Adebayo, Y. R. (1991) 'Heat island' in a humid tropical city and its relationship with potential evaporation. Theoret. and App. Climatology 43, 137-47.
Anderson, G. E. (1971) Mesoscale influences on wind fields. J. App. Met. 10, 377-86.
Atkinson, B. W. (1968) A preliminary examination of the possible effect of London's urban area on the distribution of thunder rainfall 1951-60. Trans. Inst. Brit. Geog. 44, 97-118.
Atkinson, B. W. (1977) Urban Effects on Precipitation: An Investigation of London's Influence on the Severe Storm of August 1975. Department of Geography, Queen Mary College, London, Occasional Paper No. 8, 31pp.
Atkinson, B. W. (1987) Precipitation. In Gregory, K. J. and Walling, D. E. (eds) Human Activity and Environmental Processes, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 31-50.
Bach, W. (1979) Short-term climatic alterations caused by human activities, Prog. Phys. Geog. 3(1), 55-83.
Bach, W. and Patterson, W. (1966) Heat budget studies in Greater Cincinnati. Proc. Assn Amer. Geog. 1, 7-16.
Betts, A.K., Ball, J.H. and McCaughey, H. (2001) Near-surface climate in the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24), 33529-541.
Brimblecombe, P. and Bentham, G. (1997) The air that we breathe. Smogs, smoke and health. In Hulme, M. and Barrow, E. (eds) The Climates of the British Isles. Present, Past and Future, Routledge, London, pp. 243-61.
Caborn, J. M. (1955) The influence of shelter-belts on microclimate. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 81, 112-15.
Chandler, T. J. (1967) Absolute and relative humidities in towns. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 48, 394-9.
Changnon, S. A. (1969) Recent studies ofurban effects on precipitation in the United States. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 50, 411-21.
Changnon, S. A. (1979) What to do about urban-generated weather and climate changes. J. Amer. Plan. Assn. 45(1), 36-48.
Coutts, J. R. H. (1955) Soil temperatures in an afforested area in Aberdeenshire. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 81, 72-9.
Dickinson, R. E. and Henderson-Sellers, A. (1988) Modelling tropical deforestation: a study of GCM land-surface parameterizations. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 114, 439-62.
Duckworth, F. S. and Sandberg, J. S. (1954) The effect of cities upon horizontal and vertical temperature gradients. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 35, 198-207.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1962) Forest Influences, Forestry and Forest Products Studies No. 15, Rome, 307pp.
Garnett, A. (1967) Some climatological problems in urban geography with special reference to air pollution. Trans. Inst. Brit. Geog. 42, 21-43.
Garratt, J. R. (1994) Review: the atmospheric boundary layer. Earth-Science Reviews 37, 89-134.
Gay, L. W. and Stewart, J. B. (1974) Energy balance studies in coniferous forests, Report No. 23, Inst. Hydrol., Nat. Env. Res. Coun., Wallingford.
Goldreich, Y. (1984) Urban topo-climatology. Prog. Phys. Geog. 8, 336-64.
Harriss, R. C. et al. (1990) The Amazon boundary layer experiment: wet season 1987. J. Geophys. Res. 95(D10), 16721-36.
Heintzenberg, J. (1989) Arctic haze: air pollution in polar regions. Ambio 18, 50-5.
Hewson, E. W. (1951) Atmospheric pollution. In Malone, T. F. (ed.) Compendium of Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, pp. 1139-57.
Jauregui, E. (1987) Urban heat island development in medium and large urban areas in Mexico. Erdkunde 41, 48-51.
Jenkins, I. (1969) Increases in averages of sunshine in Greater London. Weather 24, 52-4.
Koppany, Gy. (1975) Estimation of the life span of atmospheric motion systems by means of atmospheric energetics. Met. Mag. 104, 302-6.
Kubecka, P. (2001) A possible world record maximum natural ground surface temperature. Weather 56 (7), 218-21.
Landsberg, H. E. (1981) City climate. in Landsberg, H. E. (ed.) General Climatology 3, World Survey of Climatology 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 299-334.
Long, I. F., Monteith, J. L., Penman, H. L. and Szeicz, G. (1964) The plant and its environment. Meteorol. Rundschau 17(4), 97-101.
McNaughton, K. and Black, T. A. (1973) A study of evapotranspiration from a Douglas fir forest using the energy balance approach. Water Resources Research 9, 1579-90.
Maejima, I. et al. (1982) Recent climatic change and urban growth in Tokyo and its environs. Japanese Prog. Climatology, March 1983, 1-22.
Marshall, W. A. L. (1952) A Century of London Weather, Met. Office, Air Ministry, Report.
Miess, M. (1979) The climate of cities. In Laurie, I. C. (ed.) Nature in Cities, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 91-104.
Miller, D. H. (1965) The heat and water budget of the earth's surface. Adv. Geophys. 11, 175-302.
Nicholas, F. W. and Lewis, J. E. (1980) Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore, Maryland. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1099-C, 36pp.
Nunez, M. and Oke, T.R. (1977) The energy balance of an urban canyon. J. Appl. Met. 16, 11-19
Oke, T. R. (1979) Review of Urban Climatology 1973-76. WMO Technical Note No. 169, Geneva, World Meteorological Organization, 100pp.
Oke, T. R. (1980) Climatic impacts of urbanization. In Bach, W., Pankrath, J. and Williams, J. (eds) Interactions of Energy and Climate, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 339-56.
Oke, T. R. (1982) The energetic basis of the heat island. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 108, 1-24.
Oke, T. R. (1986) Urban Climatology and its Applications with Special Regard to Tropical Areas, World Meteorological Organization Publication No. 652. Geneva, 534pp.
Oke, T. R. (1988) The urban energy balance. Prog. Phys. Geog. 12(4), 471-508.
Oke, T. R. and East, C. (1971) The urban boundary layer in Montreal. Boundary-Layer Met. 1, 411-37.
Pankrath, J. (1980) Impact of heat emissions in the Upper-Rhine region. In Bach, W., Pankrath, J. and Williams, J. (eds) Interactions of Energy and Climate, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 363-81.
Pease, R. W., Jenner, C. B. and Lewis, J. E. (1980) The influences of land use and land cover on climate analysis: an analysis of the Washington-Baltimore area. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 1099-A, 39pp.
Peel, R. F. (1974) Insolation and weathering: some measures of diurnal temperature changes in exposed rocks in the Tibesti region, central Sahara. Zeit. für Geomorph. Supp. 21, 19-28.
Peterson, J. T. (1971) Climate of the city. In Detwyler, T. R. (ed.) Man's Impact on Environment, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 131-54.
Plate, E. (1972) Berücksichtigung von Windströmungen in der Bauleitplanung. In Seminarberichte Rahmenthema Unweltschutz, Institut für Stätebau und Landesplanung, Selbstverlag, Karlsruhe, pp. 201-29.
Reynolds, E. R. C. and Leyton, L. (1963) Measurement and significance of throughfall in forest stands. In Whitehead, F. M. and Rutter, A. J. (eds) The Water Relations of Plants, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 127-41.
Rutter, A. J. (1967) Evaporation in forests. Endeavour 97, 39-43.
Seinfeld, J. H. (1989) Urban air pollution: state of the science. Science 243, 745-52.
Shuttleworth, W. J. (1989) Micrometeorology oftemperate and tropical forest. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B324, 299-334.
Shuttleworth, W. J. et al. (1985) Daily variation of temperature and humidity within and above the Amazonian forest. Weather 40, 102-8.
Steinecke, K. (1999) Urban climatological studies in the Reykjavik subarctic environment, Iceland. Atmos. Environ, 33 (24-5), 4157-62.
Sukachev, V. and Dylis, N. (1968) Fundamentals of Forest Biogeoeconology, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 672pp.
Terjung, W. H. and Louis, S. S-F. (1973) Solar radiation and urban heat islands. Ann. Assn Amer. Geog. 63, 181-207.
Terjung, W. H. and O'Rourke, P. A. (1980) Simulating the causal elements of urban heat islands. Boundary-Layer Met. 19, 93-118.
Terjung, W. H. and O'Rourke, P. A. (1981) Energy input and resultant surface temperatures for individual urban interfaces. Archiv. Met. Geophys. Biokl. B, 29, 1-22.
Tyson, P. D., Garstang, M. and Emmitt, G. D. (1973) The Structure of Heat Islands. Occasional Paper No. 12,
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 71pp.
US Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1970) Air Quality Criteria for Photochemical Oxidants, National Air Pollution Control Administration, US Public Health Service, Publication No. AP-63, Washington, DC.
Vehrencamp, J. E. (1953) Experimental investigation of heat transfer at an air-earth interface. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 34, 22-30.
Weller, G. and Wendler, G. (1990) Energy budgets over various types of terrain in polar regions. Annals of Glaciology 14, 311-14.
White, W. H., Anderson, J. A., Blumenthal, D. L., Husar, R. B., Gillani, N. V., Husar, J. D. and Wilson, W. E. (1976) Formation and transport of secondary air pollutants: ozone and aerosols in the St Louis urban plume. Science 194, 187-9.
World Meteorological Organization (1970) Urban Climates, WMO Technical Note No. 108, 390pp.
Zon, R. (1941) Climate and the nation's forests. In Climate and Man, US Department of Agriculture Yearbook, pp. 477-98.
Was this article helpful?
Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.