Heat islands and urban domes

Lysocline Layer

Air escaping from heated buildings, atmospheric particles absorbing infrared radiation at night, the reduction in wind speed, and the heat from thousands of engines combine to make the city into an island of warmth surrounded by a cool, rural sea. It is a heat island. During the day the temperature rises rapidly. On a sunny day in summer it may rise by as much as 31 F 17 C between dawn and the middle of the afternoon. It falls again at night, but in the early part of the night the city center...

Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation is one of the fundamental forms of energy. It is associated with oscillating electric and magnetic fields hence the name at right angles to each other and to the direction in which the radiation is traveling. It can be regarded as pure energy traveling either in waves or as a stream of particles, called photons. Although the two descriptions sound contradictory, in fact they are not. All types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the same speed, whether it is...

The Sporer Minimum Dalton Minimum and Maunder Minimum

Then, in 1889, Maunder read an article by another German astronomer, Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav Sporer 1822-95 . Sporer was also studying sunspots and he had discovered something very interesting. Astronomers had been observing and recording sunspot activity for centuries, but Sporer found that very few had been observed between approximately 1400 and 1520. This period came to be known as the Sporer Minimum. It was a time of very cold weather. People called it a Little Ice Age. The Baltic Sea...