Seabed sediment

Information about past climates can also be obtained from the thick layer of sediment that covers the ocean floor. The sediment—scientists call it ooze—consists largely of the shells of tiny organisms called foraminifera or forams for short. These were once living either on the surface of the ooze or in the water immediately above it. The species can be identified from their fossilized shells and, because each species could survive only at a certain water temperature, the presence of particular species is a clear indication of the historical temperature of the water.

Ocean sediments have been accumulating for a very long time. This means that by drilling vertically into the ooze and extracting a core, paleo-climatologists can obtain a record of water temperature going back for hundreds of thousands of years. Sediment accumulates on the ocean floor at a known rate, so the age of a sample taken from a core can be calculated from its distance below the surface.

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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