We are very much indebted to: Mr A. J. Dunn for his considerable contribution to the first edition; the late Professor F. Kenneth Hare of the University of Toronto, Ontario, for his thorough and authoritative criticism of the preliminary text and his valuable suggestions; Alan Johnson, formerly of Barton Peveril School, Eastleigh, Hampshire, for helpful comments on Chapters 2 to 6 ; and to Dr C. Desmond Walshaw, formerly of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, and R. H. A. Stewart of the Nautical College, Pangbourne, for offering valuable criticisms and suggestions for the original text. Gratitude is also expressed to the following persons for their helpful comments with respect to the fourth edition: Dr Brian Knapp of Leighton Park School, Reading; Dr L. F. Musk of the University of Manchester; Dr A. H. Perry of University College, Swansea; Dr R. Reynolds of the University of Reading; and Dr P. Smithson of the University of Sheffield. Dr C. Ramage, a former member of the University of Hawaii and of CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, made numerous helpful suggestions on the revision of Chapter 11 for the fifth edition. Dr Z. Toth and Dr D. Gilman of the National Meteorological Center, Washington, DC, kindly helped in the updating of Chapter 8D and Dr M. Tolbert of the University of Colorado assisted with the environmental chemistry in the seventh edition and Dr N. Cox of Durham University contributed significantly to the improvement of the seventh edition. The authors accept complete responsibility for any remaining textual errors.

Most of the figures were prepared by the cartographic and photographic staffs in the Geography Departments at Cambridge University (Mr I. Agnew, Mr R. Blackmore, Mr R. Coe, Mr I. Gulley, Mrs S.

Gutteridge, Miss L. Judge, Miss R. King, Mr C. Lewis, Mrs P. Lucas, Miss G. Seymour, Mr A. Shelley and Miss J. Wyatt and, especially, Mr M. Young); at Southampton University (Mr A. C. Clarke, Miss B. Manning and Mr R. Smith); and at the University of Colorado, Boulder (Mr T. Wiselogel). Every edition of this book, through the seventh, has been graced by the illustrative imagination and cartographic expertise of Mr M. Young of the Department of Geography, Cambridge University, to whom we owe a considerable debt of gratitude.

Thanks are also due to student assistants Jennifer Gerull, Matthew Applegate and Amara Frontczak, at the NSIDC, for word processing, assistance with figures and permission letters for the eighth edition.

Our grateful thanks go to our families for their constant encouragement and forbearance.

The authors wish to thank the following learned societies, editors, publishers, scientific organizations and individuals for permission to reproduce figures, tables and plates. Every effort has been made to trace the current copyright holders, but in view of the many changes in publishing companies we invite these bodies and individuals to inform us of any omissions, oversights or errors in this list.

Learned societies

American Association for the Advancement of Science for Figure 7.32 from Science. American Meteorological Society for Figures 2.2, 3.21, 3.22, 3.26C, 5.11. 7.21, 9.16, 9.29, 10.34 and 13.8 from the Bulletin; for Figure 4.12 from Journal of Hydrometeorology; and for Figures 6.12, 6.13, 7.8,

7.25, 7.28, 8.1, 9.6, 9.10, 9.24, 11.5, 11.11 and 11.33 from the Monthly Weather Review; for Figure 7.28 from the Journal of Physical Oceanography; for Figures 9.2 and 9.4 from Met. Monogr. by H. Riehl et al.; for Figures 9.8 and 10.38 from the Journal of Applied Meteorology; for Figures 9.9, 9.15 and 9.17 from Extratropical Cyclones by C. W. Newton and E. D. Holopainen (eds); for Figures 9.34 and 11.54 from the Journal of Atmospheric Sciences; for Figures 10.24 and 13.20 from the Journal of Climate and for Figure 10.39 from Arctic Meteorology and Climatology by D. H. Bromwich and C. R. Stearns (eds).

American Geographical Society for Figure 2.16 from the Geographical Review.

American Geophysical Union for Figures 2.3, 2.11, 3.26A, 3.26B and 5.19 from the Journal of Geophysical Research; for Figures 3.13 and 13.3 from the Review of Geophysics and Space Physics; and for Figure 13.6 from Geophysical Research Letters.

American Planning Association for Figure 12.30 from the Journal.

Association of American Geographers for Figure 4.20 from the Annals.

Climatic Research Center, Norwich, UK, for Figure 10.15.

Geographical Association for Figure 10.4 from Geography.

Geographical Society of China for Figures 11.34 and 11.37.

Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, for Figure 11.28.

International Glaciological Society for Figure 12.6.

Royal Society of Canada for Figure 3.15 from Special Publication 5.

Royal Society of London for Figure 9.27 from the Proceedings, Section A.

Royal Meteorological Society for Figures 4.7, 4.8, 5.9, 5.13, 5.14, 9.30, 10.5, 10.12, 11.55 and 12.20 from Weather; for Figures 5.16 and 10.9, from the Journal of Climatology; Royal Meteorological Society for Figures 9.12, 10.7, 10.8, 11.3 and 12.14 from the Quarterly Journal; for Figure 10.28; and for Figure 13.7 from Weather.

US National Academy of Sciences for Figures 13.4 and 13.5 from Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales by P. Grootes.


Advances in Space Research for Figures 3.8 and 5.12.

American Scientist for Figure 11.49.

Climatic Change for Figure 9.30.

Climate Monitor for Figure 13.13.

Climate-Vegetation Atlas of North America for Figures 10.19 and 10.23.

Erdkunde for Figures 11.21, 12.31 and A1.2B.

Endeavourfor Figure 5.18.

Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria for Figure 13.24.

International Journal of Climatology (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester) for Figures 4.16, 10.33 and A1.1.

Japanese Progress in Climatology for Figure 12.28.

Meteorologische Rundschau for Figure 12.9.

Meteorologiya Gidrologiya (Moscow) for Figure 11.17.

Meteorological Magazine for Figures 9.11 and 10.6.

Meteorological Monographs for Figures 9.2 and 9.4.

New Scientist for Figures 9.25 and 9.28

Science for Figure 7.32.

Tellus for Figures 10.10, 10.11 and 11.25.


Academic Press, New York, for Figures 9.13, 9.14, and 11.10 from Advances in Geophysics; for Figure 9.31; and for Figure 11.15 from Monsoon Meteorology by C. S. Ramage.

Allen & Unwin, London, for Figures 3.14 and 3.16B from Oceanography for Meteorologists by the late H. V. Sverdrup.

Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, for Figure 7.27 from Ocean Circulation by G. Bearman.

Cambridge University Press for Figures 2.4 and 2.8 from Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment 1992; for Figure 5.8 from Clouds, Rain and Rainmaking by B. J. Mason; for Figure 7.7 from World Weather and Climate by D. Riley and L. Spolton; for Figure 8.2 from Climate System Modelling by K. E. Trenberth; for Figure 10.30 from The Warm Desert Environment by A. Goudie and J. Wilkinson; for Figure 11.52 from Teleconnections Linking Worldwide Climate Anomalies by M. H. Glantz et al. (eds); for Figure 12.21 from Air: Composition and Chemistry by P. Brimblecombe (ed.); and for Figures 13.10, 13.14, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.21, 13.22 and 13.23.

Chapman and Hall for Figure 7.30 from Elements of Dynamic Oceanography; for Figure 10.40 from Encyclopedia of Climatology by J. Oliver and R. W. Fairbridge (eds); and for Figure 9.22 from Weather Systems by L. F. Musk.

The Controller, Her Majesty's Stationery Office (Crown Copyright Reserved) for Figure 4.3 from Geophysical Memoirs 102 by J. K. Bannon and L. P. Steele; for the tephigram base of Figure 5.1 from RAFForm 2810; and for Figure 7.33 from Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas by M. Bottomley et al.; for Figure 10.6 from the Meteorological Magazine; and for Figures 10.26 and 10.27 from Weather in the Mediterranean 1, 2nd edn (1962).

CRC Press, Florida, for Figure 3.6 from Meteorology: Theoretical and Applied by E. Hewson and R. Longley.

Elsevier, Amsterdam, for Figure 10.29 from Climates of the World by D. Martyn; for Figure 10.37 from Climates of the Soviet Union by P. E. Lydolph; for Figure 11.38 from Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology; for Figure 11.40 from Quarternary Research; and for Figures 11.46 and 11.47 from Climates of Central and South America by W. Schwerdtfeger (ed.).

Hutchinson, London, for Figure 12.27 from the Climate of London by T. J. Chandler; and for Figures 11.41 and 11.42 from The Climatology of West Africa by D. F. Hayward and J. S. Oguntoyinbo.

Institute of British Geographers for Figures 4.11 and 4.14 from the Transactions; and for Figure 4.21 from the Atlas of Drought in Britain 1975-76 by J. C. Doornkamp and K. J. Gregory (eds).

Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland for Figure 2.1 from Air-Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles by P. S. Liss and W. G. N. Slinn (eds); and Figures 4.5 and 4.17 from Variations in the Global Water Budget, ed. A. Street-Perrott et al.

Longman, London, for Figure 7.17 from Contemporary Climatology by A. Henderson-Sellers and P. J. Robinson.

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, for Figures 4.9 and 5.17 from Introduction to Meteorology by S. Petterssen; and for Figure 7.23 from Dynamical and Physical Meteorology by G. J. Haltiner and F. L. Martin.

Methuen, London, for Figures 3.19, 4.19 and 11.44 from Mountain Weather and Climate by R. G. Barry;

for Figures 4.1, 7.18 and 7.20 from Models in Geography by R. J. Chorley and P. Haggett (eds); for Figures 11.1 and 11.6 from Tropical Meteorology by H. Riehl; and for Figure 12.5.

North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, for Figure 4.18 from the Journal of Hydrology.

Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, for Figure 10.35B from The Geophysics of Sea Ice by N. Untersteiner (ed.).

Princeton University Press for Figure 7.11 from The Climate of Europe: Past, Present and Future by H. Flöhn and R. Fantechi (eds).

D. Reidel, Dordrecht, for Figure 12.26 from Interactions of Energy and Climate by W. Bach, J. Pankrath and J. Williams (eds); for Figure 10.31 from Climatic Change.

Routledge, London, for Figure 11.51 from Climate Since ad 1500 by R. S. Bradley and P. D. Jones (eds).

Scientific American Inc, New York, for Figure 2.12B by M. R. Rapino and S. Self; for Figure 3.2 by P. V. Foukal; and for Figure 3.25 by R. E. Newell.

Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, for Figures 11.22 and 11.24.

Springer-Verlag, Vienna and New York, for Figure 6.10 from Archiv für Meteorologie, Geophysik und Bioklimatologie.

University of California Press, Berkeley, for Figure 11.7 from Cloud Structure and Distributions over the Tropical Pacific Ocean by J. S. Malkus and H. Riehl.

University of Chicago Press for Figures 3.1, 3.5, 3.20, 3.27, 4.4B, 4.5, 12.8 and 12.10 from Physical Climatology by W. D. Sellers.

Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, for Figure 11.56 from The Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences and Astrogeology by R. W. Fairbridge (ed.).

Walter De Gruyter, Berlin, for Figure 10.2 from Allgemeine Klimageographie by J. Blüthgen.

John Wiley, Chichester, for Figures 2.7 and 2.10 from The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Change, and Ecosystems by G. Bolin et al.; for Figures 10.9, 11.30, 11.43 and A1.1 from the Journal of Climatology.

John Wiley, New York, for Figures 3.3C and 5.10 from Introduction to Physical Geography by A. N. Strahler; for Figure 3.6 from Meteorology, Theoretical and Applied by E. W. Hewson and R. W. Longley; for Figure 7.31 from Ocean Science by K. Stowe; for Figures 11.16, 11.28, 11.29, 11.32 and 11.34 from Monsoons by J. S. Fein and

P. L. Stephens (eds); and for Figure 11.30 from International Journal of Climatology.

The Wisconsin Press for Figure 10.20 from The Earth's Problem Climates.


Deutscher Wetterdienst, Zentralamt, Offenbach am Main, for Figure 11.27.

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, for Figure 13.4.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for Figures 2.15 and 7.26.

Natural Environmental Research Council for Figure 2.6 from Our Future World and for Figure 4.4A from NERCNews, July 1993 by K. A. Browning.

New Zealand Alpine Club for Figure 5.15.

New Zealand Meteorological Service, Wellington, New Zealand, for Figures 11.26 and 11.57 from the Proceedings of the Symposium on Tropical Meteorology by J. W. Hutchings (ed.).

Nigerian Meteorological Service for Figure 11.39 from Technical Note 5.

NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center for Figures 7.3, 7.4, 7.9, 7.10, 7.12, 7.15, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 9.32 and 13.9.

Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command, Natick, MA., for Figure 10.17 by J. N. Rayner.

Ris0 National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, for Figures 6.14 and 10.1 from European Wind Atlas by I. Troen and E. L. Petersen.

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, for Figure 2.12A.

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, for Figure 12.17 from Forest Influences.

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, for Figure 12.16 from Climate and Man.

United States Department of Commerce for Figure 10.13.

United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC, for Figure 3.12.

United States Environmental Data Service for Figure 4.10.

United States Geological Survey, Washington, DC, for Figures 10.19, 10.21 and 10.23, mostly from Circular 1120-A.

University of Tokyo for Figure 11.35 from Bulletin of the Department of Geography.

World Meteorological Organization for Figure 3.24 from GARP Publications Series, Rept No. 16;

for Figure 7.22; for Figure 11.50 from The Global Climate System 1982-84; and for Figure 13.1 from WMO Publication No. 537 by F. K. Hare.


Dr R. P. Beckinsale, of Oxford University, for suggested modification to Figure 9.7.

Dr B. Bolin, of the University of Stockholm, for Figure 2.7.

Dr G. C. Evans, of the University of Cambridge, for Figure 12.18.

The late Prof. H. Flohn, of the University of Bonn, for Figures 7.14 and 11.14.

Prof. S. Gregory, of the University of Sheffield, for Figures 11.13 and 11.53.

Dr J. Houghton, formerly of the Meteorological Office, Bracknell, for Figure 2.8 from Climate Change 1992.

Dr R. A. Houze, of the University of Washington, for Figures 9.13 and 11.12.

Dr Y. Kurihara, ofPrinceton University, for Figure 11.10.

Dr J. Maley, of the Université des Sciences et des Techniques du Languedoc, for Figure 11.40.

Dr Yale Mintz, of the University of California, for Figure 7.17.

Dr L. F. Musk, of the University of Manchester, for Figures 9.22 and 11.9.

Dr T. R. Oke, of the University of British Columbia, for Figures 6.11, 12.2, 12.3, 12.5, 12.7, 12.15, 12.19, 12.22, 12.23, 12.24, 12.25 and 12.29.

Dr W. Palz for Figure 10.25.

Mr D. A. Richter, of Analysis and Forecast Division, National Meteorological Center, Washington, DC, for Figure 9.24.

Dr J. C. Sadler, of the University of Hawaii, for Figure 11.19.

The late Dr B. Saltzman, of Yale University, for Figure 8.4.

Dr Glenn E. Shaw, of the University of Alaska, for Figure 2.1A.

Dr A. N. Strahler, of Santa Barbara, California, for Figures 3.3C and 5.10.

Dr R. T. Watson, of NASA, Houston, for Figures 3.3C and 3.4.

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