Troposphere and tropopause

The lowest layer, extending to about 10 miles (16 km) over the equator, seven miles (11 km) over middle latitudes, and five miles (8 km) over the poles, is the troposphere. This is the region where the air is constantly being mixed and where all the world's weather happens.

It is also the layer in which the temperature decreases with height. Its upper boundary, known as the tropopause, is the height at which the temperature ceases to decrease as you climb higher. This means that air that is rising because it is warmer and therefore less dense than the air around it meets a barrier in the form of air at the same density. The air can rise no farther and so the tropopause forms a very real boundary.

The average temperature at the tropopause ranges from -85°F (-65°C) at the equator to -22°F (-30°C) at the poles. The temperature is higher at the poles than at the equator because the tropopause is lower there, so air cannot rise so high and its temperature cannot fall so low.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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