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Globalisasi Iklim Dan CuacaHurricane Andrew 22nd August 1992

Plate 21 Hurricane Andrew, 23 August 1992, during its maximum intensity over the Bahamas. Visible image from Meteosat 3 (courtesy of NOAA, NOAA Photo Library Historic NWS Collection wea 00520).

Hurricane Andrew Bahamas

23-24 August 1992

Plate 22 Ground view of the devastation caused by Hurricane Andrew in Pinewoods Villa, southern Florida, (courtesy of NOAA, NOAA Photo Library Historic NWS Collection wea 00534).

23-24 August 1992

Mid Latitude Climates East Asia

Plate 23 A satellite infra-red mosaic of eastern Asia and the western North Pacific showing two mid-latitude depression systems and typhoons 'Wendy' (28°N, I26°E) and 'Virginia' (22°N, I47°N) on 29 July 1978, about 09:00 local time (Tokyo). The typhoons had maximum winds of about 36 ms-1 and sea-level pressure minima of about 965 mb ('Wendy') and 975 mb ('Virginia'). A subtropical high-pressure ridge about 35°N separates the tropical and mid-latitude storms minimizing any interaction (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program imagery, National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, Boulder).

Infra Data Centre

Plate 24 Infra-red photograph showing the intertropical convergence zone on I June 1971, along which active thunderstorms appear as bright spots. There is also a cyclonic cloud band in the western South Pacific representing the South Pacific convergence zone (NOAA- I photograph, World Meteorological Organization 1973).

Florida Convergence Clouds

Plate 25 View south over Florida from the Gemini V manned spacecraft at an elevation of 180 km on 22 August 1965, with Cape Kennedy launching site in the foreground. Cumulus clouds have formed over the warmer land, with a tendency to align in east-west 'streets', and are notably absent over Lake Okeechobee. In the south, thunder-head anvils can be seen (NASA photograph).

Typhoon Freda

Plate 26 An air view looking southeastward towards the line of high cumulus towers marking the convergence zone near the Wake Island wave trough shown in Figure 11.7 (from Malkus and Riehl 1964).

i!0°E 120° 130° 140° 150° 160° !70°E

i!0°E 120° 130° 140° 150° 160° !70°E

Gerald Malkus Picture

Plate 27 A sequence of three typhoons over the northwestern Pacific, 8 September 1987. A visible band 5.4-km resolution DMSP image. The longitudes are marked at the top. All three formed in an active monsoon trough. Typhoon Freda, in the centre, developed first and moved mainly northward. The leading typhoon in the image (Gerald) has a very large eye. Super-typhoon Holly, the easternmost system, had maximum winds above 70 m s-1 and an estimated central pressure of 898 mb; it recurved to the east of Japan (National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO).

August 1975 Super Typhoon
Plate 28 In the eye of Hurricane Caroline, 30 August 1975 (courtesy of NOAA, Flying with NOAA Collection fly 00174).
August 1975 Super Typhoon

Plate 29 Visible satellite image showing five large tropical cloud clusters topped by cirrus shields situated between latitudes 5° and I0°N in the vicinity of West Africa, together with one squall line cloud cluster at I5°N having a well-defined arc cloud squall line on its leading (southwest) edge. Taken by SMS-I satellite at 11:30 hours GMT on 5 September 1974 (courtesy of NOAA).

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