Distilling Policymaking Lessons for Other Cities

London and New York are two cities that are both highly engaged on energy matters, pursuing a wide range of strategies, yet with different policy approaches that reflect local circumstances and perspectives on renewable energy deployment and use. To be sure, neither city has historically been a hotbed for renewables activity, as evidenced by the amount of installed capacity, which pales in comparison to the amount of installed fossil fuel-based generation capacity in each city. The past five...

Civil Strategy to Decarbonize the Human Footprint

The above analysis demonstrates the need to combine global agendas of carbon equity and climate sustainability if we are to successfully address the problem of climate change. Halting the current experiment in warming risk requires all industrialized societies to transform their social and economic structures in a manner that is consistent with the carbon cycle and social justice. Without transformation along both dimensions, it is unlikely that a global commitment to significantly and rapidly...

Conclusions Technological vs Lifestyle Transition

As people flock to the cities in search of opportunities, and societies become more urbanized, they also become more affluent, and their energy systems more efficient. At the same time the demands of people for material wealth, comfort and convenience increase rapidly, causing the increase of industrial energy demand, which in turn often outstrips all energy efficiency gains. Generally the cities are the places where money is made, and which become the home of the wealthy, while the countryside...

Looking Back to Look Forward

This brings us back to the original vision of electricity pioneer Thomas Edison. At that time there were two different basic concepts regarding electricity supply which caused a conflict of ideas (and business conflict) between the two pioneers in the USA, Edison and Westinghouse. Centralized electricity supply structures arose not because they were more economical per se but essentially because electricity can be transported significantly faster and more cleanly than fuel. This is a...

Urban Energy Transition as Community Challenge

The United States Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1980 prepared a report that argued for an end to fossil-fuel domination in the USA, as a matter of national security (FEMA 1980). The report was shelved since the actions recommended would have threatened oil and coal profits. Yet the underlying notion is today again popularly regarded as sound. Only energy transition strategies aimed at efficiency boosts and the rapid proliferation of renewable energy supply systems can combat fuel...

London A Strategic Vision on Renewable Energy Supply and

London's energy planning picture is complex, bound up in the recent reformation of regional government linking together the 33 local authorities that make up London.2 Unlike prior forms of regional government, for the first time London now has a popularly elected Mayor operating in a strong mayor form of government Travers 2004 . First elected mayor in 2000, and then again in 2004, Ken Livingstone has made energy planning a priority since he took office. In doing so, the mayor inserted regional...

Data and Analysis

Our analyses incorporate several types of data from different sources including 1 historic energy supplies in the USA 1850-2001 and historic energy consumption data in the USA 1900-2001 2 recent 1960-2000 energy supply and consumption data in developing and other countries 3 per capita income Geary-Khamis international dollars for all countries analysed 4 historic per cent GDP created by the industrial sector for the USA 1900-1997 5 recent 1960-2000 per cent GDP created by the industrial sector...

Embodied Energy An International Perspective

4.2.1 A comparison of direct and industrial energy use Most of the world's energy is consumed in OECD North America, followed by East Asia and OECD Europe Fig. 4.1a' . Most of this energy is fossil energy 80 , followed by renewables hydro, solar, and combustibles, 13 and nuclear energy 7 International Energy Agency 2007 . Residential energy constitutes between 20 and 60 of total energy Table 4.1. Per capita world energy consumption GJ by region International Energy Agency 2007 . Table 4.1. Per...

Comparisons of the Energy Transitions USA Japan and Rapidly Developing Asian Economies

In this section, we present the results of analyses between urbanization, energy supply and consumption and income trends. We find support for the expected differences in relationships between these variables for rapidly developing economies and those of the USA. Most of the economics in our sample from the developing world demonstrate sooner urbanization see above and sooner use of energy carriers and consumption trends. Moreover, when comparing changes in energy consumption over time, most...

Urban Risks from Climate Change

When trends are projected to 2030, global energy demand increases by 60 - and 85 of the increase would be supplied by oil, gas and coal. Given the impending supply peak, this is a most unlikely scenario - but for a very long time such myths have been nurtured to keep consumption habits and policy frames unchanged see, for example, the relatively recent, now superseded, positions of the International Energy Agency documented in its 2004 World Energy Outlook IEA 2004 . Even if fossil fuel...

John Byrne Lado Kurdgelashvili And Kristen Hughes

Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, 278 Graham Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 Global climate change represents the major environmental challenge of the modern era. An imposing body of scientific evidence links climate change to anthropogenic greenhouse gas GHG emissions IPCC 2007 The Royal Society 2005 AMS 2003 NRC 2001 . Carbon dioxide CO2 contributes more than three quarters of GHG emissions from human activity. In turn, more than 95 of global CO2 emissions are due to...

Introduction

Over the last 10-15 years, there has been growing interest in renewable energy use at the city level. In response, municipalities around the world have taken up the challenging task of trying to track local energy use, rein in demand, and switch to more environmentally benign energy sources. Interest in local action on these topics stems from a variety of explanations. One factor is growing attention to the larger issue of urban sustainabil-ity, a subject highlighted at the 1992 Earth Summit in...

Comparison of Urbanization Trends USA Japan and Rapidly Developing Asia Pacific Economies

Typically, when discussing urbanization in the Asia-Pacific, demographers and urban geographers emphasize the current scale of urbanization and growth of large cities in the region see, for example, Douglass 1998 Douglass 2000 Lo and Marcotullio 2000 Lo and Yeung 1996 United Nations Population Fund 2007 . During the first half of the twentieth century, when the now developed world was rapidly urbanizing, populations increased from 300 to 400 million in all of Europe a 0.7 growth rate 7 and from...

Depleting fuels

The literature alerting us to the threat of an imminent global natural gas and oil supply peak is sizeable, with central implications for cities Campbell and Laherre 1995 Klare 2002 Heinberg 2003 Goodstein 2004 Campbell 1998, 2003, 2005 . All actively consumed finite resources follow the bell curve of depletion hence the neat in-tandem production peaks predicted to roll across the countries and regions of Europe, Asia Pacific and the Middle East. Liquid fuel supply reserves may stretch to the...

An indicative sketch of status quo in different cities

Cities in less developed countries Cities exhibit far less of a carbon emission issue, the capacity of local policymakers is weak, resources are scarce, institutions for urban environmental governance are less developed and capable, involvement of stakeholders is less pronounced, local issues dominate, and implementation of measures is relatively poor. Rapidly developing industrializing cities The capacity of local policymakers is improving rapidly, resources are scarce but starting to build...

References

A survey of index decomposition analysis in energy and environmental studies. Energy, 25,1149-1176. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics 2006 . Energy update. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2000 . 1998-99 Household Expenditure Survey - Detailed Expenditure Items, Confidentialised Unit Record File. Electronic file unpublished . Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004 . Australian National Accounts, Input-Output Tables, 1998-99. ABS Catalogue No. 5209.0....

Discussion

Why are some economies experiencing the emergence of energy carriers and consumption patterns at lower levels of income than the developed world and specifically the USA There are, of course, many different reasons for this outcome. Certainly, technological advances are important. Simply, when now developed world economies were in their developing phase, many new technologies such as cell phones or automobiles were not yet innovated. 9 These data do not include, for example, carbon dioxide...

Premise and Scope of this Book

This book is a selective compilation of working concepts, technological directions and country-specific organizational perspectives - aspects that promise to yield a better systems-based understanding of policy frameworks and action agendas. The book features basic and advanced, practical and principled thought, across technology, carbon emissions methods, community engagement strategies and various urban renewable energy and efficiency implementation techniques. The aim is to show everyday...

Plugging the Economic Drains from an Urban Precinct

This section considers how economic value can drain out of an urban precinct and how this can be minimized by the introduction of ecological property rights. The adoption of ecological forms of money changes the way a market economy allocates resources as described by Jacobs 1985a . One way as noted above is that it makes renewable energy sources more attractive. The adoption of ecological forms of property rights creates a way of transferring economic value without money to introduce an...

Manfred Lenzen Richard Wood And Barney Foran

Centre for Integrated Sustainability Analysis, A28, The University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia 4.1 Introduction What is Embodied Energy Living means consuming, and consuming means needing energy. Most of the energy resources we consume today are non-renewable - hence there is the obvious problem of their depletion, among other problems of environmental pollution and climate change. We as householders are familiar with using energy in our homes - residential energy - mainly in the form of...