B

C The subtropical margins

1 The semi-arid southwestern United

States

2B8

2

The interior southeastern United States

241

B

The Mediterranean

241

4

North Africa

246

5

Australasia

247

D

High latitudes

249

1

The southern westerlies

249

2

The sub-Arctic

252

B

The polar regions

25B

a The Arctic

253

b Antarctica

255

Tropical weather and climate

262

A

The intertropical convergence

263

B

Tropical disturbances

265

1

Wave disturbances

266

2

Cyclones

269

a Hurricanes and typhoons

269

b Other tropical disturbances

274

B

Tropical cloud clusters

274

C

The Asian monsoon

276

1

Winter

277

2

Spring

279

B

Early summer

280

4

Summer

281

5

Autumn

288

D

East Asian and Australian summer

monsoons

289

E

Central and southern Africa

292

1

The African monsoon

292

2

Southern Africa

G El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

events 302

1 The Pacific Ocean 302

2 Teleconnections 306

H Other sources of climatic variations in the tropics 309

1 Cool ocean currents 309

2 Topographic effects 309

3 Diurnal variations 311

I Forecasting tropical weather 312

1 Short- and extended-range forecasts 312

2 Long-range forecasts 313

12 Boundary layer climates 321

A Surface energy budgets 322

B Non-vegetated natural surfaces 323

1 Rock and sand 323

2 Water 324

3 Snow and ice 324

C Vegetated surfaces 325

1 Short green crops 325

2 Forests 327 a Modification of energy transfers 328 b Modification of airflow 329 c Modification of the humidity environment 330 d Modification of the thermal environment 332

D Urban surfaces 333

1 Modification of atmospheric composition 333 a Aerosols 334 b Gases 337 c Pollution distribution and impacts 338

2 Modification of the heat budget 339 a Atmospheric composition 340 b Urban surfaces 341 c Human heat production 341 d Heat islands 341

3 Modification of surface characteristics 344 a Airflow 344 b Moisture 345

4 Tropical urban climates 346

13 Climate change 353

A General considerations 353

B Climate forcings and feedbacks 354

1 External forcing 356

2 Short-term forcing and feedback 358

C The climatic record 359

1 The geological record 359

2 Late glacial and post-glacial conditions 361

3 The past 1000 years 362

D Possible causes of recent climatic change 368

1 Circulation changes 368

2 Energy budgets 368

3 Anthropogenic factors 370

E Model strategies for the prediction of climate change 374

F The IPCC models 376 G Other environmental impacts of climate change 378

1 Sea-level 378

2 Snow and ice 382

3 Hydrology 384

4 Vegetation 384

H Postscript 385

APPENDICES

1 Climate classification 391 A Generic classifications related to plant growth or vegetation 391 B Energy and moisture budget classifications 392

C Genetic classifications 395

D Classifications of climatic comfort 396

2 Système International (SI) units 399

3 Synoptic weather maps 401

4 Data sources 404 A Daily weather maps and data 404 B Satellite data 404 C Climatic data 404 D Selected sources of information on the

World Wide Web 405

Notes 406

Bibliography 409

Index 412

Black and white plates 1-19 are located between pp. 88-9 and plates 20-29 between pp. 111-12. Colour plates A-H are between pp. 176-7.

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