Andersson, T. (1980) Bergeron and the oreigenic (orographic) maxima of precipitation. Pure Appl. Geophys. 119, 558-76.
Bennetts, D. A., McCallum, E. and Grant, J. R. (1986) Cumulonimbus clouds: an introductory review. Met. Mag. 115, 242-56.
Bergeron, T. (1960) Problems and methods of rainfall investigation. In The Physics of Precipitation, Geophysical Monograph 5, Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, DC, pp. 5-30.
Bering, E.A. III., Few, A.A. and Benbrook, J.R. (1998) The global electric circuit. Physics Today 51(9), 24-30.
Braham, R. R. (1959) How does a raindrop grow? Science 129, 123-9.
Browning, K. A. (1980) Local weather forecasting. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Sect. A 371, 179-211.
Browning, K. A. (1985) Conceptual models of precipitation systems. Met. Mag. 114, 293-319.
Browning, K. A. and Hill, F. F. (1981) Orographic rain. Weather 36, 326-9.
Brugge, R. (1996) Back to basics. Atmospheric stability: Part 1. Basic concepts. Weather 51(4), 134-40.
Chacon, R. E. and Fernandez, W. (1985) Temporal and spatial rainfall variability in the mountainous region of the Reventazon River Basin, Costa Rica. J. Climatology 5, 175-88.
Chinn, T. J. (1979) How wet is the wettest of the wet West Coast? New Zealand Alpine Journal 32, 85-7.
Dudhia, J. (1996) Back to basics: Thunderstorms. Part 1. Weather 51(11), 371-6.
Dudhia, J. (1997) Back to basics: Thunderstorms. Part 2 -Storm types and associated weather. Weather 52(1), 2-7.
Durbin, W. G. (1961) An introduction to cloud physics. Weather 16, 71-82, 113-25.
East, T. W. R. and Marshall, J. S. (1954) Turbulence in clouds as a factor in precipitation. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 80, 26-47.
Eyre, L. A. (1992) How severe can a 'severe thunderstorm' be? Weather 47, 374-83.
Galvin, J. F. H. (2003) Observing the sky - How do we recognize clouds? Weather 58, 55-62.
Griffiths, D. J., Colquhoun, J. R., Batt, K. L. and Casinader, T. R. (1993) Severe thunderstorms in New South Wales: climatology and means of assessing the impact of climate change. Climatic Change 25, 369-88.
Henderson, R. (1993) Extreme storm rainfalls in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. In Extreme Hydrological Events: Precipitation, Floods and Droughts (Proceedings of the Yokohama Symposium), IAHS Pub. No. 213, pp. 113-20.
Hirschboeck, K. K. (1987) Catastrophic flooding and atmospheric circulation anomalies. In Mayer, L. and Nash, D. (eds) Catastrophic Flooding, Allen & Unwin, Boston, pp. 23-56.
Hopkins, M. M., Jr. (1967) An approach to the classification of meteorological satellite data. J. Appl. Met. 6, 164-78.
Houze, R. A., Jr. and Hobbs, P. V. (1982) Organization and structure of precipitating cloud systems. Adv. Geophys. 24, 225-315.
Jonas, P. R. (1994) Back to basics: Why do clouds form? Weather 49(5), 176-80.
Jonas, P. R. (1994) Back to basics: Why does it rain? Weather 49(7), 258-60.
Kyle, H. L. et al. (1993) The Nimbus Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment: 1975-1992. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 74, 815-30.
Latham, J. (1966) Some electrical processes in the atmosphere. Weather 21, 120-7.
London, J., Warren, S. G. and Hahn, C. J. (1989) The global distribution of observed cloudiness - a contribution to the ISCPP. Adv. Space Res. 9(7), 161-5.
Mason, B. J. (1962) Charge generation in thunderstorms. Endeavour 21, 156-63.
Orville, R.E. et al. (2002) The North American lightning detection network (NALDN) - first results: 1998-2000. Mon. Wea. Rev. 130(8), 2098-2109.
Pearce, F. (1994) Not warming, but cooling. New Scientist 143, 37-41.
Pike, W. S. (1993) The heavy rainfalls of22-23 September 1992. Met. Mag. 122, 201-9.
Sawyer, J. S. (1956) The physical and dynamical problems of orographic rain. Weather 11, 375-81.
Schermerhorn, V. P. (1967) Relations between topography and annual precipitation in western Oregon and Washington. Water Resources Research 3, 707-11.
Smith, R. B. (1989) Mechanisms of orographic precipitation. Met. Mag. 118, 85-8.
Sumner, G. (1996) Precipitation weather. J. Geography 81(4), 327-45.
Stolzenburg, M., Rust, W. D. and Marshal, T. C. (1998) Electrical structure in thunderstorm convective regions. 3. Synthesis. J. Geophys. Res. 103(D12), 14097-108.
Weston, K. J. (1977) Cellular cloud patterns. Weather 32, 446-50.
Wratt, D. S. et al. (1996) The New Zealand Southern Alps Experiment. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 77(4), 683-92.
Plate 21 Hurricane Andrew, 23 August 1992, during its maximum intensity over the Bahamas. Visible image from Meteosat 3 (courtesy of NOAA, NOAA Photo Library Historic NWS Collection wea 00520).
23-24 August 1992
Plate 22 Ground view of the devastation caused by Hurricane Andrew in Pinewoods Villa, southern Florida, (courtesy of NOAA, NOAA Photo Library Historic NWS Collection wea 00534).
23-24 August 1992
Plate 23 A satellite infra-red mosaic of eastern Asia and the western North Pacific showing two mid-latitude depression systems and typhoons 'Wendy' (28°N, I26°E) and 'Virginia' (22°N, I47°N) on 29 July 1978, about 09:00 local time (Tokyo). The typhoons had maximum winds of about 36 ms-1 and sea-level pressure minima of about 965 mb ('Wendy') and 975 mb ('Virginia'). A subtropical high-pressure ridge about 35°N separates the tropical and mid-latitude storms minimizing any interaction (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program imagery, National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, Boulder).
Plate 24 Infra-red photograph showing the intertropical convergence zone on I June 1971, along which active thunderstorms appear as bright spots. There is also a cyclonic cloud band in the western South Pacific representing the South Pacific convergence zone (NOAA- I photograph, World Meteorological Organization 1973).
Plate 25 View south over Florida from the Gemini V manned spacecraft at an elevation of 180 km on 22 August 1965, with Cape Kennedy launching site in the foreground. Cumulus clouds have formed over the warmer land, with a tendency to align in east-west 'streets', and are notably absent over Lake Okeechobee. In the south, thunder-head anvils can be seen (NASA photograph).
Plate 26 An air view looking southeastward towards the line of high cumulus towers marking the convergence zone near the Wake Island wave trough shown in Figure 11.7 (from Malkus and Riehl 1964).
Plate 27 A sequence of three typhoons over the northwestern Pacific, 8 September 1987. A visible band 5.4-km resolution DMSP image. The longitudes are marked at the top. All three formed in an active monsoon trough. Typhoon Freda, in the centre, developed first and moved mainly northward. The leading typhoon in the image (Gerald) has a very large eye. Super-typhoon Holly, the easternmost system, had maximum winds above 70 m s-1 and an estimated central pressure of 898 mb; it recurved to the east of Japan (National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO).
Plate 29 Visible satellite image showing five large tropical cloud clusters topped by cirrus shields situated between latitudes 5° and I0°N in the vicinity of West Africa, together with one squall line cloud cluster at I5°N having a well-defined arc cloud squall line on its leading (southwest) edge. Taken by SMS-I satellite at 11:30 hours GMT on 5 September 1974 (courtesy of NOAA).
Was this article helpful?
Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.