Conclusions

Paleoecological research in the Andes has provided some exciting insights into the both long-term migrations of species and also responses to rapid climatic oscillations. In Europe and North America the accumulation of thousands of pollen records allowed Holocene migrations to be mapped in great detail. From those studies emerged the understanding that temperate communities are ephemeral, perhaps the most important ecological insight to arise from Quaternary paleoecology. However, simply applying the rules of temperate ecology to the tropics has been shown repeatedly to be unwise. The Andes offer a very different migratory environment to the great plains of Europe and eastern North America. The Amazonian lowlands are often separated from Andean snows by <50 km. The complex topography of Andean valleys, ridges, and streambeds offer a mass of microhabitats that can range from xeric scrub to lush forest in a few tens of meters. The consequence of this heterogeneity is that migration could have been nearly instantaneous rather than lagged by thousands of years. Under these circumstances continuity of habitat availability, rather than ability to migrate in and out of refugia, may be the key to diversity.

Paleoecological records from the Andes show a remarkable continuity of montane forest availability for species. Although the area with ground-level cloud moved up and down a mountain, it appears probable that this niche has been a continuous feature of the environment since the Andean orogeny created uplands high enough to induce cloud formation. Where it can be measured, rates of community change are low for tens of millennia, though communities are changing throughout that time. Novel assemblages arose due to continental-scale as well as local migrations, but the overall niche of living within a montane forest may have changed less than its cloud-free counterparts up and downslope.

Regional asynchrony is a feature of the paleoeclimatic literature with Lake Junin, Peru (11°S) cited as the southernmost record that had a full glacial precipitational pattern common to sites south of Mexico (Bradbury et al., 2001); farther south tropical systems were somewhat out of phase with this northern group of sites. However, Seltzer et al. (2000) argue that moisture change between Lake Junin and sites in the Caribbean were asymmetric in the Holocene. This latter argument is based on the apparent fit of moisture availability and regional wet season insolation. These apparently contradictory assessments are not necessarily inconsistent as we have yet to discover the proximate causes of glacial age precipitation change in the Andes. The important points that can be derived from the paleoecological data are that precipitation and temperature patterns varied substantially with latitude along the tropical

Andes, and that regions exhibiting synchronous changes in one period could be asynchronous in another.

The paleoecological record needs to be incorporated in conservation thinking to devise appropriate strategies to avert an imminent loss of biodiversity. However, for paleoecology to become genuinely integrated with conservation science we will need to provide more detailed records, especially increasing our taxonomic precision. Furthermore, new paleoecological records from the montane forest region are desperately needed to expand our spatial data set and test the many emerging theories relating to this fascinating ecosystem.

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by National Science Foundation grants ATM 9906107 and 0317539. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their help and comments.

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