Increasing Your Vitality
Safe, secure, clean, and affordable energy and transportation are essential to the economic vitality of the world. As we look to the future the next 50 years and beyond there will be many severe challenges to both energy and transportation created by population growth, economic growth, ever-tightening environmental constraints, increasing climate change issues and pressure for carbon dioxide emission limits, geopolitical impacts on energy availability and the energy marketplace, and a changing energy resource base. Science and technology specifically the chemical sciences will play a significant role enabling the world to meet these challenges. The opportunities are challenging and exciting. Advances in nanosciences, information sciences, biosciences, materials science, and chemical sciences will lead to solutions not contemplated today. The key will be fundamental research at the intersection of these sciences and developing new engineering to bring the new technologies to fruition.
Leicester has prepared a creative Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and applied it to evaluating its local plan. The twenty factors selected are together intended to judge whether policies and proposals in the plan will enable a move towards or away from a more sustainable future (Leicester City Council, undated, p. 1). These evaluative factors are org a-nized into a matrix and are used to assess each major plan policy, using a system of checks and minuses, accompanied by text commentary (see Table 11.1). The twenty factors used are grouped within three categories (1) quality of life and local environment (e.g., open space, healthy housing, local economy, and vitality of local centers), (2) natural re s o u rces (e.g., landscape, waste, water, and land and soil), and (3) global sustainability (e.g., biodiversity and movement such as the number of trips made and the level of carbon dioxide emissions generated). The appraised methodology is also applied to specific proposed development...
Some economists call global warming the greatest example of market failure the world has ever seen. In their opinion, the number one cause of that failure is government officials' failure to put a price tag on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus emitters have an incentive to treat the atmosphere as a vast dumping ground because no one will force them to pay for the environmental damage they do. Author Paul Roberts adds Though cheap, plentiful fossil fuels have clearly been key to our industrial success and continued economic vitality, we are discovering that our rosy picture of energy as the Key to Prosperity has omitted a number of serious costs, from geopolitical instability and oil price volatility to, now, rising global temperatures due to centuries of carbon dioxide emissions. 2
Current preoccupations of urban designers with the form of urban space, the vitality and identity of urban areas, qualities of urbanity, respect for tradition, and preferences for developments of human scale can all be encompassed within the schema of sustainable development. The two movements -Sustainable Development and Post Modern Urban Design - are mutually supportive. Post Modern Urban Design gives form to the menu of ideas subsumed under the title of Sustainable Development in return it is given functional legitimacy. Without this functional legitimacy and the discipline a functional dimension imposes on the design process, Post Modern Urban Design may develop into just another esoteric aesthetic. The foundation of urban design is rooted in social necessity society today is faced with an environmental crisis of global proportions and it is coming to terms with the effects of this crisis on the world's cities which gives purpose and meaning to urban design.
The present paper addresses this gap through the consideration of a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model. Its principal conclusions may be summarized as follows. First, the assignment of climate rights between polluters and future generations has quite significant implications for the evolution of living standards in the world economy. Granting unconstrained pollution rights to present economic actors favors high rates of short-term consumption while imposing significant costs on future generations. By way of comparison, stabilizing current climatic conditions reduces short-term consumption by 7 but increases long-term consumption by 4 under standard assumptions concerning the costs and benefits of climate change. This finding suggests that the familiar claim that excess rates of greenhouse gas emissions control thwart the interests of both present and future generations is only half true. Indeed, climate stabilization conserves an important form of environmental...
Fundamental features in the relation between urban life and energy use are common to Southern and Northern cities. While urban settlements are often more transport-energy efficient - i.e. when looking at per capita petroleum energy expended - than suburban or peri-urban areas, given that nearly all motorized movements are oil based - their overall energy requirements soar high above those of less urbanized communities as referred to by both Lenzen et al. and Kenworthy in this book. Only in this transport sense can cities rightfully be seen to be more 'energy-wise', by affording greater functional densities and hence more compact, concentrated or combined land-use patterns. Here lies a civilization challenge that can only be satisfactorily resolved in a combination of efficiency, cultural innovations and the shift to renewable power. The vitality of cities - their very power as a cultural concentrator, market, and production-consumption engine - is based on the very
Over the years, the change from these uses to park space and public access required a paradigm shift among the decision makers to allow the new uses to prosper. Adoption of an urban sustainability framework for the Toronto waterfront has been an additive process across the plans of different agencies and planning processes. The Metro Toronto Remedial Action Plan process, which focused on water quality issues, brought a heightened awareness of ecological sustainability to the waterfront during the late 1980s and early 1990s 37 . Building on these efforts and growing awareness of the connect of the city's vitality to the overall health of the Great Lakes, the Royal Commission developed principles for waterfront development which included the need to apply an ecosystem approach addressing the overlapping spheres of environment, economy and community 33 . This emphasis defined a holistic view of waterfront development in the Toronto region. As the Commissions final report suggested...
Such a political project needs an associated intellectual project - or at least it probably has a better chance of success if it has one. To some extent, the existence of geography as an academic discipline with a presence in many universities is a self-sustaining enterprise - as long as students are enrolling, and then getting jobs (whatever the occupations and their relevance to having studied geography), the political project may be relatively unimportant. But complacency is rarely sensible. The discipline has to retain an appearance of vitality and relevance. How does it do that How does it present an intellectual project that will sustain its political goals
Emissions from energy and transportation systems are known to affect air pollution air quality issues on a local to global scale, including photochemical smog, urban and regional haze, fine aerosol impacts on lung function, acid rain and acid deposition, greenhouse gases and aerosol impacts on climate, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Point and mobile source emissions of gases, aerosols, liquid wastes, and solid wastes also impact surface and groundwater quality and ecosystem vitality on local to regional scales. Better understanding of the chemistry of air, water, and ecosystem pollution, including the kinetics of pollutant transformation and the dynamics of pollutant transport processes, has greatly clarified how emissions from energy and transportation systems adversely impact environmental components. This allows a systematic analysis to prioritize emissions reduction requirements and a scientifically sound capability to decide how much specific emissions need to be reduced to...
Freiburg chose not to go the route of an underground subway system, and several interviewees commented to me about the importance of being able to see the trams. After riding around and experiencing them (from both the inside and the outside), I tend to agree with this assessment. It is hard to imagine the old section of Freiburg without the trams (and of course they have had streetcars since the early 1900s). Their presence contributes mightily to the vitality of street life there the clanging of the tram bells as they approach a stop, the rolling sound as they move along the tracks, the blur of colors as they cross an intersection. Clearly, they contribute much to the energy and enjoyability of Freiburg streets, in addition to simply serving as a very effective and pragmatic way of getting around the city.
Although there are certainly examples of communities where the city-center is declining in population and intensity of use, European cities on the whole (and especially the case study communities described here) have been able to maintain and strengthen the vitality of these centers. In no small Some cities are attempting to further encourage the injection of residential units in city-center and commercial areas, as a way to both efficiently provide housing and enhance the vitality and livability of these city-center areas. Traditionally, British and Irish center-cities have had fewer residents than continental European cities (Bradshaw, 1996). The cities of Dublin and Leicester have operated (only moderately successful) programs that provide financial incentives to encourage people to relocate to city-centers. One such effort is called the Living Over The Shop program, which seeks
Freud was caught up in the new openness and vitality of enlightenment thinking, but he also worked in a sexually repressive society that forbade his patients, mostly women, opportunities for expressing their sexual desires. Impressed by the bizarre symptoms that he treated in his patients, Freud came to believe that psychological functioning is a creative outcome of the interplay between physical, instinctually based drives and the social, cultural, and moral pressures to tame, channel, subdue, or repress them. He came to see sexual instincts in particular, which Freud called Eros, fundamental in shaping the personality of the adult. For Freud, Eros included not only sexual desire, but also drives for physical pleasure, pleasure from eating, and touching. Freud also watched, with horror, the unfolding of World War I in Europe, and concluded that the horrific killing he witnessed could only be explained by an unconscious, inborn, irrational need for destruction, which he called...
Will accepting this path mean the absence of a disciplinary core Yes, certainly sometimes, and perhaps for most of the time. Some think that the current absence of a clearly defined, commonly agreed core is unfortunate with regard to geography's political project (for example, Martin, 2002). And yet there will always be elements of a distinctive core. To deploy another geographical metaphor, the practice of geography, like any other discipline, can be likened to a major river. All of the water it carries to the sea comes from defined catchments in its middle reaches, the separate streams combine in a single channel and in its lower reaches braiding is common, as different segments pursue their own course, occasionally recombining. For geography, the catchments are the origins of their students, the middle-reach channels are the undergraduate and postgraduate programmes within which new geographers are socialized into the discipline and the lower-reach braiding reflects the specialist...
Urban sustainability is also essential from an economic perspective. For a city to maintain itself in a viable way, businesses with staying power and some attachment to place must be present. The sustainable city needs to attract and maintain business that will stay for the long term and will not harm the ecological sustainability of the city, and that will contribute to its economic vitality. Cities have sought to redevelop areas in which business can locate, and to draw residents and visitors to the heart of the city 22 . In parallel, the development of growth boundaries can be an important aspect of sustainable city planning, as it can help to maintain a city on an efficient territorial scale 28 .
Setting Sail 45 , which followed the downtown plan, presented a comprehensive plan for West Harbour area, including the Waterfront, the several neighborhoods adjacent to the harbor, and adjacent former industrial lands. The plan also focused on strategic redevelopment and streetscape improvements to strengthen the economic vitality of the street corridors and provide additional amenities to adjacent neighborhoods such as improvement of local parks and commercial areas, historic property preservation, contaminated site clean-up, relocation of heavy industrial land use, and the creation of necessary community services, such as schools, health care, libraries, and emergency services.
Other literature explored related subthemes. For example, philosopher William Leiss explored the concept of domination of nature and its relationship to technology, emphasizing that those who sought technology for the control of nature often found it necessary or desirable to control their fellow human beings as well.6 Historian Carolyn Merchant delved into the origins of modern science and the resultant loss of belief in the vitality and female gender of nature, a change that made exploitation of the earth more feasible.7
Table 2.5 clearly shows Asia's dominance in the planned construction. About two-thirds of the reactors listed as being constructed are in Asia. The remainder are almost entirely in Eastern Europe. Even these reactors are not necessarily a sign of vitality in their nuclear programs. Construction on the Eastern Europe reactors was begun in 1987 or earlier, and the current plans therefore reflect projects that have been long delayed and, in most cases, have no announced completion dates 3 . In contrast, with the exception of the Iranian reactors, all the reactors in Asia were started after 1996. Typically, their expected time from the start of construction to commercial operation is 7 years or less.
Local identity is tied to historic agricultural prosperity of the region according to the memories of interviewees Maidla district was full of vitality until WWII, when Soviet regime deported many inhabitants to Siberia. As land was nationalized, many people left voluntarily to towns. As the population of Maidla district has decreased three times since, local inhabitants reflect on themselves as the last Mohikans. Man in fourties All the best have left. We are the poor and miserable, who have remained faithful to the district. Hopelessness of the future of local life has strengthened local identity among stayers . Still, interviewees avoid big investments in the area.
Pollution may be a recurring motif in Teesside's image of itself as a place, but its stacks have always conjured up contradictory associations of economic vitality, but also of the associated pollution (Briggs 1963 Beynon et al. 1994). In an area where the major national recessions of the twentieth century have hit hard, the long-term risks associated with exposure to pollution have invariably been set alongside the risks of job loss and economic insecurity. The following remarks made by Teesside citizens are current illustrations of an old dilemma 6
Infrastructure needed to drill and pump oil create erosion problems for fragile ecosystems. Additionally, much of the development of these resources is done offshore along continental shelf regions in the oceans. These areas are very biologically productive, and fishing industries depend on their vitality for harvest.
Yet, the lack of radical action by EMOs does not entail the absence of protest. In fact, there is no relationship between the institutionalisation of EMOs and the levels of environmental protest. The Transformation of Environmental Activism (TEA) project surveyed levels of environmental protest in ten European Union countries and found no consistent cross-national pattern between 1988 and 1997. The most remarkable rise in confrontational and disruptive protest was in Britain, (Rootes 2000) and this was despite the fact that this was a period when EMOs had unprecedented access to policy-makers. In Germany, contrary to general impressions that the movement had become de-radicalised, the research showed that there had been no decline in protest. Although the largest mass membership national groups carried out mainly 'conventional' protest action such as petitions, referenda, leafleting, lobbying and legal actions, there was no decline in more confrontational actions such as vigils,...
Safe, secure, clean, and affordable energy and transportation are essential to the social and economic vitality of the world. As we look to the future the next 50 years and beyond there will be many severe challenges for the energy and transportation systems of the world that must be met. The drivers will be created by population growth, economic growth, ever tightening environmental constraints, increasing climate change issues and pressure for limits on carbon dioxide emissions, geopolitical impacts on energy availability and the energy marketplace, a changing energy resource base, and a need for low emissions transportation. Science and technology specifically chemistry and chemical engineering will play critical, unique, and exciting roles in enabling the world to meet these challenges.
Every building site is part of a watershed. Water that falls onto a development's roof, parking lot, and landscaping eventually flows into adjacent low-lying areas, creeks, rivers, lakes, or oceans. Disturbing topsoil, removing permeable surfaces, and introducing chemical fertilizers and pesticides, motor oil, vehicle coolant, and pet waste all have negative impacts on water quality and the vitality of the local watershed. Chemical pollutants, increased sediment, and altered water temperature can disrupt water ecosystems and lead to unhealthy conditions for fish, animals, and humans. Increased stormwater volume, created by paving over permeable surfaces, can overwhelm the capacity of the storm drainage system (causing flooding) or water treatment infrastructure (resulting in the release of polluted water).
Yang-ming's social ethics and the vitality of his thoughts inspired samurai revolutionaries when Japan opened its door to the West and caused the Meiji Restoration (1868). They fought for what they thought was the whole, that is, for the country to keep independence, not for the interests of their own class, and after the revolution was achieved they eliminated their own class. On the other hand, the opinion leaders' ideological model in the period of Japanese modernization, after the long period of being a closed country, was mainly influenced by British utilitarianism. What both the Yang-ming school and utilitarianism could somehow share was their social ethics. Yet the very gap lies in their views on nature. While utilitarian concern focuses on the interests of sentient beings, Yang-ming's concern was with all beings interrelated under heaven. But such eco-holistic views were abolished and instead the Western dualistic tendency was, under the pressure from Western powers, imported...
Friends of the Chicago River's mission is to foster the vitality of the Chicago River for the human, plant, and animal communities within its watershed. Priorities are to provide public access to the Chicago River and to show that the Chicago River can be both ecologically healthy and a catalyst for community revitalization.
In fact, there is a sense in which life itself is a fundamentally material concern. All biological organisms require energy to maintain life. Some organisms (green plants) are able to obtain this life energy directly from the sun. Many organisms (including human beings) have to obtain life energy by feeding on other material organisms. The process of digestion converts food into faeces, and releases energy. This energy allows us to maintain our complex biological structure, to forage for food, to reproduce the species, and to defend ourselves against predators. Without
Touraine (1985) links the development of new social movements to the search for alternative forms of social and cultural life, arguing that recent changes represent a reorganization of the relationship between society, state and the economy, with new movements the potential bearers of new social interests. Emphasizing the importance of their spontaneity of action and their anti-institutional characteristics, Touraine is sceptical of the value of movement organizations, fearing that they can destroy the creativity and vitality of a movement. Habermas also highlights a new focus for conflict based around issues such as cultural reproduction, social integration and socialization. He argues that it is no longer possible for these conflicts to be channelled through traditional parties and organizations as they are ill suited and often unprepared to tackle such issues. New social movements, therefore, provide an outlet for these conflicts and a defence against the encroachment of state and...
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