# Specific heat capacity

When any substance absorbs heat, its temperature rises. The amount of heat that must be absorbed to produce a one-degree rise in temperature varies from one substance to another. It is known as the specific heat capac-

Specific heat capacity

ity of the substance, usually denoted by the symbol c, and is measured as the units of heat that must be absorbed for a one-degree increase in temperature. The scientific units are joules per gram per kelvin and are written as J g-1 K-1. Alternatively, the units can be given as calories per gram per degree Celsius (1°C = 1K), written as cal g-1 °C-1.

Specific heat capacity also varies slightly with temperature. When quoting values for c, therefore, it is necessary either to show them as a table, with values at a range of temperatures, or to specify the temperature to which the given value applies. The table below shows the specific heat capacities of several substances at specified temperatures, using both sets of units.

The table shows that water has the highest specific heat capacity of any common substance. One gram of fresh water at 59°F (15°C) must absorb 1 cal (4.19 J) of heat in order to raise its temperature by 1.8°F (1°C) and one gram of seawater at 62.6°F (17°C) must absorb 0.94 cal (3.93 J). This is almost twice as much heat as ice must absorb and approximately five times as much as most rocks must absorb. Consequently, the land, made from rock and sand, heats much faster than the sea during the day and during the summer. That is why, on a hot day, the sand may burn your feet as you run across it, but when you plunge into the lake or sea, the water feels cool. In winter the reverse happens, and the lake or sea remains warmer than the land for several months, because it takes a long time for the water to lose the warmth it absorbed in summer.

Water's capacity for absorbing a large amount of heat without raising its temperature is one of its most important properties, and it greatly affects climates. Air that passes across the ocean will be warmed by contact with it in winter and cooled in summer. Maritime climates, found in lands adjacent to the ocean, have a narrower temperature range than continental climates.

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITIES (c) OF COMMON SUBSTANCES

 Substance Temperature c °C °F J g-1 k-1 cal g-1 °C-1 freshwater 15 59 4.19 1.00 seawater 17 62.6 3.93 0.94 ice -21--1 -5.8-30.2 2.0-2.1 0.48-0.50 dry air 20 68 1.006 0.2403 basalt 20-100 68-212 0.84-1.00 0.20-0.24 granite 20-100 68-212 0.80-0.84 0.19-0.20 white marble 18 64.4 0.88-0.92 0.21-0.22 quartz 0 32 0.73 0.17 sand 20-100 68-212 0.84 0.20

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### Responses

• benjamin
What is the specific heat capacity of freshwater and seawater?
8 years ago
• JENS
How is the specific heat capacity of a substance important to weather?
8 years ago
• angelika ehrlichmann
How does heat capacity of water affect global climates?
1 year ago
• flora
How does the specific heat capacity of water affect climate variability?
1 year ago
• Kevin
How can the weather affect the specific heat capacity?
12 months ago
• mackenzie
Why the specific heat capacity is responsible to modify the climate?
9 months ago
• Donna Costa
How can the specific heat capacity of water slow glbal warming?
8 months ago
• Pervinca
How does specific heat capacity affecr weather?
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• penelope
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• karl
How high can a specific heat be?
2 months ago
• How water's heat capacity impacts climate?
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• guy
How water's heat capacity affects climate?
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• furuta
What would cause the specific heat capacity of water to rise?
20 days ago
• EYOB SHESHY
How heat capacity affects weather seasonally?
10 days ago