Conclusions

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We conclude with some general policy recommendations for the Asia Pacific and for the developing world. We suggest that economies in the region will be well served by long-term

13 This category also includes industrial and municipal waste which is defined as that waste produced by industry, commercial, residential and public services collected by local authorities for disposal in a central location for the production of heat and/or power.

energy policies. Given the lack of clear transition trends and the rapid increases in supply and consumption, nations should consider ways in which (including the diversity of energy sources) rapid urbanization and economic growth can be most efficiently achieved. That is, despite the higher efficiency achieved by all these economies compared to the USA, the scale of energy needs for urbanization and the large populations within the region still threatens the local, regional and global environment. Furthermore, the reliance of many economies on liquid fossil fuels in a post-peak era is not sustainable. Given the study's results, particular attention might be paid to the transport and industrial sectors. It is these sectors where petrol and oil consumption is increasing most rapidly.

Urban centres typically do not have energy policies, but given the size of the agglomerations in the region, there may be a call to rationalize energy use at this scale. Energy policies for urban centres in developing countries, however, should be considered carefully. Compact city policy, for example, may not be appropriate for many locations, as the cities are already compact and further compaction in combination with current urban industrial economic structures may exacerbate exposure to air pollutants. Rather, ways to expand energy supply, through renewable sources, promote the use of efficient fuels and technologies, reduce demand and control motor vehicle use are just as if not more appropriate. Certainly national and urban energy policies must be more 'home grown' than taken off the shelf from the developed world.

Finally, it is from the Asia-Pacific that some of the most exciting advances in energy efficiency are already being applied. These include Singapore's electric area pricing scheme and the bus rapid transit systems that are promoted throughout the region. Indeed, there is much for the developed world to learn from the Asia-Pacific experience, not only in terms of the energy histories, but also in terms of current policies.

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