The Magic of Tidying Up

How to Get Your Home in Order Almost Immediately

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Organizing for community power

Mainstream environmental groups have more often then not reduced the concept of community organizing to canvassing to raise money for their DC offices, signing petitions, and running shadow campaigns for the Democratic Party. These efforts do nothing to build power within our communities and serve to divert our movements from more meaningful efforts. Effective community organizing builds the power of communities to fight back as well as implement sustainable solutions on their own terms. It breaks individuals out of their isolation and bring them together for collective action. Community organizing must provide people with the tools and skill sets to organize themselves. A successful movement empowers people to take an active and equal part in the struggle by organizing in egalitarian ways. Many groups already operate in this manner by using consensus decision making and structuring themselves as a collective team where every participant's voice is important and the goals of actions...

Organizing for Coordinated Climate Action A Multilevel Dilemma

Even if there is both knowledge and motivation, climate policy may still stumble because there is a lack of effective organizational structures. This leads to a search for organizational alternatives that ease the transformation of knowledge and motivation into behaviour and activities more beneficial to the climate. Sweden's emphasis on local-level action to reduce climate impact clearly brings to the fore the tension between the two principal models for organizing multilevel climate governance - that is, the area-specific, multipurpose, hierarchical and stable model versus the task-specific, cross-level and flexible model. The constitutionally strong and independent local governments in Sweden correspond to the first model, with different policy sectors and administrations having different goals and constituencies. National efforts to implement the climate strategy thus encounter a local power structure and organization, where both politicians and administrators may question the...

Movin On Up from Low Grade to High Grade

One way to clean up coal ' s act is to step up from low-grade coal to high-grade coal. What's the difference Low-grade coal has a higher ash and moisture content than high-grade coal. The low-grade coal doesn't burn as completely as the high-grade variety, and it also emits more pollutants. What if there were a way to make the low-grade coal burn like high-grade coal Wouldn't this be one way to help coal clean up its act Indeed, it would and there is one company with a proprietary solution that does just that. The company is Evergreen Energy (NYSE EEE), and the process they use to help clean up coal is called K-Fuel. Evergreen uses heat and pressure to both physically and chemically transform high-moisture, lower-Btu coal into what effectively becomes the more efficient, lower-emission, high-grade variety. The K-Fuel process removes significant amounts of mercury, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emitted when burning low-grade coal. It also reduces the CO 2 emissions whenever you...

The Skies Over Antarctica

The air seems cleaner in London and New York, but what about Mexico City, Shanghai, and Calcutta As stricter environmental regulations have forced factories to clean up their acts in the wealthier nations, economic pressures have precluded (or at least slowed down) such reform in many of the less-developed parts of the world. In many places where relatively dirty sources of power, such as unprocessed coal and kerosene, are abundantly used, switching to cleaner fuels, or at least using filters, is considered too expensive a transformation to make. Unfortunately, the costs of maintaining inefficient power systems are usually not weighed against the more subtle expenses of hospitalization of segments of the population (es-

Regulation Versus Investment In Technology

Consider a pollutant (say, carbon) with a standard annual marginal benefit and annual marginal cost of clean-up schedule, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The costs are recurrent, and marginal costs rise, because the firms adjust to a tax or permit Under these circumstances, efficient regulation would require either a carbon tax of t* dollars per ton, or a cap and trade system with c* permits issued. The total costs of this kind of incentive-based regulation would be, on an annual basis, area Y total benefits would be X + Y, while the net benefits would be X. The area Z represents residual benefits of further clean-up beyond the efficient level, which are not captured by the regulatory policy. The present value of this approach would thus be Moreover, there are two additional features here, both of which favor the clean technology investment. First, because of the carbon scarcity, the residual benefits grow over time (Z'(t) 0) in addition, as the efficient clean-up standard tightens, the...

Getting the right toots

I Polyurethane Performs better than latex but is much more difficult to work with and clean up. Use it between concrete, masonry, bricks, or on a surface that's been painted by oil-based paints or varnish. Because it has better adhesion, you may also want to use it on surfaces, such as on roof lines, where a leak could be potentially costly.

The ecologically slippery slope

Lower prices for consumers and higher profits for the investors in transnational corporations have benefited the developed world, while cheap labour, tax breaks and lax environmental standards have put a heavy burden on developing countries. Whereas the post-industrial society has the luxury to enjoy a cleaner environment and the benefit of low-priced consumer goods, the developing countries bear the burden of air and water pollution, soil erosion and deforestation.61 In the international arena this translates into an increased pressure on the developing countries (often from well-meaning environmentalists of the developed countries) to clean up their act. From the perspective of the developing countries, this is global 'environmental imperialism', as global climate-change problems and other environmental problems are seen as the direct outcome of the resource- and energy-intensive global chain of production and consumption. In fact, if we attribute CO2 emissions to consuming...

The Clean Diesel Revolution

The difference in our air quality and in oil reliance on foreign fuels should be substantial. Diesel engines are significantly more efficient than gasoline engines, but their progress in the United States was stymied because of stringent pollution standards that could not be met by then-current diesel technology. As you probably could guess, diesels of the past were not pretty. How bad were they In 1995, gasoline-powered cars outnumbered diesel-powered trucks and buses by 28 to 1, yet diesel vehicles emitted 43 percent of the smog-forming nitrogen oxides and more than two thirds of the soot particles that went into our air. Although the move to low-sulfur diesel fuel will have its most immediate effects by helping clean up the pollution emitted by big trucks and buses, it also is expected to result in a substantial increase in high-fuel-mileage diesel cars and SUVs.

Superfund site construction completed

It simply means that the engineering construction phase of site clean-up is completed. The Superfund Trust Fund is also financed through cost recoveries money that the EPA recovers through legal settlements with responsible parties. The EPA is authorized to compel parties responsible for creating hazardous pollution, such as waste generators, waste haulers, site owners, or site operators, to clean up the sites. If these parties cannot be found, or if a settlement cannot be reached, the Superfund program finances the cleanup. After completing a cleanup, the EPA can take action against the responsible parties to recover costs and replenish the fund. The average cost of cleanup is about 30 million, large enough to make it worthwhile for parties to pursue legal means to spread the costs among large numbers of responsible parties. Many cleanups involve dozens of parties.

Shattering the Trade Off Myth

The confluence of the quality and environmental movements was a marriage made in heaven By the late 1980s, it had become clear that preventing pollution and other negative impacts was usually a much cheaper and more effective approach than trying to clean up the mess after it had already been made. The emergence of market-based incentives such as tradable emission permits made prevention even more appealing. Furthermore, the discipline of quality management could be easily expanded to incorporate social and environmental issues. In the early 1990s, this confluence produced a flurry of so-called environmental management system (EMS) approaches and total quality environmental management protocols, culminating in the advent of ISO 14001, the environmental equivalent of ISO 9000 for quality.

CERCLA and the Superfund

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) established the Superfund program to pay for cleaning up highly contaminated hazardous waste sites that had been abandoned or where a sole responsible party could not be identified. Originally a 1.6 billion, five-year program, Superfund was focused initially on cleaning up leaking dumps that jeopardized groundwater. As of June 17, 2005, there were 1,242 sites on the NPL. More than nine hundred had been declared as construction completed.'' The EPA determines construction completed when all physical construction of cleanup actions are completed, all immediate threats have been addressed, and all long-term threats are under control. This does not mean that a site has met its clean-up

Legislation to Regulate Vehicle Emissions

With cars and freeways proliferating and pollution worsening, pressure intensified in California to do something more. The first legislation requiring controls on vehicle emissions was passed in California in 1959, followed within a year by the creation of the statewide Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board, the first of its kind, to test and certify devices to clean up California's cars. This led to the use of positive crankcase ventilation in 1961, the first automotive emission control technology ever required. A year after California's 1959 pollution law, the national government enacted the Federal Motor Vehicle Act, but it mostly supported more research on air pollution. Actual federal emission standards would take another decade.

Climate Change Effects

We can take some clues from the water reclamation and water damage restoration industries regarding how concerned we need to be about different types of water. Water that is potable (drinkable) is considered clean and is generally the easiest to clean up, providing that cleaning and drying occur rapidly. Gray water is generally considered to be potentially contaminated with low levels of bacteria or organic matter and may pose health risks. Gray water can be used for landscape irrigation but should never be consumed. Black water is grossly unsanitary. According to the Institute for Inspection Cleaning Restoration Certification (IICRC), which has established the S500 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Water Damage Restoration, the category of the water will degrade with time and its flow across surfaces so that clean water can become gray and gray can become black water. In the case of flowing across contaminated surfaces the category of water can change instantly (IICRC...

President Clinton Formally Addressed Environmental Justice

From the late 1990s until the present, the U.S. EPA has worked to meet the needs of communities in the U.S. most impacted by environmental justice issues. The agency has held outreach activities and workshops in addition to providing funds directly to impacted communities via grants. These include the Small Grants Program and the Community University Partnership Grant Program. Through the Small Grants Program, EPA awarded communities across the U.S. thousands of dollars to address their specific needs. In Region 9 alone, which includes California, Arizona and Hawaii, the Agency awarded 15 Small Grants to support community-based efforts. These efforts included a 20,000 award to the Haulapai Tribe's Used Oil Recycling Project in Peach Springs, AZ and another 20,000 to the Toxic Free Barrio Logan Campaign in National City, CA. These grants provided much needed funding to educate community members about environmental hazards and to help clean up toxic pollution. This community-based...

Pumping out Basements Belowground Pools Spas and Septic Tanks

Cleaning mold off hard non-porous surfaces and performing mold remediation are two completely different things. If you have mold growing in your bathroom on the shower or bathtub tile or the fiberglass enclosure around it, you have a common situation of mold growing on a hard non-porous surface. This is not a serious situation. It merely requires routine maintenance and cleaning, not mold remediation. Studies have shown chlorine bleach is effective in cleaning bathroom tub or shower surrounds (Reynolds), as are a variety of other non-chlorine products. It's even better if there is a surfactant present to help cut through soap scum and grease. Clorox Clean-up combines chlorine bleach with a cleaning compound and is a much better choice than mixing your own concoction. It is important to always remember that mixing cleaning compounds yourself may neutralize the cleaning agent or, even worse, result in toxic fumes. Many people are hospitalized each year, and some die, from mixing...

What are your thoughts on Global Warming Is it real What should we do about it

There has been a two degree change in temp in 20M years. That doesn't scare me. However, the cost of electricity in the U.S. has accelerated by nearly 25 in the past two years, while the availability of power has become severely constrained in the Northeast and in Southern and Northern California thanks to a failure of power companies to invest in the distribution grid with the same alacrity that they have in power generation. Whatever we can do to clean up Mother Earth will benefit our children a good thing.

Tackling the environmental challenge

Under the terms of these agreements, oil companies voluntarily accepted strict liability for pollution damage and the cost of remedial measures. However, much of the public attention to oil companies was focused on marine pollution at the time. With the general rise in environmental awareness around the world since the 1970s, the quantity and scope of voluntary environmental initiatives have greatly increased, and the environmental agenda has widened to include broader issues such as climate change and biodiversity.

Innovation Spurred by Government Regulation

Aggressive tailpipe standards, led by California, played a central role in cleaning up urban air. But it also had another highly beneficial consequence. Forced to reduce emissions, automakers found that they needed a more precise means of controlling the mix of air and fuel. The old carburetor was inadequate. The solution Computers and sensors. From the first use of basic microprocessors and sensors in the late 1970s emerged entirely new engineering approaches. By the 1990s, high-tech electronics were sweeping through the auto industry. Electrical controls began to replace mechanical and hydraulic devices for braking, steering, and suspension, as well as engine control. Today's cars are akin to computers on wheels.

Sewage Animal Waste and Fertilizers

A classic example of eutrophication and its treatment occurred in the estuary of the River Thames, near London, England. In the 1950s the water was severely hypoxic for thirty-five kilometers (twenty-two miles) below London Bridge. After several sewage treatment plants were built, the water returned to a well-oxygenated state and migratory fish such as salmon once again ascend the river. In the case of the Mississippi River, treatment of the eutrophication is more difficult because runoff from agricultural land is the major cause of the problem, and more than half of the agricultural land in the United States drains into the Mississippi basin. Cleaning up the pollution would involve changes in farming methods on a national scale.

Green companies do better

As the idea that we are each responsible for cleaning up our own mess gains sway among religious and secular institutions, a powerful dynamic will be at play in the marketplace. For example, Land Rover will be including the cost of offsetting carbon emissions for the first 45,000 miles driven in the price of most of its models sold in the UK beginning in 2007. The company has clearly calculated that most of its consumers are prepared to pay a little extra in order to reduce their impact on the environment.

The hidden mainstream agenda

A historical review reveals that from its auspicious origins at Rio, the term 'sustainable consumption' has evolved through a range of international policy arenas, and its definition narrowed as it became more widely accepted as a policy goal. More challenging ideas became marginalised as governments instead focused on politically acceptable and economically rational tools for changing consumption patterns such as cleaning up production processes and marketing green products - instruments and approaches that fit well within current styles of governance. So the agenda has shrunk from initial possibilities of redefining prosperity and wealth and radically transforming lifestyles, to a focus on improving resource productivity and marketing 'green' or 'ethical' products such as fairly traded coffee, low-energy light bulbs, more fuel-efficient vehicles, biodegradable washing powder, and so forth.

Sustainable consumption a new green agenda

From its auspicious beginnings at Rio, the sustainable consumption agenda has evolved through a range of international policy arenas (see for example OECD, 2002a), and become more widely accepted as a policy goal. The more challenging aspects of its original conception became marginalised as governments instead focused on politically and socially acceptable, and economically rational, tools for changing consumption patterns such as cleaning up production processes and marketing green products. So the policy agenda has narrowed from initial possibilities of redefining prosperity and wealth and radically transforming lifestyles, to a focus on improving resource productivity and marketing 'green' or 'ethical' products such as fairly traded coffee, low-energy light bulbs, more fuel-efficient vehicles, biodegradable washing powder, and so forth. Hence sustainable consumption is implicitly defined as the consumption of more efficiently produced goods, and the 'green' and 'ethical' consumer...

Why Is Law Necessary To Protect The Environment

Council to ask his former professor of science to come and make a test. The professor accepts and, after having examined the water, decides that an analysis is necessary. A chemical laboratory finds the presence of pesticides in the wells. The peasants of the region, however, do not use pesticides. The laboratory contacts the authorities of the region who charge a geologist to find out where is the source of the pollution. The geologist finds that the pesticides come from the underground water shed, connected to a river which is several kilometers away. The analysis of the water of the river is positive so that more investigation is needed. Geographers are asked to study the situation of the region. After having examined the agricultural lands along the river they find out that the upstream landowners do not use pesticides either, but there is a factory of chemicals near a smaller river that flows into the main river. Hydrologists establish the probability of pollution coming from...

Urban Land Management

Every city has a history of past land use decisions that helps shape land use today. A city with more resources can allocate this money to preserve past good moves and to erase past mistakes. In some cases, such as cobblestone streets and Beaux Arts buildings, the heritage of the past is wonderful and should be protected. In other cases mistakes from the past live on. Boston's Big Dig is a classic example. When Boston's elevated highways were built in the 1950s, did Mayor John Hynes ever imagine that over 14 billion would eventu A prime example of the value and cost of cleaning up the past is provided by brownfields and Superfund sites. These sites are often the remains of defunct chemical companies. Their lasting legacy is contaminated land, which may potentially expose nearby residents to higher cancer risks. In many cases the polluting action was taken decades before the environmental damage was diagnosed. Such latency makes it difficult to hold the polluters...

Oxygen For Solid Waste Processing

In the United States, the Love Canal debacle near Buffalo, New York is an example of a dangerous landfill used for homes. A mixture of industrial and domestic waste was dumped into an abandon canal. After only a few years, the land was used to build homes. Toxic waste seeped from the ground and made many of the residents sick. The Government had to buy the homes and spend a large amount of money cleaning up the site. In the United States thousands of highly hazardous landfills and disposal sites have been identified. Similar hazardous sites exist through the world.

Local mobilisation is most likely to be provoked by a new development and based upon local and immediate risks or

Formed in 1978 by local women, who had no previous experience of campaigning, to pursue the issue. Their campaign, which included kidnapping a public official, eventually succeeded in forcing the closure of the school and the relocation of all residents. The publicity given to the campaign encouraged other local campaigns and Gibbs was contacted by many of these for advice, leading to the formation of the Citizens' Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes in 1981. The Government sued the company responsible and Congress enacted new legislation in 1981 creating the Superfund and a new agency to deal with the cleaning up of toxic waste sites.

From environmental protection to cultural transformations

Protecting the environment had become an expanding public-policy sector, and some even referred to the emergence of a pollution industrial complex that was trying to make money out of the cleaning up (Gellen 1970). By the time the United Nations held its Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in the summer of 1972, environmental protection was firmly placed on the international political agenda (McCormick 1991).

The dangers of going too far

Far in seeking to tidy up the text, introducing changes which, while they improved the sense and consistency of the language, were deemed to have political implications. This excessive zeal was due in large part to the personal sense of commitment of secretariat staff to the post-Kyoto negotiations, on which they had worked long and hard for years, and their desire to produce a rigorous, precise and elegant text. Although the document was embargoed, it was inadvertently released, causing consternation among delegations who were nervous of the potential political repercussions of the ostensibly 'technical' changes. The blunder was patched up by withdrawing the document, and reissuing another version reproducing exactly the text approved by the COP, including obvious technical and editorial mistakes. There were also more longstanding repercussions, as the COP Bureau was then reluctant to entrust the secretariat with editorial tidying up of the Marrakesh Accords at COP 7.

The organization of global negotiations

Before proceeding further, we need to pin down exactly what is meant by 'organization' in this context. Organizing a global negotiation involves managing a range of organizational elements. Organizational elements that tend to be of particular importance to global negotiations, and which are covered in this book, are as follows

Societal response to climatic change

In an attempt to make use of some past occurrences, when organizing a wide societal response to climatic change, we should also accumulate maximum information about the latter. What is known up to now is this (put very briefly) If the emission of greenhouse gases remains constant at the 1985 level, carbon dioxide concentration would reach about 440 parts per million by volume (ppmv) by the year 2100, as compared with the 350 ppmv of today and 290 ppmv a century ago (US EPA, 1989). The doubling of C02 would contribute to an increase of the global average temperature by some 2 to 3.8 C.

Advocacy for Climate Action

There is no guaranteed effective strategy for organizing a campus effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. This is because there is variation in academic institutions' structures, governance and accountabilities, and priorities. However, several compelling approaches have emerged as colleges and universities embrace a range of environmental issues.

The Greens In The Parliamentary Elections

At the local level, their campaign concentrated on organizing such events as 'green marches' and cleaning parks, Greens often organizing pre-electoral meetings in small communities with social democrats (Vajdova 1990). Greens were frequently attacked by other parties in spite of their constant effort to keep their distance from the Communists, they were accused of 'cryptocommunism' and, in Slovakia, were sometimes blamed for idealism and naivety, even by former nature protectionists in the leadership of Public Against Violence.

First three months of

Announcement of the club project provoked an arousal of individual interests and a significant weakening of community bonds. Only the seniors and a few others were in clear opposition to the club and acted accordingly, organizing assemblies in order to study the laws that established the protected area in Tepoztlan, and communal rights over the land and resources. Club opponents began to encourage the Tepoztecos to protest against the project, and to promote and spread the idea that an organization with wide participation and with the capacity to engage the cooperation of the majority of people was much needed. On the other side were a few determined club supporters, mainly owners of various business. Many others, while recognizing that there would be both damages and benefits, were of the opinion that communal rights, in particular those related to water, could coexist with the club. They also thought that the most senior and socially conscious members of the community would act as a...

Potential OPEC for LNG

The LNG market is quickly evolving from a regional market to a global market.With 15 nations expected to be importing LNG in the year 2010, there is a chance that a significant portion of the world's economy will be increasingly subject to availability of this supply of gas. Under these circumstances, what is to stop the LNG exporting nations from organizing their own cartel and operating in a similar manner to the OPEC cartel in dictating supplies and prices In fact, many of these LNG exporting nations are already members of OPEC. If the United States were to forgo additional construction of nuclear power plants to generate electricity and rely on LNG instead, wouldn't we simply be switching our energy dependence from the exporters of oil to the exporters of LNG

Suggestions for Getting Started

One way to get started on developing a memory is to create a student project in which key faculty and staff informants are interviewed and asked to provide information about projects in which they have been involved, as well as to provide materials that can reside in an archive. This project can be a useful activity in a social science course on qualitative research methods, and can give students practice in conducting interviews and organizing and coding interview results. Using the snowball approach, key informants can be asked to provide information on other projects that have been conducted. Students may well find that there are urban legends perhaps more appropriately called campus legends about projects that many people believe have been undertaken, but that cannot be verified through a rigorous process. On the other hand, students may also be astonished to learn the number of energy projects that have been conducted over the years, particularly starting in the 1970s, before...

Involve Students Directly

The Eco-Reps program is modeled after a Dartmouth program, and is a hybrid between a regular course and an internship. Students who are Eco-Reps have a noncredit class every other week and participate in several field trips. Each class is organized around a particular topic, including recycling and waste prevention, climate change, water resources, food and the environment, and consumption. Box 10.3 outlines a sample Eco-Reps program. There are seven 2-hour meetings throughout the semester. Eco-Reps engage in on-campus greening activities. Typical activities include checking on the recycling program (e.g., bin placement, contamination, and so on), talking to students, conducting surveys, putting up posters, and organizing awareness-raising events. During the first semester the program focused on educating the Eco-Reps and organizing activities in their dormitories. During the second semester each Eco-Rep chooses one project and works on it in a small group for the whole semester. At...

Required social trend breaks Increased attention for dematerialization through lifecycle

From their perspective, there is no clear, collectively supported, long-term target in the field of climate policy, which strengthens this attitude among the majority of firms to wait. But this inertia can be broken down. Experience with the interactive management policy strategy in The Netherlands in the 1990s shows that breaking down such inertia in the absence of long-term perspectives is possible and may offer a way out of the social dilemma (Vermeulen and Weterings, 1997 Glasbergen, 1998 Driessen and Glasbergen, 2002). In The Netherlands experience in the 1990s, in order to establish a consensus on long-term environmental targets for specific industrial sectors and ways to achieve them, the initial step towards industry was essential. This included organizing mechanisms of institutional learning, reporting and monitoring to ensure feedback on the course of the

Decisiontheoretic Approaches

Collective-action theory has become a core theory across all of the social sciences used to explain the costs and difficulties involved with organizing cooperation to achieve collective ends. The theory has roots in the 1950s, when H. Gordon (1954) and Scott (1955) analyzed open-access fisheries to show that fishermen would always overharvest. In 1965, a study conceptualized individuals facing such problems as making decisions independently without an external enforcement agency to make them keep agreements (Olson 1965). In this setting, Olson predicted that unless individuals were in very small groups or had established selective incentives, they would not cooperate to achieve these joint benefits. In 1968, Hardin published The Tragedy of the Commons, in which he envisioned individuals jointly harvesting from a commons as being inexorably trapped in overuse and destruction. Drawing on a simple view of a resource (a common pool) and of the users (the self-seeking, maximizers of...

The Environmental Justice and Climate Change Initiative and Domestic Climate Justice

About climate change issues hasn't really penetrated to low-income communities and communities of color in the United States. 8 To bridge these gaps, the EJCC has developed a curriculum to discuss with community residents the basics of climate change and climate justice as well as offer guidance in grassroots organizing. The EJCC plans to create an extensive network of trainers who will go into their own communities and teach people about climate change issues. Through this train-the-trainers program, the organization hopes to engage more than seven hundred people all over the United States, thus building a vibrant grassroots movement for climate justice.

International Governance

A final crucial globalization issue is one of international governance. For a long time we, and many others, placed our hopes in the United Nations. Despite its structural and other defects, it's been the only game in town. But recent events may have greatly reduced what effectiveness the United Nations had in increasing global security (as opposed to its various successful relief, educational, and monitoring functions). But there might be a bright lining to that cloud. World disgust at the actions of the only superpower might lead to a restoration of the United Nations' influence and challenge the hegemony of a renegade United States.41 The institution's structure could be redesigned to be more realistic, especially the ridiculous Security Council arrangement that gives veto power to the victors of a war now six decades in the past. And some way should be found to allow better representation of people everywhere, not just of governments (many of which are not democratic),42 perhaps...

Intellectual Sources of North South Misunderstandings to

On the North-South question of negotiating targets, the cap and trade system, as argued by Grubb (1989), has the advantage of organizing large enough North-South transfers to induce a significant commitment by the South in the short term. The commitment of the South could not adequately materialize, however, as the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (article 3.1 of the UNFCCC) led to the cautious decision that only developed countries would adopt binding commitments in the first period. The silence on targets for the developing countries beyond 2012 had the perverse effect of treating them as pure spectators of the intra-annex-B debates (on target setting) and a supplementarity squabble, as if the South should be content with their absence of commitment or avoidance of damages, thanks to the Kyoto Protocol, and obtain a little financial and technological gain through jointly implemented abatement projects. The silence on the developing countries' future...

Modeling the brainexperience interface

Rerouting and reorganization of neural systems does not only occur under the aberrant biological conditions associated with different neurodevelopmental disorders. Atypical neural architectures and behavioral profiles can result from atypical experience as brain systems are being assembled. Models derived from the experience of individuals born prematurely are informative 64 . The brain systems being assembled in the third trimester should be able to count on the more or less highly controlled sensory conditions of the womb regular and consistent auditory background (with the rhythmic organizing experience of the maternal heartbeat) and no visual input. Instead, the immature preterm brain is subjected to the complex auditory stimulation and the visual shock of the outer world. Models can focus on the nature of brain development when the environment is aberrant or on the impact of the expectable environment when the brain cannot receive its inputs. Such models will require a close...

Environmental policy to optimize material chains

Stimulating measures in the second category is much more difficult. Significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions could be reached by improved management of entire material-product chains. Efficient chain management requires that the different actors in a particular chain work together to reach a desired situation. This calls for all actors in the chain to be aware of their responsibilities towards improving the efficiency of the chain. It means that actors must learn to understand the specific stakes that are involved for the other actors in the chain. Reaching these goals is likely to require frequent meetings. Getting the different actors to work together is unlikely to be an autonomous development. Governments can initiate this process by taking the lead in organizing these meetings or by designing certain chain-management regulations in order to force the actors in the entire chain to work together in order to reach policy goals.

Giving the Earth Its

The call for a new relationship between human beings and nature prompted many people, including Gaylord Nelson, a senator from Wisconsin, to take action. Using his own funds, Nelson set about organizing Earth Day, a national event to promote a better understanding of environmental issues. Since young people were to play a critical role in the activities, the chosen day was April 22, 1970, when most of the nation's college students could be expected to have completed their exam schedule. When it arrived, no fewer than 10,000 schools and 2,000 colleges and universities held special classes for the occasion. There were nature hikes, garbage cleanup campaigns, and formal presentations about pollution. Larger cities hosted huge rallies and street fairs. And although it was almost impossible to determine the total number of participants across North America, estimates ran as high as twenty million.

The Kyoto Architecture Reinterpreted Amended Completed

The complexity of climate and development nexus may be an argument for what Jacoby metaphorically calls a favela regime (Jacoby 2005), namely a self-organizing process instead of a hopeless pursuit of some grand architecture (Bodanski 2003). But favelas turned more often into self-reproducing pockets of violence, slavery, and poverty than into an innovative urban scheme. The transition to a common architecture may fare better if it is instead modest and flexible.

Barriers To Sustainable Development In The Marketplace

Efforts to organize investment financing for energy innovation can multiply the effectiveness of government funds. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol is one major program that could generate such investment. The price of carbon credits is unlikely to cover much more than the transactions costs of greenhouse gas emissions mitigation projects, but that may be all that is required to generate enthusiasm for that set of projects repeatedly found to make economic sense anyway. A large payoff comes especially by helping provide the conditions sufficient to attract international investors. Lack of credit, collateral, or funds to prepare business plans are the biggest barriers to energy efficiency and fuel switching in many economies. Financial programs can help overcome barriers to the deployment of small-scale clean and efficient energy technologies in transition and developing economies. Supporting and shaping energy sector reform accelerates financial performance...

Hofjes Cohousing and Ecovillages

Apartment Courtyard Urban

Other ideas for organizing housing and living, include the extensive cohousing experience in the Scandinavian countries, the unique development of hofjes (almshouses) in the Netherlands, and ecovillages in a number of places. Hofjes are a distinctive form of Dutch housing dating back to the fifteenth century. Hof means garden and hofjes are buildings and housing units clustered around a courtyard or garden. From eight to ten units typically, hofjes can be as large as twenty-five units. Most original

Multinational oil companies

Exxon's main societal crisis came in 1989 with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, when a tanker called Exxon Valdez ran aground off the coast of Alaska, spilling 11 million gallons of oil along hundreds of miles of coastline. Subsequently, Exxon spent some US 2.2 billion on clean-up costs and US 1.3 billion on legal settlements and penalties (Raeburn 1999). In addition, Exxon faced stakeholder pressures over its policy on climate change from the mid-1990s. However, the company challenged the scientific findings of environmental groups that criticised the company (with regard to both Exxon Valdez and climate change) and chose to combat its critics rather than to engage with them.

Developmental models in pediatric neuropsychology

A model is a tool for thinking, for organizing a body of data into a theoretically coherent construct whose validity can be tested. Thinking in both research and clinical arenas is based on a constant interaction between models and evidence. The challenge of empirical data (evidence) is that at any one point there may be much to make sense of. Data are not always internally consistent and, until established by multiple replications across data sets, evidence is constantly subject to discussion, argument, and change. Models may not be subject to as rapid change as the evidence base. They cannot, nonetheless, be static as evidence accumulates, models must be scrutinized and reformulated.

Institutional Analysis

Human institutions - defined as ways of organizing activities - affect the resilience of the environment (Dietz, Ostrom, and Stern 2003). Locally evolved institutional arrangements governed by stable communities and buffered from outside forces have sustained resources successfully for centuries (Ostrom 1990 Baland and Platteau 2000 1996 ), although they can fail when rapid change occurs after centuries of operating successfully. Ideal conditions for governance are increasingly rare. Critical problems, such as transboundary pollution, tropical deforestation, and climate change, are at larger scales than local communities have customarily dealt with, and involve nonlocal influences beyond their control. Part of the problem is that for environmental problems to be dealt with effectively by institutions requires that they have well-defined boundaries and this is very difficult with many of the above problems. Promising strategies for addressing collective action problems include dialogue...

Ecological Buildings and Institutional Structures

Especially unusual is the extensive planning and care that has gone into organizing the actual construction in ways that minimize impact on the natural environment. To minimize disruptive truck traffic, constru c-tion logistics are largely occurring by rail. Great attention is being paid to impacts of the project on groundwater, with special concern about the impacts of a lowering of the groundwater table on the adjacent Grosser Tiergarten. As a result, an extensive groundwater monitoring and management system has been developed. Among other measures, groundwater extracted during excavation will be returned to the aquifer. Other environmental measures include the designing and configuration of the buildings to reduce winds and the implementation of an environmental mitigation package (including the creation of a new 20-hectare park).

Encouraging Ecocycle Balancing The Role of Green Taxes

Customers have the right to strip packaging off products at the check-out til and to leave it there. This has led supermarkets to put pressure on producers to reduce their packaging. Companies are increasingly organizing their own waste collection and recycling systems. Overall, the Ordinance, together with high charges for dumping waste, has caused a massive increase in waste recycling in Germany. After initial oversupply of waste materials, recycling capacity in the country is now greatly increased, with considerable long-term benefits for the national economy. In other European countries, such as Austria, Switzerland and Denmark, similar situations exist. (p. 26)

Ecological Regeneration

There are also examples of cities that have undertaken serious and substantial ecological restoration or regeneration work. The city of Leicester, for example, has taken extensive actions to restore the river corridor that runs through the city. Riverside Park, a 2,400-acre, 12-mile-long park, has been created out of what was largely derelict land in the early 1970s. Under the Leicester Ecology Strategy, and through partnerships with organizations such as British Waterways, the National Rivers Authority, and the Countryside Commission, as well as with landowners, significant resources have been directed to restoring and cleaning up the corridor. Riverside Park has now become one of the city's most important ecological and recreational resources (see Environ, 1996).

Saving the American Experiment

We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

The Disequilibrium Paradigm

Nelson and Winter are not the only economists who have developed evolutionary models with self-organizing features. Since the early 1980s there has been an explosion of interest in evolutionary models, mainly focusing on non-linear dynamics and innovation.11 It must be said, however, that most of these contributions are purely theoretical. Empirical studies in this area are scarce.

Reading a Fritjof Capra The web of life

It is perhaps worthwhile to summarize the key characteristics of systems thinking at this point. The first, and most general, criterion is the shift from the parts to the whole. Living systems are integrated wholes whose properties cannot be reduced to those of smaller parts. Their essential, or 'systemic', properties are properties of the whole, which none of the parts have. They arise from the 'organizing relations' of the parts, i.e. from a configuration of ordered relationships that is characteristic of that particular class of organisms, or systems. Systemic properties are destroyed when a system is dissected into isolated elements.

Cancer Alley Louisiana

Industrial accidents and accidental releases are common occurrences in cancer alley. For instance, in 1994 Condea Vista (Conoco) located in Lake Charles reported thirty-nine chemical accidents that released 129,500 pounds of chemicals. The following year, Condea Vista reported ninety accidental chemical releases. In 1997 the company was charged with contaminating local groundwater supplies by discharging between 19 to 47 million pounds of ethylene dichloride (EDC), a suspected human carcinogen, into a local stream. In 1999 hundreds of unskilled laborers filed suit against Condea Vista, claiming they were exposed to EDC while cleaning up a spill from a leaking underground pipeline. The population of cancer alley is primarily African-American and low-income. Despite the large number of industrial facilities more than 136 unemployment is high in many communities and most residents do not have a college education. Nevertheless, the inhabitants of cancer alley have been organizing to limit...

Major Contentious Issues

This is the Ramsey equation, which is the central organizing concept for thinking about intertemporal investment decisions and therefore about choices for global-warming policies. The Ramsey equation shows that in a welfare optimum, the rate of return on capital is determined by the time discount rate, the consumption elasticity, and the rate of growth of consumption. In a growing economy, a high return on capital can arise either from a high time discount rate or high aversion to intergener-ational inequality.

Results and discussion

Torg Gard Clutch

The creation of cheap and effective technology for the removal of toxic pollutants from water is an urgent need in modern environmental protection. The first and most important problem is modifying and changing technology, aiming towards energy savings and reaching the minimal emission levels in the hydrosphere. This problem can be resolved by an optimal combination of chemical-technological methods with biological ones (Klimenko et al., 2002). Treatment expenses depend on the degree of purification needed. There are certain purification limits determined by economy, under which the enterprise becomes non-profitable. The role of a combination of natural biodegradation processes with chemical-technical methods in this context is most important. The toxicity of pollutants entering the environment and their transformation as a result of waste-water treatment must to be taken into account during technology creation. Recent experiences indicate that the efficiency for the purification of...

Boyle G. Everett B. Ramage J. 2003. Energy Systems And Sustainability. Oxford Oup 619pp

This book offers a number of innovative energy policy approaches to environmental problems. It touches on measures that impose carbon and gasoline taxes, support fuel efficiency initiatives, clean up emissions from power plants, refine air quality standards, promote green energy, and decrease U.S. reliance on oil. This book offers an excellent reference for students who want to learn about effective and equitable policy initiatives for environmental issues associated with energy use in society.

Structural Capital in Organizations

The development of structural capital in organizations is, according to my point of view, an amalgam of a number of different theoretical subjects, starting with organization theory, covering strategic planning, IT and operational efficiency. In a classic passage in The Wealth of Nations (1776), economist Adam Smith describes how the division of labor in a pin factory dramatically contributed to efficiency in pin manufacturing. This division of labor represents an early example of structural capital. By structuring the process and organizing work in a number of steps, the entrepreneur in this company created a structure that provided the company with a competitive advantage over companies that employed a less elaborate process.

Adoption Process of GM Cotton The Case of Kadavendi Warangal

The local agents of seed companies were assigned to mobilise farmers in the village and from nearby villages to visit the demonstrative fields by organizing the farmers' field tours at the cost of companies. Most of the demonstration fields were identified along the main roadside because it would make the task of mobilising farmers by tour vans and jeeps from other villages easy. In fact, in Kadavendi village, all farmers who adopted Bt cotton in 2003 used free seeds provided by the seed company, and all of them visited demonstrative fields in other villages.

Redundancy of function is foundational to the theory allcomplex

By viewing the Earth as a complex adaptive system, we are not just giving it a fancy new name. Identifying it with other systems that have the same organizing principles enables us to import knowledge that has been learned from research into those systems. And by treating all complex adaptive systems as a family of related entities, we can abstract essential features and explore through simplified models the properties that all such systems have. This is a very powerful technique, no different in philosophy from the use of models within a single discipline.

Expert Versus Lay Perceptions Of Risk

Whether or where to site and license nuclear-power plants license or ban specific pesticides, fertilizers, other agricultural chemicals, food additives, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceutical products shut solid-waste landfills regulate emissions to the air and water from industrial plants and automobiles clean up existing hazardous-waste sites and many others. The recurring pattern is of a positivist analysis that demonstrates the risks from some action are quite low and of the public disagreeing, (p. 208)

Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center

The immediate environmental fallout from the WTC collapse contained asbestos and fibrous glass from the building structure mercury, dioxins, furans, and other cancer-causing toxins from the burning of fluorescent light bulbs and computer screens heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and volatile organic compounds like benzene. Federal, state, and local agencies went right to work monitoring air quality and cleaning up dust and debris from the WTC collapse, but these actions themselves have serious environmental consequences. One in four cleanup workers at Ground Zero report

Neuroanatomical features of mathematics disorders

The frontal lobes, which principally manage executive functioning skills, have been implicated in mathematics disorder in several studies 50 . Skills such as planning, organizing and allocating attention to execute a goal-directed task and following an algorithm when problem-solving require adequate executive functioning skills for success.

New Deal Conservation

The 1935 Soil Conservation Act established soil conservation districts and the federal Soil Conservation Service (SCS). Farmers in a given area joined together to develop their own programs of soil and water conservation, organizing legally as groups of landowners. They determined how to improve their land and water, in some cases leaving the land itself totally out of production, so that the soil would recover. By August of 1947, there were 1,670 districts initiated by farmers in the United States, with a total of 900 million acres and 4 million farms, with districts being created at the rate of 25 per month.

The status quo is not an option

Conventional economic theory reflexively shuns intervention in private markets. Economists often view the world in terms of market equilibrium, a state of affairs that cannot be improved upon without hurting someone. Even though few economists would argue that the world currently reflects this utopian ideal, many do assume that we are close enough to it that only small intrusions in the market, in the nature of tidying up rather than major renovations,

Sustainable fossil fuels

- an as-yet scarcely-implemented technology that sucks most of the carbon dioxide out of the chimney-flue gases and then shoves it down a hole in the ground. Cleaning up power station emissions in this way has a significant energy cost - it would reduce the delivered electricity by about 25 . So a sustainable use of known coal reserves would deliver only about 1.6kWh(e) per day per person.

The Clean Air Acta Huge Success

Congress passed the landmark CAA, proclaiming that it would restore urban air quality. It was no coincidence that the law was passed during a fourteen-day Washington, D.C., smog alert. The act was amended several times over the following decades, including a massive overhaul in 1990 resulting in the CAAA. Although the act has had mixed results, and many goals remain to be met, most experts credit it with making great strides toward cleaning up the air.

Technologies to neutralize or destroy toxic compounds in hazardous waste

Packer Protect Aquifer

Operations to take corrective action to clean up the waste they have released into the environment. The RCRA imposes design and maintenance standards for waste disposal facilities, such as the installation of liners to prevent waste from migrating into groundwater. Land disposal facilities in operation after November 1980 are regulated under the act and are required to meet RCRA standards or close. Owners of facilities that ceased operation prior to November 1980 are required to clean up any hazardous waste threats their facilities still pose. Abandoned sites and those that owners cannot afford to clean up under the RCRA are usually referred to the national Superfund program.

Environmental Interest Groups Origins

It was not until years into the post-World War II era, however, that ENGOs significantly expanded in number and membership. Increased evidence of environmental degradation, such as the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in 1963, broadened elite and public understanding of the perils of ruthless development. Of perhaps greater importance, a succession of environmental crises aroused public indignation. The first American mobilizing event was the Santa Barbara oil spill of 1969, which coated beautiful sandy beaches outside this upscale California community with oily slime killing thousands of waterfowl, fish, and other marine species. This led directly to the first Earth Day event on April 15, 1970, which brought about a revolution in environmental organizing.

Private Sector Players

A whole range of private-sector companies now see emissions credits as a growth market. For investment banks, the attraction of another big trading opportunity is obvious. But many of them are going further, actually initiating, financing, and managing projects to retrofit Indian factories, clean up Russian pipelines, and plant trees in Indonesia. This kind of merchant banking generates a river of fees that culminate (it is hoped) in trading profits and capital gains when the projects come to fruition and are sold. Each player is approaching the market in its own way In 2007, Morgan Stanley bought 38 percent of MGM International, a Florida-based company that invests in emissions reduction projects. Credit Suisse bought 10 percent of Ireland-based EcoSecurities Group and said it may lend that company a billion euros for pollution investments. London-based hedge fund Man Group raised 382 million for a fund specializing in greenhouse gases at Chinese coal plants. Utah-based Blue Source...

The Great Trade Off Illusion

There can be no question that command-and-control regulation was of enormous importance it required, perhaps for the first time, that business address directly its negative societal impacts. Since the time of the industrial revolution, enterprises had relied upon the extraction of cheap raw materials, exploitation of factory labor, and production of mass quantities of waste and pollution (think of those dark, satanic mills ). Indeed, pollution was assumed to be part of the industrialization process. When economists conceived the concept of externalities, in other words, it seemed virtually impossible that firms could behave in any other manner. For the better part of 200 years, industrial firms engaged in what might be described as take, make, waste as an organizing paradigm.2 Command-and-control regulation seemed a necessary and appropriate counter to the prevailing industrial mindset.

Antilittering Campaigns

Psychologists have tried to determine why people litter, and many organized attempts have been made to decrease the incidence of this type of behavior (Finnie, 1973 Huffman, Grossnickle, Cope, & Huffman, 1995 Krauss, Freed-man, & Whitcup, 1978 Robinson, 1976). Why people litter is not entirely clear, but apparently the perceived acceptability of littering by peers plays some role inasmuch as people are more likely to litter in an already littered area than in a clean one (Cialdini, Kallgren, & Reno, 1991 Krauss, Freedman, & Whitcup, 1978 Reiter & Samuel, 1980). Numerous publicity campaigns have been mounted by states and municipalities to increase public awareness of the problem, discourage littering, and promote clean-up activities. The Adopt-a-Highway program, first implemented in Texas, is now operating in a majority of the states of the United States. In this program, small citizen groups agree to pick up litter along a specified stretch of roadway several times a year.

Deep ecology ethics as a code of conduct

Johnson's 'wellbeing interests' are a case in point, as is the attribute of 'autopoiesis' which Robyn Eckersley describes as the 'characteristic of self-reproduction or self-renewal' (Eckersley, 1992, p. 60), building on Fox's observation that ' L iving systems are not merely self-organizing systems, they are self-regenerating or self-renewing systems' (Fox, 1990, p. 170). Eckersley continues

Examples of point and nonpoint sources of pollution

Point Nonpoint Sources

Money to the states to help develop groundwater programs. The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (SDWA PL 93-523) and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 (PL 104-182) require communities to test their water to make sure it is safe and help communities finance projects needed to comply with SDWA regulations. The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act includes many programs designed to clean up hazardous waste, landfills, and underground storage tanks. New storage tanks must be made of strong plastics that will not rust or leak contaminants into the water table.

Major US Pollution Control Statutes

U.S. pollution-control statutes are numerous and diverse. Although many of the environmental statutes passed by Congress are useful tools in pollution prevention, they often need to be expanded before their impact is fully realized. Pollution-control laws are generally too broad to be managed by existing legal bodies, so Congress must find or create an agency for each that will be able to implement the mandated mission effectively. The statute then serves as a framework for the agency in organizing its agenda. At each level, the law becomes more specific and targeted.

Improper Waste Disposal

Improper disposal of industrial wastes can be seen as one way of charging part of the real cost of the products we use today to future generations. Peterson (1991) put it this way The dumping of hazardous wastes over past decades permitted the selling in the marketplace of better things for better living at lower costs. But now it appears that it will take fifty years and hundreds of billions of dollars, charged to future production and future taxpayers, to clean up the inherited mess (p. 192).

Iy Lets Cause Trouble Good Trouble Necessary Trouble

Then look at your spheres of influence children, schools, communities, colleagues, clubs. They are always larger than you initially think. People have been organizing mayors, states, and businesses they've been pushing back on ExxonMobil's lies about global warming (lawyers will play a nice part here someday, too). So many whistleblowers within the government and industry, scientists, religious leaders, doctors, economists have gotten the message about global warming and are doing their part. It's all in play, but if we simply focus on Hollywood stars and Al Gore making a fantastic movie about global warming, we'll miss the larger point. These folks are elites. That's great. They are deploying in their spheres of influence. They can raise huge sums of money, they can make and promote a movie. Maybe you and I can't. Yet our role is even more important now. Organizing, whether in congressional districts with Greenpeace or at a PTA meeting, putting together a house party for a local...

Eight Stages of Successful Social Movements

* For a chart depicting the relationship between movement stages and activist roles, see B. Moyer with J. McAllister, M. L. Finley, and S. Soifer, Doing Democracy The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements (Gabriola Island, BC New Society Publishers, 2001), pp. 84-85. Action Network, are one important element. If there is little organizing and public awareness in a local area, however, an action group of five to twenty-five people can be enough to do significant work. Such a group should have as its goal the awakening of the local public. Using existing community networks is a time-tested method for organizing new groups. In addition to local community organizing, sector-based organizing is also important. Student mobilization, religious community mobilizations, and business community mobilization have already begun in some places, and these efforts need to be nourished and extended. For example, religious and ethical communities could frame the climate crisis as a an issue of...

The General Picture and the Swedish Example

Currently, adequate organizational and legal structures seem to be missing. Earlier research has shown the critical importance of community-based forms of organizing local resource use (e.g. Ostrom et al, 1994). However, once common pool resources are scaled up to larger units, whether they are national or global, other forms of institutional arrangements may be more suitable. Potential conflicts between decision-makers at different levels identified in the present work support this proposition. So do institutionalized 'glitches' between configurations of political administrative authority and problem occurrence, as exemplified by the Swedish policies for wind power and for state support to local climate-related investments (see Chapter 7).

Administrative Competence in Environmental Policy Making

A second measure is the extent to which the most important environmental functions are centralized in the national environmental agency or ministry. For example, the U.S. EPA's mandate includes regulation of air quality, water quality and protection, disposal of hazardous wastes, regulation of chemicals (including pesticides and radioactive wastes), as well as noise regulation. Yet some of these regulatory areas are shared with other departments for instance, the disposal of hazardous wastes from military installations is primarily the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Defense, which has responsibility for clean-up of hazardous wastes on Formerly-Used Defense Sites (FUDS). In a number of countries, the national environmental ministry shares functions with as many as eight or nine different agencies, which is the case for the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) of China.6

Economic Scepticism And Optimal Pollution

It is not too difficult to see where this perception has come from. Cleaning up environmental damage caused by industrial emissions is very costly. These are the lessons from the incidents such as the one at Love Canal cited in Chapter 2. But clean-up technologies end-of-pipe filters, scrubbers and collectors are also expensive. The economic impact of these 'add-on' technologies is an 'add-on' cost over and above the basic costs of production (Plate 2). For example, the cost of fitting clean-up technology to just one 4,000 MW power station in the UK is expected to reach almost 700 million.5

Reframing the Climate Crisis after Kyoto

When it became clear that the push for the Kyoto treaty unwittingly created a mental framework that failed to move or motivate most Americans, PSR, like many other U.S. environmental groups, went back to basics in public education and grassroots organizing. In the subsequent years, putting climate work in terms of health has changed the approach to climate and organizing by PSR and national-level groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Environmental Defense. As detailed in this book, there's a lot to learn from this process. At PSR, we began, with help from a number of leading foundations, by carrying out state-by-state reports and grassroots organizing campaigns in eighteen states over the years 1998 to 2001. Called Death by Degrees (and later changed to Degrees of Danger out of respect and sensitivity after the September 11, 2001, terrorists attacks), the reports were the first to link climate change and human health effects to a...

Implications for NGOs

Involvement of NGOs in the environmental activities of the UNEP. In 1999, the Civil Society and NGOs Unit of UNEP was formed in the Division of Policy Development and Law. This was a part of the restructuring of UNEP and was also followed by the creation of the Division of Early Warning and Assessment. This unit set upon its task quickly by organizing the Global Civil Society Forum (GCSF) in May 2000, before the start of the 6th Global Ministerial Environment Forum at Malmo, Sweden in the following year 10 .

Hamilton Ontario Canada

Setting Sail 45 , which followed the downtown plan, presented a comprehensive plan for West Harbour area, including the Waterfront, the several neighborhoods adjacent to the harbor, and adjacent former industrial lands. The plan also focused on strategic redevelopment and streetscape improvements to strengthen the economic vitality of the street corridors and provide additional amenities to adjacent neighborhoods such as improvement of local parks and commercial areas, historic property preservation, contaminated site clean-up, relocation of heavy industrial land use, and the creation of necessary community services, such as schools, health care, libraries, and emergency services.

Ecuadorian Environmental Negotiationsthe Actors

The government's attempts at organizing a system of protection in the context of weak political institutions, low levels of citizen trust in government and strong economic motivations to access all exploitable environmental resources have led to the emergence of a privately held system of protected areas, in addition to

Beach protection and cleaning

Clean-up methods It is now generally accepted that there is no single clean-up method appropriate for all spills. Each spill is different and careful assessment is needed before deciding on a course of action (IPIECA, 1991 IMO IPIECA, 1996). The action taken must be capable of significantly reducing the recovery time of the shore to below that which natural weathering will achieve. Sometimes cleaning may be undertaken for economic and amenity reasons rather than for the wildlife alone. Even in recent incidents, clean-up operations have sometimes increased the impacts and extended the recovery time for marine populations. These have usually been where aggressive techniques such as the use of high-pressure hot water (e.g. Exxon Valdez spill) and excessive use of dispersants (e.g. Torrey Canyon) have been used. These methods often kill off key species that have survived the initial oiling. However, even attempts to use non-aggressive mechanical clean-up methods can be damaging when used...

How Much Pollution is OK

Money used to clean up or prevent pollution could instead be used to build schools or hospitals or any number of thousands of other things. Also, higher pollution standards drive up production costs, which in turn drives up prices, which in turn drives down standards of living, another unappealing outcome for many, especially for those at the lowest end of the income ladder. Pollution control can be very expensive, and can be increasingly expensive as we clean up more pollution. When government began enforcing environmental regulation in the 1970s, the first units of pollution were controlled at a low cost. After we cleaned up the easiest pollution, the costs of cleaning up additional units became much higher. For example, it can now cost 50,000 to prevent the discharge of a single ton of volatile organic compounds in Los Angeles. In the 1970s the same ton could be prevented at a cost of 50 cents.1 While the additional costs of pollution control increase as we control...

Ending Perverse Subsidies

Required would be a careful re-examination of systems of subsidies for various activities. Many subsidies, in the terms of Norman Myers and Jennifer Kent's fine book, are perverse. 125 Myers and Kent point out in Perverse Subsidies that some subsidies may cause environmental harm but meet economic needs, such as providing electricity to low-income elderly people at less than cost. Others may do economic harm but environmental good, such as using relatively scarce capital to pay to clean up toxic waste dumps or to protect endangered species that are viewed as having no economic value. Myers and Kent define perverse subsidies as those that do harm in both regards.126

Allocation of trading allowances among and within the member states

The NAP is also a way of distributing burdens within the group of activities that are included in the trading scheme. Based on the principles of the trading directive, the Swedish NAP presents different methods for distributing allowances, on the one hand, between existing and new activities and, on the other, between different sectors. The Swedish NAP takes account of the degree to which emissions are linked to the use of raw materials or certain fuels. Other relevant factors include historic emissions and competition from non-European activities. As a result, the Swedish NAP distinguishes between, for example, incineration plants within the energy production sector and the iron and steel industry. While the former only receives trading allowances equivalent to 80 per cent of their existing emissions, the latter will obtain 100 per cent. The reasons are that the iron and steel industry is highly exposed to competition and has low or no potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions,...

Learning to Surf the Big Waves

Now, as the climate movement accelerates, we must learn from previous social upheavals. Many of the organizers who will make the world-shaking marches of next year and the year after cut their organizing teeth by bringing their friends to antiwar marches. The technology of the interactive Internet is maturing, and more people than ever know how to use it. The climate movement contains actors more diverse than even the global justice movement, and the lessons of creating cooperative structures that allow for different groups to work productively towards similar goals will be imperative. There is no better example of this than Step It Up, the National Day of Climate Action scheduled for April 14, 2007. The insight of the leaders of Step It Up (Bill McKibben and several recent graduates of Middlebury College) was that the 'March on Washington' model was pass . Their collective mobilization has been decentralized, with their website, www.stepitup2007.org, acting as an organizing hub for a...

How Focus the Nation Will Work

To move us toward this future, Focus the Nation is asking each participating campus to begin a deliberative process about policy options facing the nation in the coming decade. The goal is to get more than a thousand campuses involved. Educational institutions are a natural foundation for this national conversation faculty and students organize symposia frequently, one-day events are quite simple to organize, and most educational institutions already have substantial faculty expertise available. Once a campus has committed to organizing its own event, it can focus on getting groups at similar institutions as well as business and community leaders to do the same. The Focus the Nation organizing committee, at the national

Continue to Build the Movement

Movement building work is especially important in stage six because we can expect a proliferation of new local groups that, in addition to their work in their own communities, must be coordinated into coalitions to mount larger campaigns. There will be work in organizing, strengthening, and supporting local grassroots groups offering training in democratic participatory group processes to keep groups vital and keep activists engaged when needed and advising on strategizing and waging nonviolent campaigns. Models for this kind of work can be found in the Highlander Research and Education Center in Tennessee, which has trained southern activists in many campaigns since the earliest days of the civil rights movement, or in nonviolence training offered by groups such as the Fellowship of Reconciliation, War Resister's League, and Philadelphia's Training for Change.

Site Cleanup Remedies

Technologies employed to clean up sites include procedures that have been used for decades in treating water and air pollution also, novel techniques have been developed to clean up specific contaminants in groundwater and soil. Environmental engineers, geologists, chemists, and biologists consider alternatives to clean up sites depending on what medium is contaminated (e.g., groundwater, surface or subsurface soil, surface water, or air), and the nature of the contaminants. Community involvement is also sought as part of the decision process.

Pros Cons and Other Countries

Superfund's proponents argue that the EPA must have the authority and resources to clean up hazardous waste sites. Otherwise, reluctant responsible parties will have no incentive to bear the burden of cleanup. In such cases, the protection of public health and remediation of damages to the environment would be left for taxpayers to finance. Those against Superfund reauthoriza-tion claim that many industries are responsibly handling the matter of hazardous waste sites and have invested sizable resources to clean up such locations. Furthermore, these industries have a vested interest in achieving a cost-effective cleanup in a timely manner.

Pollution Control Technology

Federal and California regulations require the use of technologies that have dramatically reduced the amount of smog-forming pollution and carbon monoxide coming from a vehicle's tailpipe. For gasoline vehicles, three-way catalysts, precise engine and fuel controls, and evaporative emission controls have been quite successful. More advanced versions of these technologies are in some cars and can reduce smog-forming emissions from new vehicles by a factor of ten. For diesel vehicles, two-way catalysts and engine controls have been able to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, but nitrogen oxide and toxic particulate-matter emissions remain very high. More advanced diesel-control technologies are under development, but it is unlikely that they will be able to clean up diesel to the degree already achieved in the cleanest gasoline vehicles.

Petroleum Contaminated Soil

Not all oil released from land sources is quickly washed away to sea, however. Pipeline and oil-well accidents, unregulated industrial waste, and leaking underground storage tanks can all permanently contaminate large areas of soil, making them economically useless as well as dangerous to the health of organisms living in and around them. Removing or treating soil contaminated by petroleum is especially urgent because the hydrocarbons can leach into the underlying groundwater and move into human residential areas. The engineering field of bioremediation has emerged in recent decades as a response to this threat. In bioremediation, bacteria that feed on hydrocarbons and transform them into carbon dioxide can be applied to an affected area. Bioremediation has in many cases made cleaning up petroleum-contaminated sites a profitable real-estate investment for land developers.

Nongovernmental Organizations NGOs

Collaborative efforts among the public have played an important role in shaping the political and social values and hence public policy of the United States. Organizing with others who share a similar vision enhances the potential for change. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) accomplish just that. Established outside of political parties, NGOs are aimed at advocating the public's