Examples of Water Loss Control Program Costs in North America

Cost effectiveness of demand-side water conservation programs is expressed in a cost per unit of water saved. Since demand-side conservation is already widely applied in North America, especially the western parts of the Unites States, there is a wide set of demand-side water conservation cost figures available. In a paper1 written by the authors of this manual, the cost effectiveness of several water loss control programs carried out in North America was assessed in order to compare the cost effectiveness of water loss control programs with demand-side conservation programs.

This analysis showed that water loss control program costs do vary from utility to utility. A general guideline is that water loss control programs are cheaper when the volume of real losses is high. The lower the volume of real losses the more effort is required to reduce them and therefore the overall cost for the program increases. See Fig. 5.5 for a cost comparison of several water loss control programs. It is important to note that all of these programs only reduced real losses with no intervention against apparent losses. The cost shown includes all components of a water loss control program starting at the point of assessment (water audit) and including all costs to intervene against real losses including the cost to repair the leaks.

$2500 $2000 $1500

Figure 5.5 Cost of real loss control programs. (Source: Ref. 1.)

Cost of Real Loss Control Programs in $/MG

i=i Real loss control program cost (cost/MG)

— Average cost per MG for real loss control program

Utility 1- Utility 2- Utility 3- Cal DWR Utility 4- Utility 5- Utility 6-California Tennessee California Nevada Arizona Florida

Utility 1- Utility 2- Utility 3- Cal DWR Utility 4- Utility 5- Utility 6-California Tennessee California Nevada Arizona Florida

Utility

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