Unpublished Ebooks Catalog
International Commission on Large Dams, World Register of Dams, Paris 1984 International Rivers Network, World Rivers Review, July August, 1989 Mermel, T.W., 'The World's Major Dams and Hydro Plants', International Water Power and Dam Construction, vol. 41, 1989 Parcels, S. & T.B.Stoel, 'The Large Dam Controversy', Unpublished draft for the World Bank, 1989 Probe International, 'Water Projects With World Bank Involvement', World Rivers Review, September October 1989 Simons, M., 'Brazil Wants its Dams, But at What Cost ' New York Times, March 12, 1989.
An integrated ecosystem assessment synthesizes existing information. A logical starting point is the existing literature, including peer-reviewed, scientific and semi-scientific works. Databases held by government departments or research institutes such as the World Agroforestry Centre and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research are a repository for much unpublished information. However, given the many information gaps regarding ecosystem services and linkages to human well-being, it is often necessary to collect new field data, make use of models and tap local knowledge. Gender analysis frameworks, which provide step-by-step tools to analyse activity, access
In the current analysis gamma diversity remains high much farther south in upper Amazonia than alpha diversity. When thought of in terms of species ranges, the result is not surprising. A general macroecological pattern is that species are more abundant, or frequently encountered, at the center of their ranges than at their periphery (Brown. 1984, 1995). Decreases in evenness in species abundances, whether due to local or regional effects, would decrease alpha diversity, even if local plant communities were assembled through random sampling from a landscape species pool. Rarer species would still occur in areas of the landscape that fit their ecological requirements, but would be included in communities less frequently, leading to lower alpha diversity. Examples of this are frequently observed when working along elevational gradients in the Andes where, on geological formations, tree taxa common in the lowlands are found infrequently over a kilometer above their usual range (R. Foster...
According to an unpublished report by the International Maritime Organisation, shipping emitted around 800 million tonnes of CO2 in 2007, which amounts to almost three per cent of global emissions. This means shipping related CO2 emissions have almost doubled over the past ten years. Other sources are indicating even higher figures, up to 1210 million tonnes or nearly 4.5 per cent of global CO2 emissions.
Part I presents the framework within which climate policies are implemented. The opening chapter 2 is the unpublished piece that we had asked David Bradford to contribute for the conference.1 David presents a proposal for international cooperation that substantially differs from that of the Kyoto agreement. Chapter 3 by Roger Guesnerie has a closely connected theme. Roger begins with comments on David Bradford's proposal, and then revisits the main issues underlying the design of efficient international institutions on climate policies. In chapter 4 Sushama Murty offers her own theoretical insights on the two preceding chapters. Chapter 5 by Jean-Charles Hourcade, P. R. Shukla, and Sandrine Mathy examines the involvement of less developed
Nized the morphological similarity between the two species (M. operarius is a junior synonym of M. oeconomus, and the name paroperarius indicates his assessment of their similarity), but he was somewhat inconsistent in his statements of characters to differentiate them (Bell and Repenning, 1999 758). The differentiating characters listed by Paulson (1961 144) must be evaluated with larger sample sizes he himself suggested that the close morphological similarity of the two species was indicative of close relationship (Paulson, 1961 146), and Van der Meulen (1978) suggested that the two species cannot be separated on the basis on dentition. Until recently, M. paroperarius was reported only from localities east of the Rocky Mountains. The original report of Porcupine Cave material documented its presence at high elevation in the central Rockies (Barnosky and Rasmussen, 1988), and subsequent publications documented its presence in Utah (Little Dell Dam Locality 1 Gillette et al., 1999)...
The estimation of potential changes in crop yield. Potential changes in national grain crop yields were estimated using crop models and a decision support system developed by the US Agency for International Development's International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transser (IBSNAT).7 The crops modelled were wheat, rice, maize and soybean. These crops account for more than 85 of the world's traded grains and legumes. The estimated yield changes for 18 countries were interpolated to provide estimates of yield changes for all regions of the world and for all major crops, by reference to all available published and unpublished information.
Replenishment diminished and the well dried up, leaving the inhabitants of the city without a perennial water supply (A. Issar, unpublished report). Whether the desertion of Arad was the first sign of the major dry spell characterizing the end of the EB is difficult to say. A general trend towards drying up of the region is indicated by several pieces of evidence the city was not resettled during the MB the isotopic data shown in Fig. 1.2 the paleo-precipitation curve calculated for Jerusalem from isotope data in the speleothemes of Soreq Cave and the decline of the level the Dead Sea, (Fig. 1.3). Samples of ancient tamarisk wood found along ancient shorelines of the Dead Sea, which penetrated the caves of the salt plug of Mount Sodom (Frumkin et al., 1991), dated to 3780 years BC. These were analyzed for their 13C content and gave values similar to that of present-day trees in this region, namely for trees growing in an arid environment, By comparison trees dating from the Roman...
Sasek, M. (1992) 'Volebni preference v Usti nad Labem' ('Electoral Preferences in Usti nad Labem'), Usti nad Labem Faculty of Social Sciences and Economics, North Bohemian University (unpublished). Vajdova, Z. (1990) 'Parlamentni volby na lokalni urovni mensich mest a obci' (Tarliamentary Election on the Level of Small Towns and Villages'), Praha Institute of Sociology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (unpublished).
Coinciding with the end Eocene cooling event, low-latitude climates also changed substantially, becoming significantly cooler and drier. This was particularly the case in Southeast Asia, where both palynological and lithological evidence suggests that everwet climates became of very limited extent, except, perhaps in the areas of Assam and Myanmar, where Oligocene coals yield rainforest leaf floras (Awasthi and Mehrota, 1995). There may also have been small refugia in other areas, such as the southeast margin of Sundaland (Morley, unpublished). The terminal Eocene event resulted in numerous extinctions across the tropics for example, of Nypa from Africa and South America (Germeraad et al., 1968). However, the impact of this event was probably felt less in South America than other areas, since several taxa persisted there into the Neogene, such as mauritioid and other palm lineages. In general, equatorial floras began to take on an increasingly modern aspect during the course of the...
Fisher's alpha has been used extensively in comparisons of Neotropical forest diversity as it is relatively independent of plot size (Condit et al., 1996 Leigh, 1999 Ter Steege et al., 2003). Gamma diversity was estimated as the total number of species that include a given latitude and elevation within their range (Silman et al., unpublished). Data on tree species diversity from individual locales were taken from compilations of Ter Steege et al. (2000) and Pitman et al. (1999, 2001), as well as unpublished data of J. Terborgh, P. Nunez and N. Pitman. Basin-wide estimates of tree alpha diversity were taken from universal kriging estimates based on 423 plots in moist terra firme forest in Amazonia and the Guianan Shield (Ter Steege et al., 2003, as updated by the ATDN, 2004). Gamma diversity estimates for upper Amazonia and the adjacent eastern Andes are derived from 263,000 collections of vascular plants from 0 to 23 S in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, housed in the Missouri...
Stratigraphie range of angiosperm and pteridophyte megathermal species, or species pairs, which can be identified on the basis of pollen and spores, and have a well-defined Tertiary fossil record (1) from Rull (1999) (2) Morley (unpublished) (3) Morley (1991) others from Morley (2000a). Age shown in Myr. Figure 1.2. Stratigraphie range of angiosperm and pteridophyte megathermal species, or species pairs, which can be identified on the basis of pollen and spores, and have a well-defined Tertiary fossil record (1) from Rull (1999) (2) Morley (unpublished) (3) Morley (1991) others from Morley (2000a). Age shown in Myr.
Palynomorph assemblages from the Middle Eocene from the southern margin of Sundaland (Java) also show higher diversities than those from South America with typically 70-80 types in counts of 250 (Lelono, 2000), and standing diversities of 115140 depending on the calculation method (Morley, unpublished). The diversity of the The trend of gradually increasing floristic diversity through the Paleocene and Eocene in South America and Africa (Figure 1.3) has previously been brought to attention by Morley (2000a). This trend comes to an abrupt halt at the end of the Eocene. Following the end Eocene cooling event, low-latitude floras show a sudden reduction in diversity in South America and Africa and also Southeast Asia (Morley, unpublished), coinciding with cooler and drier low-latitude climates.
A theoretical model for organic matter weathering in shales is being constructed (Bolton et al., unpublished ms) that incorporates erosion, organic matter oxidation, O2 diffusion, shale porosity and permeability, organic matter and shale texture, pyrite oxidation (most organic-rich marine shales contain abundant pyrite), and measured gradients of organic C and pyrite S. The fundamental question being addressed is whether the rate of oxidative weathering of both organic matter and pyrite is controlled by O2 transport into the shale or by the exposure of the organic matter and pyrite to the atmosphere by erosion. If the former is true, then the rate of weathering becomes a function of the level of O2 in the atmosphere. It has been assumed by some authors (e.g., Holland, 1978 Berner, 2001) that organic weathering is independent of atmospheric O2 and dependent only on uplift and erosion. Preliminary results of the modeling suggest that this is correct, but further work is needed.
Substrate also has a large effect on the floristic composition of Amazonian tree communities, and these effects are conserved at higher phylogenetic levels. At a local spatial scale, at our upper-Amazonian sites, tree plots can be reliably classified to floodplain or terra firme forest even if stems are only identified to family, and that result holds generally at localities across the Amazon Basin (e.g., Terborgh et al., 1996). Terborgh and Andresen (1998) showed that at larger spatial scales, however, adjacent terra firme and floodplain sites were more similar to each other than either was to the same habitat type at a more distant site. Floodplain sediments by and large reflect local to regional sediment transport and suggest that trees are responding to soil characteristics. Another explanation would be that trees are highly dispersal-limited, and that floristic differences among regions reflect in situ evolutionary differences (Campbell, 1994). While biogeographic explanations...
Mass movements induced by torrential rainfall may occur on slopes of widely varying slope angle, in both forested and non-forested areas. In early unpublished reports of landslides in Fiji, reviewed by Greenbaum et al. (1995), the majority of failures were recorded as starting from upper sections of hillsides, at or near slope crests. This indicates that sliding in many cases was caused by downward percolation of rainwater rather than by rising
In unpublished personal remembrances, Mary Ann Parrott Locke (1996) told of her father Clarence Parrott homesteading in South Park in March 1917. Clarence had crossed Kansas in 1916 with several wagons of family members, in what they believed was the last organized wagon train to South Park. Clara McDannel ran away from home at the age of 25 and traveled from Illinois to Salida to marry Clarence Parrott in July 1917. Born in 1931, Mary Ann recalled that during her childhood there were wild horses in South Park. Although some of the cattlemen did not approve of the presence of sheepmen in South Park, Clarence and Clara Parrott, accompanied by Ru-fus Marshall, traveled to New Mexico in 1928, where they purchased sheep that were shipped by train to Salida, then trailed up the Ute Trail to the ranch. When Clarence began selling off his property in South Park, he wanted to keep the peace between the sheepmen and the cattlemen, so he sold part of it to Rufus Marshall, an employee of the...
A., and Varlyguin, D. L. (1993) Legend to the World Vegetation Cover Map. Unpublished. Moss, P. T. (1999) Late Quaternary environments of the humid tropics of northeastern Australia. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne. Peerdeman, F. (1993) The Pleistocene climatic and sea-level signature of the northeastern Australian continental margin. Unpublished PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
The combined forces of a free-floating dollar, a growing US trade deficit, and massive debt associated with the ongoing Vietnam War contributed to both the volatility and devaluation of the dollar in the 1970s. According to research outlined in David Spiro's book, The Hidden Hand of American Hegemony, it was during this time that OPEC began discussing the viability of pricing oil trades in several currencies. This unpublished proposal involved a basket of currencies from the Group of Ten nations, or G-10.40 These members of the Bank of International Settlements (BIS), plus Austria and Switzerland, included the major European countries and their currencies, such as Germany (mark), France (franc), and the UK (pound sterling), as well other industrialized nations, such as Japan (yen), Canada (Canadian dollar), and of course the US (US dollar). It should be noted the powerful G-10 BIS also has one unofficial member, the governor of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA).
See Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER), Fish and Wildlife Director Overrules His Own Scientific Panel Allows Continued Hunting of Rare Trumpeter Swans, press release, April 13, 2004 available at www.peer.org. The non-peer-reviewed report is James Dubovsky and John Cornely, Trumpeter Swan Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population, U.S. Breeding Segment, Fall 2002, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds and State Programs, Mountain-Prairie Region Lakewood, CO, October 2003 available at www.grandjunctionfishand wildlife.fws.gov. The second report is R. S. Gale et al., The History, Ecology and Management of the Rocky Mountain Population of Trumpeter Swans, unpublished report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, Missoula, MT, 1987.
The range-related pattern of change at this site matches expectations of animal populations shifting northward due to climatic warming. Figure 3.9 illustrates diagrammatically how northward shifts in geographic distributions of animals would result in the patterns we observed. Note both a population with a Gaussian distribution of abundance (bell-shaped curves) and a population with abrupt drops in populations at the edges of the range (steep-sided curves) can hypothetically show this pattern. This is significant because preliminary surveys (R. Sagarin, unpublished data) show It is difficult with only a single study site to separate actual range shifts from population changes within an existing range. Nevertheless, several of the intertidal species for which we have additional information have shown changes consistent with northern range shifts. For example, Serpulorbis squamigerus, a southern gastropod, which is now extremely abundant at HMS and in Monterey Bay (R. Sagarin, pers....
From a sampling standpoint, the studies benefited from being replicated in the exact location of the original studies. Spatial variation in invertebrate abundance in the Hopkins intertidal zone is extreme, so that transects through the same intertidal zone just a few meters apart can show completely different patterns (R. Sagarin, pers. obs.). Likewise, algal tidal height distributions are extremely sensitive to aspect of the rocks. By sampling Endocladia height on different sides of rock faces at HMS (unpublished data), we found that height of this alga is consistently lower on south-facing rock slopes than on north-facing slopes. Thus, without knowing that Endocladia plots were surveyed in the precise location of Glynn's original plots, it would be difficult to rule out the effects of substratum aspect in the tidal height changes we observed.
The Alps particularly are exposed to both extremes of precipitation - i.e., heavy precipitation (including hail) and drought - according to the circulation patterns that are associated with extremes and their persistence. Many of the strong rainfall events result in flooding and geomorphologic hazards such as landslides, rock falls, and debris flows within regions of complex topography. If these events occur in the vicinity of populated regions, the impacts in human and economic terms can be enormous. Indeed, the August 2005 floods in Switzerland were estimated to be, on a gross domestic product (GDP) basis, as costly to the Swiss economy as the 2005 Katrina hurricane was to the US economy (unpublished figures from insurance firms).
This book was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 08-05-00949a. The authors are grateful to N. Diansky, R. Ibrayev, V. Knysh, E. Ozsoy, T. Pohlmann, E. Semenov, and V. Zalesny for providing us with their unpublished materials that was helpful for keeping some sections of the book in state-of-the-art. Many interesting discussions in the institutions of both authors were very fruitful. We thank also to V. Arutyunyan and A. Schneehorst for their assistance in the preparation of the manuscript for publication, and to Nina Bennink and Rajasekar Subramaniam for their comments and corrections of the manuscript yet we ask a pardon from a careful reader who may still find some mistakes in the text.
The main feature of the potential-energy surface calculated using the energy-density functional theory is the occurrence of an additional barrier between the saddle and scission points originating from the formation of a neck of low-density nuclear matter prior to the scission. Unpublished calculations indicate that such a barrier exists even for unrealistic geometries such as half-cone attached to a half sphere. As noted in Appendix A, only the existence of such a barrier allows the potential to drop below the asymptotic kinetic energy, which is a necessary condition for the existence of a meta-stable state. It is also established that the observed half-lives can be accounted for using observed TKE. The preference for parent nuclei, considered herein, to decay primarily to asymptotic modes is also accounted for.
The hypothesis that lack of Upper Montane Rain Forest in the Pleistocene may be explained by absence of a habitat with a suitable combination of mean annual temperature and UV-B insolation (diagram by G. Rapson, unpublished). Figure 8.4. The hypothesis that lack of Upper Montane Rain Forest in the Pleistocene may be explained by absence of a habitat with a suitable combination of mean annual temperature and UV-B insolation (diagram by G. Rapson, unpublished).
Nearly half of a sample of 100 primary student teachers who had achieved a grade C at GCSE only two years previously said the acid rain was twice as acidic, and only 5 per cent realised it was 1000 times as acidic (unpublished data, K.A. Ross, University of Gloucestershire 2003).
The following except is taken from a flyer that was given to all households in Britain over 30 years ago along with their 1971 Census form. It would be an interesting question to ask to what extent the 1971 Census was ever used to meet the aims it specified. Processing of the 1971 Census was delayed due to the complexity of handling so much data at the time. The final printed volume of 1971 Census data was not published until 1979. Only a few centres in the country could handle the unpublished data (much the same is true in 2001). In 1979, of course, a new government (led by Mrs Thatcher) was elected in Britain that saw the market rather than state planning as the main mechanism to determine who benefits. Were the people of Britain duped
The reports consist of chapters and various levels of summaries. Much of the work of writing and reviewing the documents is done by researchers at universities, not necessarily employed by any government. The rules are that the chapters may present no previously unpublished research, but are based only on published, peer-reviewed scientific papers.
From a number of localities in the Arctic high latitudes in the West (Mead, 1987 Morlan, 1996). The small form (similar to O. princeps) occurred in the East to more southern latitudes. An unpublished account occurs from Cathedral Cave, Great Basin, Nevada (J. I. Mead and C. J. Bell, unpublished). Here we present the first record of Irvingtonian Ochotona from the intermountain West, a record from high-elevation Porcupine Cave, Colorado.
Recently, Wallace Broecker, climate scientist, perhaps the world's foremost interpreter of the Earth's operation as a biological, chemical, and physical system, has been promoting an as yet unpublished technology developed by physicist Klaus Lackner for capturing CO2 from thin air. Broecker imagines that the world could carry on burning fossil fuels at much the same rate as it does now, and 60 million CO2-scrubbers (each the size of an up-ended shipping container) will vacuum up the CO2. What energy does Lackner's process require In June 2007 Lackner told me that his lab was achieving 1.3 kWh per kg, but since then they have developed a new process based on a resin that absorbs CO2 when dry and releases CO2 when moist. Lackner told me in June 2008 that, in a dry climate, the concentration cost has been reduced to about 0.18-0.37kWh of low-grade heat per kg CO2. The compression cost is 0.11 kWh per kg. Thus Lackner's total cost is 0.48 kWh or less per kg. For a European's emissions of...
In some cases, detailed observational studies or natural experiments may reveal likely mechanisms of climate sensitivity. For example Fraser et al. (1992) found that two closely related species of penguins showed opposite population trends since the 1970s in the Antarctic with chinstrap penguins increasing and Adelie populations declining. A closer examination found that chinstraps, in contrast to the Adelies, prefer open water habitats and thus had benefited from climate-related loss of pack ice in the Antarctic. Further, within populations of Adelies, those that lived on islands with increased snowfall and snowmelt were detrimentally affected by the increased inaccessibility of nest sites (Fraser, unpublished data). Thus habitat changes mediated by climate changes were shown to be the mechanism responsible for population changes.
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