Atmosphere Weather and Climate

EIGHTH EDITION

Roger G. Barry and Richard J. Chorley

Routledge

Taylor & Francis Croup LONDON AND NEW YORK

Atmosphere Weather And Climate 2003

First published 1968 by Methuen & Co. Ltd

Second edition 1971

Third edition 1976

Fourth edition 1982

Fifth edition 1987

Reprinted by Routledge 1989, 1990

Sixth edition 1992

Reprinted 1995

Seventh edition 1998 by Routledge

Eighth edition 2003 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE

Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge

29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2004.

© 1968, 1971, 1976, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2003 Roger G. Barry and Richard J. Chorley

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Barry, Roger Graham.

Atmosphere, weather, and climate / Roger G. Barry & Richard J. Chorley. - 8th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Meteorology. 2. Atmospheric physics. 3. Climatology. I. Chorley, Richard J. II. Title QC861.2.B36 2004

551.5-dc21 2003000832

ISBN 0-203-42823-4 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-44051-X (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-415-27170-3 (hbk) ISBN 0-415-27171-1 (pbk)

This edition is dedicated to my co-author Richard J. Chorley, with whom I first entered into collaboration on Atmosphere, Weather and Climate in 1966. He made numerous contributions, as always, to this eighth edition, notably Chapter 1 which he prepared as a new introduction. His many insights and ideas for the book and his enthusiasms over the years will be sadly missed.

Roger G. Barry March 2003

Preface to the eighth edition xi

Acknowledgements xiii

1 Introduction and history of meteorology and climatology 1

A The atmosphere 1

B Solar energy 2

C Global circulation 3

D Climatology 3

E Mid-latitude disturbances 4

F Tropical weather 5

G Palaeoclimates 6

H The global climate system 6

2 Atmospheric composition, mass and structure 9

A Composition of the atmosphere 9

1 Primary gases 9

2 Greenhouse gases 10

3 Reactive gas species 10

4 Aerosols 12

5 Variations with height 13

6 Variations with latitude and season 15

7 Variations with time 16

B Mass of the atmosphere 22

1 Total pressure 22

2 Vapour pressure 24

C The layering of the atmosphere 25

1 Troposphere 25

2 Stratosphere 27

3 Mesosphere 27

4 Thermosphere 28

5 Exosphere and magnetosphere 28

3 Solar radiation and the global energy budget 32

A Solar radiation 32

1 Solar output 32

2 Distance from the sun 34

3 Altitude of the sun 36

4 Length of day 37

B Surface receipt of solar radiation and its effects 37

1 Energy transfer within the earth-atmosphere system 37

2 Effect of the atmosphere 38

3 Effect of cloud cover 39

4 Effect of latitude 40

5 Effect of land and sea 41

6 Effect of elevation and aspect 48

7 Variation of free-air temperature with height 48

C Terrestrial infra-red radiation and the greenhouse effect 51

D Heat budget of the earth 53 E Atmospheric energy and horizontal heat transport 57

1 The horizontal transport of heat 57

2 Spatial pattern of the heat budget components 59

4 Atmospheric moisture budget 64

A The global hydrological cycle 64

B Humidity 66

1

Moisture content

66

2

Moisture transport

67

C

Evaporation

69

D

Condensation

73

E

Precipitation characteristics and

measurement

74

1

Forms of precipitation

74

2

Precipitation characteristics

75

a Rainfall intensity

75

b Areal extent of a rainstorm

76

c Frequency of rainstorms

76

3

The world pattern of precipitation

79

4

Regional variations in the altitudinal

maximum of precipitation

80

5

Drought

84

Atmospheric instability, cloud formation

and precipitation processes

89

A Adiabatic temperature changes

89

B

Condensation level

91

C Air stability and instability

91

D

Cloud formation

95

1

Condensation nuclei

95

2

Cloud types

96

3

Global cloud cover

99

E

Formation of precipitation

99

1

Bergeron-Findeisen theory

100

2

Coalescence theories

102

3

Solid precipitation

102

F

Precipitation types

103

1

'Convective type' precipitation

103

2

'Cyclonic type' precipitation

103

3

Orographic precipitation

103

G

Thunderstorms

106

1

Development

106

2

Cloud electrification and lightning

106

7 Planetary-scale motions in the atmosphere and ocean

6 Atmospheric motion: principles 1 12

A Laws of horizontal motion 112

1 The pressure-gradient force 113

2 The earth's rotational deflective (Coriolis)

B

Divergence, vertical motion and vorticity

118

1

Divergence

118

2

Vertical motion

118

3

Vorticity

118

C

Local winds

120

1

Mountain and valley winds

120

2

Land and sea breezes

121

3

Winds due to topographic barriers

122

7 Planetary-scale motions in the atmosphere and ocean

8 Numerical models of the general circulation, climate and weather prediction T.N. Chase and R.G. Barry

force

113

A

Fundamentals of the GCM

3

The geostrophic wind

114

B

Model simulations

4

The centripetal acceleration

114

1

GCMs

5

Frictional forces and the planetary

2

Simpler models

boundary layer

116

3

Regional models

127

A

Variation of pressure and wind velocity with

height

127

1

The vertical variation of pressure systems

128

2

Mean upper-air patterns

129

3

Upper wind conditions

131

4

Surface pressure conditions

133

B

The global wind belts

136

1

The trade winds

136

2

The equatorial westerlies

136

3

The mid-latitude (Ferrel) westerlies

139

4

The polar easterlies

139

C

The general circulation

139

1

Circulations in the vertical and horizontal

2 Variations in the circulation of the northern hemisphere 146

a Zonal index variations 146

b North Atlantic Oscillation 147

D Ocean structure and circulation 149

1 Above the thermocline 149 a Vertical 149 b Horizontal 151

2 Deep ocean water interactions 155 a Upwelling 155 b Deep ocean circulation 155

3 The oceans and atmospheric regulation 158

162 165

166 168

C

Data sources for forecasting

168

3 British airflow patterns and their climatic

D

Numerical weather prediction

I70

characteristics

1

Short- and medium-range forecasting

170

4 Singularities and natural seasons

2

'Nowcasting'

172

5 Synoptic anomalies

B

Long-range outlooks

172

6 Topographic effects

9 Mid-latitude synoptic and mesoscale systems

A The airmass concept B Nature of the source area

1 Cold aimasses

2 Warm aimasses

C Airmass modification

1 Mechanisms of modification a Thermodynamic changes b Dynamic changes

2 The results of modification: secondary airmasses a Cold air b Warm air

3 The age of the airmass

D Frontogenesis

1 Frontal waves

2 The frontal-wave depression

E Frontal characteristics

1 The warm front

2 The cold front

3 The occlusion

4 Frontal-wave families

F Zones of wave development and frontogenesis G Surface/upper-air relationships and the formation of frontal cyclones H Non-frontal depressions 1 2

The lee cyclone The thermal low Polar air depressions The cold low

I Mesoscale convective systems

10 Weather and climate in middle and high latitudes

A Europe

1 Pressure and wind conditions

2 Oceanicity and continentality

178 180

181 181

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