Objectives Of The Drought Plan

As its first official action, the drought task force should state the general purpose for the drought plan. Government officials should consider many questions as they define the purpose of the plan, such as the Purpose and role of government in drought mitigation and response efforts Most drought-prone areas of the state or nation Historical impacts of drought Historical response to drought Most vulnerable economic and social sectors Role of the plan in resolving conflict between water users...

A US Drought Monitor

One of the best examples of a new drought monitoring tool is the U.S. Drought Monitor (http drought.unl.edu dm). The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) author the weekly Drought Monitor (DM) map, which was first released in 1999. The DM is not a forecast rather, it was designed as a comprehensive drought assessment...

Water Harvesting for Supplemental Irrigation

Where groundwater or surface water is not available for supplemental irrigation, water harvesting can be used to provide the required amounts during the rain season. The system includes surface or subsurface storage facilities ranging from an on-farm pond or tank to a small dam constructed across the flow of a wadi with an ephemeral stream. It is highly recommended when inter-seasonal rainfall distribution and or variability are so high that crop water requirements cannot be reasonably met. In...

Future Threats And Impacts

Vulnerability to drought is influenced by a wide range of factors such as natural resource management policies, water use trends, land use, urbanization, and government policies. The current water management infrastructure has allowed the citizens of both Canada and the United States to make productive use of water and reduce the adverse impacts of droughts and floods. However, population growth and continuing urbanization will affect the long-term availability of water supplies, future levels...

Drought Monitoring

As the world moves into the 21st century, the stresses on available water resources will continue to grow. In the United States, increasing growth and development are already straining water supplies not only for the major metropolitan areas of the arid West, but also for areas such as Atlanta, Georgia, in the relatively humid eastern United States. Issues surrounding shared water resources across international boundaries, such as the Colorado and Rio Grande River basins between the United...

Example The US Drought Monitor

One example of a product developed from multiple indicators is the weekly U.S. Drought Monitor product (see Chapter 3). This product, originally released in August 1999, was developed to provide a weekly assessment of drought conditions across the United States on a general scale. What makes the Drought Monitor unique is that it incorporates a variety of quantitative indicators and is adjusted based on qualitative information from a network of local experts around the country. The quantitative...

Part II

Drought and Water Management The Role of Science and Technology The Challenge of Climate Prediction in Mitigating Drought Impacts NEVILLE NICHOLLS, MICHAEL J. COUGHLAN, AND KARL MONNIK 34 B. Seasonal to Interannual Prediction 34 1. Forecasts Based on Empirical Analysis of the Climate Record 33 2. Explicit Computer Model Predictions 36 C. Can We Forecast Droughts on Even Longer II. Climate Prediction and Drought Early Warning 39 III. Impediments to Using Climate Predictions for Drought...

The Challenge Of Drought Early

Although an understanding of underlying vulnerability is essential to understand the risk of drought in a particular location and for a particular group of people, a drought early warning system (DEWS) is designed to identify negative trends and thus to predict both the occurrence and the impact of a particular drought and to elicit an appropriate response (Buchanan-Smith and Davies, 1995). Numerous natural indicators of drought should be monitored routinely to determine drought onset, end, and...

Forecasting Drought

Examination of the long-term climate records in some regions around the globe reveals persistent trends and periods of below-average rainfall extending over years to a decade or more, while other regions exhibit episodic, shorter droughts. Hence it is useful to consider the prediction of droughts on seasonal to interannual timescales and, separately, on longer decadal timescales. B. Seasonal to Interannual Prediction Our theoretical ability to make an explicit, reliable prediction of an...

Post Drought Evaluation

A post-drought evaluation or audit documents and analyzes the assessment and response actions of government, nongovernmental organizations, and others and provides a mechanism to implement recommendations for improving the system. Without post-drought evaluations, it is difficult to learn from past successes and mistakes, as institutional memory fades. Post-drought evaluations should include an analysis of the climatic and environmental aspects of the drought its economic and social...

The National Drought Policy

Commonwealth and state ministers, through the Ministerial Council, announced a new National Drought Policy in July 1992. As recommended by the Drought Policy Review Task Force, the policy was based on principles of sustainable development, risk management, productivity growth, and structural adjustment in the farm sector. Support for productivity improvement and improved risk management was to be provided through the commonwealth government's main structural adjustment program for agriculture,...

Drought Definition

As in other Mediterranean countries with large arid or semiarid areas, droughts in Spain are difficult to evaluate and quantify and thus are difficult to define. Many definitions are used, and often it is not clear when a drought situation has started or finished or even if it has existed. In some large river basins, the definition of a drought is based on simple rainfall statistics. For example, for the river Ebro, one of the largest rivers in Spain, a dry period starts according to Spanish...

International The Border Region

Although international rivers have always been difficult to manage, the Colorado is especially interesting because of its enormously diverse and multiple overlapping jurisdictions, the strong contrast in legal and administrative styles of the two neighboring countries, and the exceptional degree of freedom and influence of the informal, nongovernmental sector in the United States (Varady et al., 2001). In 1964, an international issue erupted when the Mexican government complained that...

Xstep Publicize The Drought Planbuild Public Awareness And Consensus

If you have communicated well with the public throughout the process of establishing a drought plan, there may already be better-than-normal awareness of drought and drought planning by the time you actually write the plan. Themes to emphasize in writing news stories during and after the drought planning process could include How the drought plan is expected to relieve drought impacts in both the short and long term. Stories can focus on the human dimensions of drought, such as how it affects a...

Perception of Drought and Water Shortage

Drought is generally viewed as a sustained and regionally extensive occurrence of below-average natural water availability, in the form of precipitation, runoff, or groundwater. Drought should not be confused with aridity, which applies to those persistently dry regions where, even in normal circumstances, water is in short supply. Normally the consequences of droughts are felt most keenly in areas that are in any case arid (UNESCO-WMO, 1985). Furthermore, the adverse effects of drought are...

Current Status and Future Directions

In 2004 a national roundtable was convened to consider drought policy. The roundtable considered a paper produced by an independent panel following consultations with stakeholders, and the roundtable results will be considered by government (Truss, 2003b). A number of issues need to be addressed. First, because the policy is dependent on the declaration of an exceptional circumstances drought, the process of drought declaration has become highly politicized. As is often the case in Australia,...

Management Creeping Toward A National Drought Policy For The United States

Drought is a normal part of the climate for virtually all portions of the United States it is a recurring, inevitable feature of climate that results in serious economic, environmental, and social impacts. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates average annual losses because of drought in the United States to be 6-8 billion, more than for any other natural hazard (FEMA, 1995). Yet the United States is ill prepared to effectively deal with the consequences of drought....

References

Arnell, N Liu, C Compagnucci, R da Cunha, L Howe, C Hanaki, K Mailu, G Shiklomanov, I Stakhiv, E. Hydrology and water resources. In JO McCarthy, O Canziani, N Leary, D Dokken, K White, eds. Climate Change 2001 Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. London Cambridge University Press, 2001. Associated Press. Great Lakes levels should be higher this summer. The Record, March 9, A11,...

Droughtvulnerable Vs Droughtresilient Society

Tecla Que Anomenem Punt Volat

The Drought Discussion Group of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) has proposed a new paradigm to improve understanding of the drought hazard in the macro and micro contexts with the goal of enhancing drought preparedness and mitigation efforts in all settings ranging from local to national and from developing to developed countries (ISDR Drought Discussion Group, 2003). This new paradigm emphasizes greater understanding and description of both the physical features of the...

Untapped Water Supply

Water conservation is a powerful yet underutilized drought mitigation tool that can stave off the severe water shortages, financial losses, and public safety risks that historically have been assumed to be an inevitable consequence of drought. Hundreds of hardware technologies and behavior-driven measures are available to boost the efficiency of water use when implemented and put into action, they can drive down short-term as well as long-term water demands (Vickers, 2001). For nearly every...

Considerations for Drought Indicators and Triggers

Suitability for drought types of concern. An indicator needs to reflect the type of drought of concern, including aspects of water demands, water supplies, drought vulnerabilities, and potential impacts. Because drought depends on numerous factors, no single indicator is likely to cover all types of drought. In choosing indicators, a first consideration is that they should make sense for the context. For instance, the Palmer indices may not be appropriate as sole indicators for managed water...

Case Study Context

To consider the potential benefits to agricultural production of seasonal forecasts, we investigated their potential impact on farm-level decisions and returns in an irrigated cropping system. We premised that the potential benefit of seasonal forecasts was probably greatest in a farming system subject to significant uncertainty. For this reason, the farming system represented in the decision-making models is that of an irrigated cotton producer operating on an unregulated river system, relying...

Impact of Drought on Environment

In arid and semiarid regions (annual precipitation less than 400 mm), local rainfall does not meet agricultural needs. In such cases, too many withdrawals from rivers upstream could directly affect the water environment and ecosystem downstream. Environmental issues due to drought or water shortage (mainly in north China) are discussed below. 1. Drying of Land, Lakes, and Rivers In the north China plain, the annual runoff coefficient dropped from 0.2 in the 1950s to 0.1 in the 1980s because of...

Climate Change Componies

Partnerships drive conservation in state government A water efficiency success story for state prisons. Proceedings of the Water Sources Conference & Exposition, Austin, TX, January 11-14, 2004, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, TUE8, pp. 1-4, 2004. American Water Works Association. Leak Detection and Water Accountability Committee. Committee report Water accountability. Journal of the American Water Works Association 88(7) 108-111, 1996. Amy Vickers...

The Experience of the Drought

The most severe droughts in Spain in the last century occurred in 1941-45, 1979-83, and 1990-95. These three droughts were extensive and affected most of the country. The map in Figure 2 shows the percentage decrease in average rainfall from October 1990 to September 1995 compared to the average rainfall for the 1940-1996 period. Several river basins suffered decreased rainfall percentages, around 30 . The resulting reduction in runoff in most of the country was more than 40 and amounted to...

Risk Assessment Committee

Risk is the product of exposure to the drought hazard (i.e., probability of occurrence) and societal vulnerability, represented by a combination of economic, environmental, and social factors. Therefore, to reduce vulnerability to drought, one must identify the most significant impacts and assess their underlying causes. Drought impacts cut across many sectors and across normal divisions of government authority. These impacts have been classified by Wilhite and Vanyarkho (2000) and are...

Final Thoughts

Drought results in widespread and complex impacts on society. Numerous factors influence drought vulnerability. As our population increases and becomes more urbanized, there are growing pressures on water and natural resource managers and policy makers to minimize these impacts. This also places considerable pressure on the science community to provide better tools and credible and timely information to assist decision makers. The adaptive capacity of a community (defined here in the broadest...

Drought Policy In South Africa

South Africa has a long history of living with drought. A drought during the early 1930s that coincided with the great depression made a deep impression on many policy makers. Significant droughts also occurred during the 1960s, 1980s, and early 1990s. Despite this familiarity with drought, policy makers still struggle to quantify it and to develop a stable policy framework. Drought policy falls at the interface among the numerous definitions of drought that require some quantification of...

Checklist for Indicators and Triggers in a Drought Plan

In addition to the above criteria and considerations, we provide a checklist below. Note that these pertain only to the indicators and triggers portion of a drought plan. Many other drought plan components are important, such as communication and coordination among agencies responsible for monitoring the indicators and implementing the responses if they are triggered see Chapter 5 . Nonetheless, this list offers a straightforward set of metrics to check 1. Indicator specification and...

Agriculture In The Us Great Plains

Despite the richness of this literature on institutions and environmental affairs, there is room for additional research on the institutional design criteria that lead to effective water management in general and drought management whether anticipatory or reactive in particular. We return to the case of the U.S. Great Plains. Substantial evidence exists about specific water management successes and failures in this region e.g., Glantz, 1994 Riebsame, 1990 Riebsame, 1991 Webb, 1931 . The fact...

Introduction A New Era Of Water Scarcity Or An Old Error Of Water Waste

The discovery from tree rings of ancient drought cycles, the emergence of centuries-old shipwrecks on drying riverbeds, and the forecasts of unruly climate change and variability can easily stir fear for our water future in both scientist and citizen alike. Yet such conditions need not be predictors of our water fate. Exactly how the water demands of the 21st century's growing population will be met is, indeed, a formidable challenge. Half of the world's 6 billion people now live in urban...

The Concept and Components of the System

The drier environments, the steppe, or, as they are called in the Arab world, Al Badia, occupy the vast majority of the dry Amount of supplemental irrigation mm Figure 4 SI production functions for wheat in different rainfall zones in Syria. Adapted from Oweis, 1997. Amount of supplemental irrigation mm Figure 4 SI production functions for wheat in different rainfall zones in Syria. Adapted from Oweis, 1997. areas. The disadvantaged people, who depend mainly on livestock grazing, generally live...

Water Harvesting Techniques

Classification Rainwater Harvesting

Water harvesting techniques may be classified into two major types, based on the size of the catchment Figure 6 micro-catchment systems and macro-catchment systems Oweis et al., 2001 . Surface runoff in micro-catchment systems is collected from small catchments usually less than 1000 m2 and applied to an adjacent agricultural area, where it is stored in the root zone and used directly by plants. The target area may be planted with trees, bushes, or annual crops. The farmer has control, within...

Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI and Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index PHDI

The PDSI, based on the Palmer Drought Model Palmer, 1965 , has been one of the most commonly used drought indicators in the United States. One reason for its popularity is that its development in 1965 preceded other indices and resulted in its widespread use and wide-ranging application. The PDSI is derived from a moisture balance model, using historic records of precipitation, temperature, and the local available water capacity of the soil. The PHDI uses a modification of the PDSI to assess...

Summary And Conclusion

Drought is an insidious natural hazard that is a normal part of the climate of virtually all regions. It should not be viewed as merely a physical phenomenon. Rather, drought is the result of the interplay between a natural event and the Risk-based drought policy and plans developed Drought early warning system implemented Drought early warning system implemented Drought mitigation actions implemented Policies to enhance social adaptive capacity, at both local and national scales All groups...

Surface Water Supply Index

The SWSI, pronounced swazee, was developed by Shafer and Dezman 1982 to address limitations of the Palmer indices and incorporate water supply data, such as snow accumulation and melt, which are important in the western United States. The index is based on four components snowpack, streamflow, precipitation, and reservoir storage. Monthly data for each component are analyzed according to probabilities of occurrence, combined into an overall index, and weighted according to their relative...

Water vs Land Productivity

Land Productivity

Land productivity yield and water productivity WP are indicators for assessing the performance of supplemental irrigation. Higher water productivity is linked with higher yields. This parallel increase in yields and water productivity, however, does not continue linearly. At some high level of yield, greater amounts of irrigation water are required to achieve additional incremental yield increase. Water productivity of wheat Figure 3 starts to decline as yield per unit of land increases above...

Okanagan Basin

Cascade Hydrology

The Okanagan basin is located in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada, situated around Okanagan Lake Figure 1 . The surface area of the basin is 8200 km2 Cohen and Kulkarni, 2001 . The Okanagan has a dry continental climate, because the valley sits in the rain shadow of the Coast and Cascade Mountain ranges. The semiarid climate receives approximately 30 cm of precipitation each year, of which 85 is lost through evapotranspiration from local lakes. The Figure 1 Okanagan and...

Poplar and Red Basins

Cookson Reservoir Saskatchewan

The Poplar River Figure 2 rises in Saskatchewan and flows southward, joining the Missouri River at Poplar, Montana. Roughly one-third of the basin is in Canada. The entire surface area of the basin is only 8620 km2. Because annual evapotranspiration usually exceeds precipitation, the climate is considered semiarid. The mean annual flow of the Poplar, where it joins the Missouri, is 3.8 m3 s, about three-quarters of that occurring as spring snowmelt runoff IJC, 1978 . This is equivalent to only...

Optimization of Supplemental Irrigation

Soil Water Deficit Irrigation

Optimal SI in rain-fed areas is based on the following three criteria 1 water is applied to a rain-fed crop that would normally produce some yield without irrigation 2 because rainfall is the principal source of water for rain-fed crops, SI is applied only when rainfall fails to provide essential moisture for improved and stable production and 3 the amount and timing of SI are scheduled not to provide moisture stress-free conditions throughout the growing season, but to ensure a minimum amount...

Great Lakes Basin

Chart Datum

The Great Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario contain approximately 18 of the world's freshwater Government of Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1995 . This leads to a perception of an extraordinary abundance of water. Yet, only 1 of the water in the Great Lakes is renewable on an annual basis the rest is a legacy of deglaciation Gabriel and Kreutzwiser, 1993 . The Great Lakes basin including St. Lawrence River to Trois Rivi res contains the Canadian provinces...