Stidd, C. K. (1967) A moisture-balance profile in the Sierra Nevada. J. of Hydrology 5, 258-68.

Atlas, D., Chou, S-H. and Byerly, W. P. (1983) The influence of coastal shape on winter mesoscale air-sea interactions. Monthly Weather Review 111, 245-52.

Ayoade, J. A. (1976) A preliminary study of the magnitude, frequency and distribution of intense rainfall in Nigeria. Hydro. Sci. Bull. 21(3), 419-29.

Bannon, J. K. and Steele, L. P. (1960) Average water-vapour content of the air. Geophysical Memoirs 102, Meteorological Office 38pp.

Borchert, J. R. (1971) The dust bowl in the 1970s. Ann. Assn Amer. Geogr. 61, 1-22.

Browning, K. (1993) The global energy and water cycle. NERCNews July, 21-3.

Bryson, R. A. (1973) Drought in the Sahel: who or what is to blame? The Ecologist 3(10), 366-71.

Chacon, R. E. and Fernandez, W. (1985) Temporal and spatial rainfall variability in the mountainous region of the Reventazon River Basin, Costa Rica. J. Climatology 5, 175-88.

Chagnon, S. A. (2002) Frequency of heavy rainstorms on areas from 10 to 10,000 km2, defined using dense rain gauge networks. J. Hydromet. 3(2), 220-3.

Choudhury, B. J. (1993) Desertification. In Gurney, R. J. et al. (eds) Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 313-25.

Deacon, E. L. (1969) Physical processes near the surface of the earth. In Flohn, H. (ed.) General Climatology, World Survey of Climatology 2, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 39-104.

Dobbie, C. H. and Wolf, P. O. (1953) The Lynmouth flood of August 1952. Pro. Inst. Civ. Eng. Part III, 522-88.

Dorman, C. E. and Bourke, R. H. (1981) Precipitation over the Atlantic Ocean, 30°S to 70°N. Monthly Weather Review 109, 554-63.

Garcia-Prieto, P. R., Ludlam, F. H. and Saunders, P. M. (1960) The possibility of artificially increasing rainfall on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Weather 15, 39-51.

Gilman, C. S. (1964) Rainfall. In Chow, V. T. (ed.) Handbook of Applied Hydrology, McGraw-Hill, New York, section 9.

Harrold, T. W. (1966) The measurement of rainfall using radar. Weather 21, 247-9 and 256-8.

Hastenrath, S. L. (1967) Rainfall distribution and regime in Central America. Archiv. Met. Geophys. Biokl. B. 15(3), 201-41.

Hershfield, D. M. (1961) Rainfall frequency atlas of the United States for durations from 30 minutes to 24 hours and return periods of 1 to 100 years. US Weather Bureau, Tech. Rept. 40.

Howarth, D. A. and Rayner, J. N. (1993) An analysis of the atmospheric water balance over the southern hemisphere. Phys. Geogr. 14, 513-35.

Howe, G. M. (1956) The moisture balance in England and Wales. Weather 11, 74-82.

Lesanmi, O. O. (1971) An empirical formulation of an ITD rainfall model for the tropics: a case study for Nigeria. J. App. Met. 10(5), 882-91.

Jaeger, L. (1976) Monatskarten des Niederschlags für die ganze Erde. Berichte des Deutsches Wetterdienstes 18(139), Offenbach am Main (38pp. + plates).

Jiusto, J. E. and Weickmann, H. K. (1973) Types of snowfall. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 54, 148-62.

Kelly, P. M. and Wright, P. B. (1978) The European drought of 1975-6 and its climatic context. Prog. Phys. Geog. 2, 237-63.

Landsberg, H. E. (1974) Drought, a recurring element of climate. Graduate Program in Meteorology, University of Maryland, Contribution No. 100 47pp.

Legates, D. R. (1995) Global and terrestrial precipitation: a comparative assessment of existing climatologies. Int. J. Climatol. 15, 237-58.

Legates, D. R. (1996) Precipitation. In Schneider, S. H. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 608-12.

Lott, J. N. (1994) The U.S. summer of 1993: A sharp contrast in weather extremes. Weather 49, 370-83.

McCallum, E. and Waters, A. J. (1993) Severe thunderstorms over southeast England, 20/21 July 1992. Weather 48, 198-208.

MacDonald, J. E. (1962) The evaporation-precipitation fallacy. Weather 17, 168-77.

Markham, C. G. and McLain, D. R. (1977) Sea-surface temperature related to rain in Ceara, north-eastern Brazil. Nature 265, 320-3.

Marsh, T. J. and Turton, P. S. (1996) The 1995 drought - a water resources perspective. Weather 51(2), 46-53.

Mather, J. R. (1985) The water budget and the distribution of climates, vegetation and soils. Publications in Climatology 38(2), University of Delaware, Center for Climatic Research, Newark 36pp.

Möller, F. (1951) Vierteljahrkarten des Niederschlags für die ganze Erde. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, 95 Jahrgang, 1-7.

More, R. J. (1967) Hydrological models and geography.

In Chorley, R. J. and Haggett, P. (eds) Models in Geography, Methuen, London, pp. 145-85.

Palmer, W. C. (1965) Meteorological drought, Research Paper No. 45. US Weather Bureau, Washington, DC.

Parrett, C., Melcher, N. B. and James, R. W., Jr. (1993) Flood discharges in the upper Mississippi River basin. U.S. Geol. Sur. Circular 1120-A 14pp.

Paulhus, J. L. H. (1965) Indian Ocean and Taiwan rainfall set new records. Monthly Weather Review 93, 331-5.

Peixoto, J. P. and Oort, A. H. (1983) The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle and climate. In Street-Perrott, A., Beran, M. and Ratcliffe, R. (eds) Variations in the Global Water Budget, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 5-65.

Pike, W. S. (1993) The heavy rainfalls of22-23 September 1992. Met. Mag. 122, 201-9.

Ratcliffe, R. A. S. (1978) Meteorological aspects of the 1975-6 drought. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Sect. A 363, 3-20.

Reitan, C. H. (1960) Mean monthly values of precipitable water over the United States, 1946-56. Mon. Weather Rev, 88, 25-35.

Roach, W. T. (1994) Back to basics: Fog. Part 1 -Definitions and basic physics. Weather 49(12), 411-15.

Rodda, J. C. (1970) Rainfall excesses in the United Kingdom. Trans. Inst. Brit. Geog. 49, 49-60.

Rodhe, H. (1989) Acidication in a global perspective. Ambio 18, 155-60.

Rossow, W. B. (1993) Clouds. In R. J. Gurney, J. L. Foster and C.L. Parkinson (eds) Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-63.

Schwartz, S. E. (1989) Acid deposition: unravelling a regional phenomenon. Science 243, 753-63.

Sevruk, B. (ed.) (1985) Correction of precipitation measurements. Zürcher Geogr. Schriften No. 23 (also appears as WMO Rep. No. 24, Instruments and Observing Methods, WMO, Geneva) 288pp.

Smith, F. B. (1991) An overview of the acid rain problem. Met. Mag. 120, 77-91.

So, C. L. (1971) Mass movements associated with the rainstorm of June 1966 in Hong Kong. Trans. Inst. Brit. Geog. 53, 55-65.

Strangeways, I. (1996) Back to basics: the 'met. enclosure': Part 2 - Rainguages. Weather 51, 274-9, 298-303.

Strangeways, I. (2001) Back to basics: the 'met. enclosure': Part 7 - Evaporation. Weather 56, 419-27.

Weischet, W. (1965) Der tropische-konvective und der ausser tropischeadvektive Typ der vertikalen Niederschlagsverteilung. Erdkunde 19, 6-14.

Wilhite, D. A. and Glantz, M. H. (1982) Understanding the drought phenomenon: the role of definitions. Water Internat. 10, 111-30.

Yarnell, D. L. (1935) Rainfall intensity-frequency data. US Dept. Agr., Misc. Pub. no. 204.

Weischet Interpretation Meteosat

Plate 1 Visible image of Africa, Europe and the Atlantic Ocean taken by METEOSAT on 19 August 1978 at 11:55 hours GMT. An anticyclone is associated with clear skies over Europe and the Mediterranean, while frontal-wave cyclones are evident in the North Atlantic. Cloud clusters appear along the oceanic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and there are extensive monsoon cloud masses over equatorial West Africa. Less organized cloud cover is present over East Africa. The subtropical anticyclone areas are largely cloud-free but possess trade wind cumulus, particularly in the southeast trade wind belt of the South Atlantic. The highly reflective desert surfaces of the Sahara are prominent (METEOSAT image supplied by the European Space Agency).

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