C Human heat production

Numerous studies show that urban conurbations now produce energy through combustion at rates comparable with incoming solar radiation in winter. Solar radiation in winter averages around 25 W m-2 in Europe, compared with similar heat production from large cities. Figure 12.26 illustrates the magnitude and spatial scale of artificial and natural energy fluxes and projected increases. In Cincinnati, a significant proportion of the energy budget is generated by human activity, even in summer (see Table 12.2). This averages 26 W m-2 or more, two-thirds of which was produced by industrial, commercial and domestic sources and one-third by cars. In the extreme situation of Arctic settlements during polar darkness, the energy balance during calm conditions depends only on net long-wave radiation and heat production by anthropogenic activities. In Reykjavik, Iceland (population 100,000) the anthropogenic heat release is 35 W m-2 mainly as a result of geothermal pavement heating and hot water pipelines.

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