How To Sell Used Cars For Profit
Even less well documented is the number of non-motorized bicycles on the road. One source suggests that the number manufactured worldwide in 2003 greatly exceeded car production (105 vs. 42 million units). China produced 70 per cent of the bicycles, and exported 70 per cent of its production. Some 20 million went to the US, where, as everywhere else, bicycle sales exceeded car sales.
There are, nonetheless, signs that high oil prices are beginning to affect oil demand, directly and indirectly, through their depressive impact on economic activity. The slowdown in demand has been most apparent in OECD countries, where prices have generally risen the most. Preliminary data point to a more than 1 drop in OECD inland deliveries (oil products supplied by refineries, pipelines and terminals) in June 2008 compared with June 2007. Consumption of transport fuels has fallen sharply in some countries, including the United States, as people drive less and begin to switch to 8 smaller cars. For example, new car sales in the United Kingdom in August 2008 fell to
Sources Bengt Halvorson, Best and Worst Selling Vehicles of 2007, Forbes, November 30, 2007 Auto Observer, June Car Sales U.S. Buyers Almost Veer Off the Road, July 1, 2008 and U.S. Department of Energy, www.fueleconomy.gov. Sources Bengt Halvorson, Best and Worst Selling Vehicles of 2007, Forbes, November 30, 2007 Auto Observer, June Car Sales U.S. Buyers Almost Veer Off the Road, July 1, 2008 and U.S. Department of Energy, www.fueleconomy.gov.
As I outlined in Chapter 5, there are millions of vehicles on the road today that have Flex Fuel capability. The fact is that most of those are operating every day on gasoline rather than E85, so they are doing nothing to improve our air quality or fight consumption of overseas oil. Before embarking on a conversion of your current vehicle to E85 capability, you might be better advised to sell your current vehicle and buy a new or used Flex Fuel vehicle. Because those vehicles command virtually no premium versus conventional new or used cars, you can go that route with virtually no penalty. You get all the advantages of a carmaker engineered and built system, and if you buy new, it will be accompanied by a lengthy factory warranty against defects.
The picture is completely different in Europe. Clean diesel engines already account for about one third of all vehicles on the road there. In some European countries, spurred by tax laws that favor diesels because of their lower fuel consumption, clean diesel cars represent 60 percent of new-car sales.
Some standard exceptions include a monopoly (one supplier) or oligopoly (a few suppliers) where the supplier's decisions can influence the market price, giving them an incentive to reduce supply in order to raise the price and increase their profits. The absence of full information can also reduce efficiency, for example, in the market for used cars where buyers are uncertain about the quality of the product. And, of course, the problems caused by environmental externalities, which are the focus of this book.
Yet electric-vehicle technology is advancing rapidly. Vehicle hybridisation, involving the addition of an electric motor and an energy-storage system (typically a battery) to a conventional engine fuel system, has attracted most investment and has already proved commercially successful - in spite of relatively high costs. Further improvements to storage systems are necessary to boost efficiency and lower costs despite significant progress in recent years, even the best lithium-ion batteries available today suffer from inadequate performance and high costs. Ultra-capacitors, which store energy in charged electrodes rather than in an electrolyte, are increasingly being seen as a complement to batteries they store less energy per unit weight than batteries but are able to deliver energy more quickly. Research into these technologies is expected to yield further major improvements in the coming years. In the longer term, plug-in hybrids, fully electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cells...
Then in 1912, Alfred Kettering introduced the first self-starting gasoline-powered vehicle, and the difficult task of starting an ICE was no longer in play. After the introduction of the self-starter, electric car sales plummeted and never recovered. Sales of electric cars essentially stopped, completely, and no manufacturers pursued them any longer.
China's urban streets are being made over by the infusion of new vehicles, with bike lanes being squeezed ever smaller to accommodate a growing number of cars. In the 1990s, small motorcycles became widespread in the more affluent cities, and around the year 2000 cars started appearing in noticeable numbers. The car phenomenon is new to Chinese consumers. Car sales took off in 2002, with sales of new cars nearly quadrupling between 2002 and 2006.12 Even so, as late as 2004 cars accounted for less than one-tenth of the vehicle population. In that year, there were about 70 million motorcycles and scooters, 25 million rural vehicles, 10 million cars, 9 million small and large trucks, and 8 million small and large buses.13 Most forecasts are for at least 10 percent annual increases in car sales for years to come, along with large but eventually diminishing sales of motorized two-wheelers. By 2020, China will likely have 150 million cars, trucks, and buses, almost a sixfold increase over...
This situation was brought home to me during a visit to Hawaii in the summer of 2006, when I attended a conference at the new Honolulu Convention Center near Waikiki. About 15 years earlier, I had directed an environmental remediation project at the convention center site, hauling some 3,000 tons of petroleum-contaminated soil by barge back across the Pacific Ocean to Washington state, to be deposited in a new state-of-the-art landfill east of the Cascade Range. (There had been a car dealership and some public vehicle maintenance facilities on the site in earlier years, the likely source of contamination.) Having stood vacant because of industrial contamination for many years, the land was back in productive use as a high-profile urban area.
In the case of hybrid cars and other sustainable technologies, these often compete with an installed base of existing products that have technical lifetimes of two decades or more. Used cars are sometimes traded for decades and it takes 17 years until half of all cars from a particular year are taken off the streets. A majority of customers are used to the existing technologies and view the new technologies with some suspicion. Further, products using existing technologies are produced in large volumes at low cost. Customers who want to contribute to sustainability have to pay a large premium, but only a minority of all customers can afford, or are willing to do, this.
Led to successful arrests of eco-terrorists 54 . The agency attributed its successes to its analysis experience, intelligence capabilities, and partnerships with state and local law enforcement. Notable successes include the recent arrest of six persons related to the multi-million dollar arson attacks on the University of Washington's Center for Urban Horticulture and a poplar farm 55 . The suspects face federal charges and incarceration from 20 years to life, depending upon the specific charge. Certainly, the weight of the penalties for these types of actions can act as deterrent. Consider that a high school student in Virginia was sentenced to three years in federal prison for his role in arson attacks on a car dealership 56 . The severity of penalties for eco-terror attacks is also embedded in the symbolic need to ensure that potential activists are aware of the risks and costs
In the United States, several secondhand markets are 100 billion dollar industries, and several more fall in the 1 to 10 billion range. Each year 40 million used cars are sold in the United States, nearly three times the number of new cars purchased. Overall, secondhand markets are almost as large as consumer recycling in terms of the amount of material processed (approximately fifty million tons of paper and ten million tons of glass are recycled annually in the United States), and the economic value of secondhand markets is far greater than those for recycling.
The California zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) rule is one of the most daring and controversial air quality policies ever established. Adopted as part of the 1990 Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV I) Program, it subsequently became known as the ZEV mandate. As originally formulated, it required the seven largest automotive companies in California to make available for sale an increasing number of vehicles with zero tailpipe emissions (ignoring other vehicle-emission sources and emissions from upstream energy production and refueling facilities). The initial sales requirement was 2 percent of car sales in 1998, increasing to 5 percent in 2001 and 10 percent in 2003.
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Buying Your First Car
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