Traditional Chinese Medicine

Natural Synergy

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Natural Synergy Summary


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Pure Natural Healing Summary

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Author: Master Lim
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Price: $97.00

Gas production prospects

In the Reference Scenario, world natural gas production is projected to rise from just under 3 tcm in 2006 (and just over 3 tcm in 2007, according to provisional data) to 4.4 tcm in 2030 (Table 12.4). Production expands in all major WEO regions, with the exception of OECD Europe, where production is already in decline, and in OECD North America, where production begins to fall over the second half of the Outlook period. Output grows most strongly in both volume and percentage terms in the Middle East, tripling between 2006 and 2030 to 1 tcm. Most of this increase comes from Iran and

Gas hydrates are we getting closer to commercial exploitation

Methane or gas hydrates are the most abundant source of hydrocarbon gas on earth. They are crystal-like solids that are formed when methane is mixed with water at low temperature and moderate pressure. They occur at relatively shallow depths, usually offshore or in Arctic regions. Various estimates of the total amount of natural gas in place in the hydrate accumulations have been made. The most recent estimate put the range for the volume of gas trapped between 2 500 tcm and 20 000 tcm, or up to 50 times conventional reserves (see, for example, NPC, 2007).

Outlook for investment to

In the Reference Scenario, oil production is projected to rise from 85 mb d in 2006 to 106 mb d in 2030 and gas production from 3.0 tcm to 4.4 tcm, taking account of the economic viability of developing new reserves and various constraints on investment in each region. These projections imply a need for cumulative investment in the upstream oil and gas sector of around 8.4 trillion (in year-2007 dollars) over 2007-2030, or 350 billion per year. Oil accounts for 5 trillion and gas for 3.3 trillion (Table 13.3).

Shale gas a neglected resource becomes valuable

Global shale-gas reserves are estimated at 450 tcm, with 35 in the Americas, 35 in the Asia-Pacific region and 15 in the Middle East (Rogner, 1997). The United States is currently the only large-scale producer, with output reaching 20 bcm in 2005. This is expected to rise to 28 bcm by 2010, accounting for nearly 5 of total US gas production. An economic analysis is underway of the potential development of shale gas in British Columbia, Canada early tests with a horizontal well have achieved production rates of 5 million cubic feet per day per well there are plans to drill up to 20 additional wells by the end of 2008.

Box Sour gas reserves a costly nuisance

Sour gas reservoirs contain, in addition to methane, significant quantities of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and or carbon dioxide (CO2). More than 40 of the world's gas reserves are estimated to be sour (Table 12.2). In the Middle East, 60 of proven gas reserves are sour. Southeast Asia's largest gas reservoir is the Indonesian Natuna field, with 1.3 tcm of gas reserves, but it has a CO2 content as high as 71 . Technical difficulties have delayed Natuna's development for more than two decades.

Interregional trade

Major Gas Trade Flows

Inter-regional natural gas trade (between major WEO regions) is projected to more than double over the projection period, from 441 bcm in 2006 to around 1 tcm in 2030 (Table 4.3). Trade rises much faster than demand, due to the pronounced geographical mismatch between resource location and demand. As a result, regional gas markets become more integrated as trade in LNG expands and new long-distance and undersea pipelines enable more gas to be traded between regions.

Eastern Europe Eurasia

Russia has 48 tcm of proven gas reserves, one-quarter of the world total and the largest share of any country. The USGS estimates undiscovered recoverable conventional resources, not including reserves growth, at 80 tcm, including an estimated 37 tcm located north of the Arctic Circle (USGS, 2000 and 2008). Russia is the world's largest natural gas producer and exporter, and is the second-largest natural gas consumer after the United States. Russian exports meet almost a quarter 8 of OECD Europe's gas needs, directly to Finland and Turkey, and via transit pipelines Gazprom has begun development work on the 4-tcm Bovanenkovskoye field, the first to be brought into production on the Yamal peninsula in northern Siberia. Production is due to begin around 2012, with output expected to reach 115 bcm per year once a new pipeline is built to link the field to the national transmission system. Other Yamal fields are lined up for development. Yamal presents major technical challenges because of...

Greatest ResponsiBiLiTY

But the greatest responsibility now for the media is the wildlife crisis, in my view. The media should lend a voice to the cause of the mute and helpless wildlife that is being decimated in the name of human rights and scrutinise the fallout of lax administration and potholed policies that adversely affect wildlife conservation. The rate at which tigers are disappearing from the forests and ending up as branded balms on shelves of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) markets, we are likely to lose the remaining 1,400 tigers in less than a year. Not to sound like a doomsday prophet again, but the tiger is indeed at the head of the faunal diversity and biodiversity. If we lose the tiger, we are going to lose all the wildlife which forms its prey-base and the remaining Protected Areas which serve more as catchment areas for our water resources than as homes to the precious wildlife. It is our job as environmental journalists to create the requisite awareness amongst the common man that...

OECD North America

Canada and the United States form the largest integrated natural gas market in the world, with Canada providing about a quarter of their combined production, while there is a limited amount of trade between Mexico and the United States. Proven reserves in the entire region are currently estimated to be 8 tcm or 4.5 of the world total.7 The North American market is very mature, with the proven reserves equal to about only 10 years of production at current rates. In total, the region's combined gas production is projected in the Reference Scenario to peak by In the United States, proven remaining reserves of gas have increased almost every year for the last decade and, at 6 tcm, now cover almost 11 years of production at current rates. Recent drilling trends point to continued growth in reserves, with a stronger concentration on non-conventional resources, notably shales and coalbed methane. Shale formations in the lower 48 states are widely distributed, large, and contain huge...

Conventional gas

Global resources of natural gas that can be economically extracted are of a similar magnitude (on an energy-equivalent basis) to those of oil. Proven reserves1 at the end of 2007 stood at 179 trillion cubic metres according to Cedigaz, an international centre for gas information, and 175 tcm according to the Oil and Gas Journal (O&GJ) - equal to around 60 years of current production. Other sources show similar estimates.2 OPEC countries hold about half and OECD countries well under 10 . Remaining reserves have more than doubled since 1980, with the biggest increases coming from the Middle East (Figure 12.1). Reserves have risen by about 12 since 2000, despite rising annual production.

Latin America

Gas production and consumption in Latin America remain highly concentrated. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela account for almost all the region's production, most of which (with the exception of that from Trinidad and Tobago, which exports LNG) is consumed within the domestic market. Although the region has plentiful gas reserves, estimated at 7.7 tcm, the recent surge in producing countries of resource nationalism and government policies that discourage upstream investment has led some importing countries to turn to imported LNG from outside the region, rather than rely on overland pipeline imports from neighbouring countries. Today, several LNG receiving terminals are either being built or are at the planning stage - three in Brazil, two in Chile, one in Argentina and one in Uruguay. If all are built, Latin America could be importing as much as 14 bcm per year of LNG by the end of the decade, reaching 27 bcm per year by the end 2012. All the...

NonOECD Asia

Indonesia has the largest proven gas reserves in the region, estimated at 3 tcm, and is the largest producer. Reserves grew sharply in 2006 and 2007, with new discoveries (resulting from a spurt in the issue of new exploration licences) and increased appraisal drilling. Production has nonetheless continued to drift lower as output from the main fields, which have been producing for many years, declines. Total output stood at 70 bcm in 2007. Indonesia's difficulties in meeting its contractual commitments and extending existing contracts as they expire have been an important factor in the run-up in LNG prices in the Pacific region in recent years. There is a major geographical mismatch between the main demand centres in Indonesia, in Java and Bali, and the main reserves. Pipelines connect these demand centres to procuring areas on Natuna Island and South Sumatra, but other resource-rich areas, such as Kalimantan and Papua, are not connected because of their remoteness. Due to this...

Middle East

The Middle East holds around 40 of world gas reserves with Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates holding the largest volumes. Gas reserves in Iran and Qatar alone account for nearly 30 of the world total. Yet, despite a rising trend in production in recent years, these two countries together account for only 5 of global production and the region as a whole for less than 11 , suggesting strong potential to boost supply in the long term, particularly in Iran. Production in the Middle East is expected to grow more than in any other region. In the Reference Scenario, we project Middle East output will jump from 318 bcm in 2007 to 480 bcm in 2015 and to 1 tcm in 2030. Iran remains the region's biggest gas-producing country in the Reference Scenario, its production rising from an estimated 107 bcm in 2007 to over 350 bcm in 2030 - on the assumption that the required investment can be mobilised. The lion's share of the country's reserves, and the expected source of much of the...

OECD Oceania

Natural gas reserves in Australia and New Zealand stand at 2.5 tcm, the bulk of which are located in remote locations in offshore Western Australia. In addition to conventional natural gas, Australia has extensive deposits of coalbed methane. Australia is fast becoming an important LNG player in the Asia-Pacific region, helping to compensate for Indonesia's declining role as an exporter of LNG. Australia's Santos recently announced its proposed Gladstone LNG project is for a 3 to 4 million tonnes per year LNG processing train and associated infrastructure, based on coalbed methane from Queensland's Bowen and Surat Basins, the first of its kind. The project aims to export its first shipment by 2014. Total Australian production is projected to double by 2030, to close to 100 bcm from less than 50 bcm in 2007. New Zealand production is expected to remain modest.

OECD Europe

Norway is Europe's leading gas producer and the sixth-largest in the world - though it holds just 3 tcm, or 1.7 of the world's remaining proven reserves. The ultimate recoverable resource potential is thought to be large, however, as large parts of continental shelf have yet to be explored, especially the Barents Sea. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates that ultimately recoverable resources are in the range of 3.4 tcm to 6.6 tcm. However, despite their obvious potential, northern Norwegian reserves present a significant challenge, firstly due to their remoteness and the arctic conditions but also to the distance from the existing transport infrastructure and traditional markets. Production of natural gas started on the Norwegian shelf simultaneously with oil production in 1971 and exports began in 1977. Norway currently has capacity to export about 120 bcm per year, though marketed production in 2007 reached only 91 bcm, according to preliminary estimates. Output is...

Nonconventional gas

Non-conventional gas embraces a set of gas resources that are generally contiguous in nature, sometimes referred to as resource plays in the industry, that require special drilling and stimulation techniques to release the gas from the formations in which they occur. Non-conventional gas includes coalbed methane, tight gas sands and gas shales. Such resources are widespread worldwide, but their development has generally been limited so far to North America. Determining the amount of gas in place in non-conventional reservoirs is a complex task, due to the heterogeneous structure of the reservoirs and of the production profiles, which can differ significantly from conventional wells. Total worldwide non-conventional gas resources are estimated at over 900 tcm, with 25 in the United States and Canada combined, and 15 each in China, India and the Former Soviet Union. Non-conventional gas accounts for a significant and rising share of US gas production. Eight of the ten largest onshore...

Coalbed methane

World Coalbed Methane

The majority of the world's coal resources, estimated at 86 to 283 tcm (Creedy and Tilley, 2003), are found at depths where coal cannot be mined. Coalbed methane is the methane contained in coalbeds that, due to the deposit's depth or the coal's poor quality, cannot be mined. In operating coal mines, methane gas is generally considered to be a hazard, as well as creating an environmental problem if vented to cc Coalbed methane has been slower to take off in China, even though the country has the world's third-largest reserves and despite the large amounts of methane released through venting from coal mines (estimated at over 0.2 tcf, or 5.7 bcm, per year) and the associated safety and environmental risks. Increasing production is a priority in China's 11th five-year national plan (2006-2010), with the stated objective of producing nearly 0.3 tcf - 8.5 bcm - by 2010. Russia has over 80 tcm of recoverable coalbed-methane reserves, including more than 10 tcm in the Kuzbass basin, located...

Chinese Herbs

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