From a total of 6 billion in 2000, world population is projected to increase to 8.2 billion in 2025, with the proportion of urban dwellers rising from 40 to 60 per cent during the same period. Thus in this century the majority of the human race will live and work in association with urban climatic influences (see Box 12.1). The construction of every house, road or factory destroys existing microclimates and creates new ones of great complexity that depend on the design, density and function of the building. Despite the internal variation of urban climatic influences, it is possible to treat the effects of urban structures in terms of:
1 modification of atmospheric composition;
2 modification of the heat budget;
3 other effects of modifications of surface roughness and composition.
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