Consider the various factors that influence the damage caused by a tropical cyclone upon landfall in different parts of the world (e.g. the southeastern USA, islands in the Caribbean, Bangladesh, northern Australia and Hong Kong).
■ Use the indices of ENSO, NAO, PNA and so on available on the web (see Appendix 4D) to compare anomalies of temperature and precipitation in a region of interest to you during positive and negative phases of the oscillations.
Examine the similarities and differences of the major monsoon climates of the world.
What are the similarities and differences of cyclonic systems in middle latitudes and the tropics?
By what mechanisms do ENSO events affect weather anomalies in the tropics and in other parts of the world?
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