The Analyzed Systems and Their Flow Diagrams

Water Freedom System

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The systems analyzed by the first five analysis tools are listed serially by name. Their flow diagrams are presented in pages 153-197 for immediate availability when running the tools.

8.3.1

Program systemTL (configure own system)

1.

(1)

Simple gas turbine cycle

2.

(2)

Simple combined cycle, power-only and power/heat

3.

(3)

Two-pressure combined cycle, low firing

4.

(4)

Two-pressure combined cycle, high firing

5.

(5)

Three-pressure combined cycle, low firing

6.

(6)

Steam power cycle, five feed heaters, sub-critical and super-critical

7.

(7)

Simple combined cycle for power and cooling

8.

(8)

Simple combined cycle for power and sea water brine-recycle MSF distillation

9.

(9)

Simple combined cycle for power and seawater once-through MSF

distillation

10.

(10)

Back pressure steam power and seawater multiple-effect distillation

8.3.2 Program desalTL (select a pre-configured system)

11. (1) Simple boiler-MSF distillation

12. (2) Simple boiler-MSF distillation + 2-stage recovery ejector

13. (3) Simple boiler-MSF distillation + thermo-compression effect

14. (4) Simple boiler-MSF distillation producing its needs for power

15. (5) Simple boiler-thermo-compression ME Distillation

16. (6) Back pressure steam turbine, 3 feed-heater, power/MSF distillation

17. (7) Back pressure steam turbine, one re-heater, power/MSF distillation

18. (8) Back pressure steam turbine, 3 feed-heater, power/ME distillation

19. (9) Extraction steam turbine, 3 feed-heater, power/ME distillation

20. (10) Steam power-only plant

21. (11) Steam power VC/MSF water-only plant

22. (12,14) Gas turbine power/MSF distillation

23. (13,15) Gas turbine power/ME distillation

24. (16) Simple gas turbine power-only

25. (17) Simple combined cycle power-only

26. (18,19) Gas turbine power VC/MSF water-only

27. (20,21) Single effect VC

28. (22) Atmospheric pressure flash-VC

29. (23) High temperature MSF/atmospheric pressure flash-VC

30. (24,25) Steam power flash-VC/MSF water only

31. (26,27) Gas turbine power flash-VC/MSF water only

8.3.3 Program novelsysTL (new system concepts and devices)

32. (1) A conventional coal-fired power plant and a higher temperature one

33. (2) Four alternatives of high temperature heat exchange and air turbine unit

34. (3) A 200 kW co-generation fuel-cell system

8.3.4 Program varloadTL (off-design performance analysis)

35. (1) The simple combined cycle off-design performance

36. (2) Stand-alone gas turbine for power, heat-driven cooling and heating

37. (3) Stand-alone gas turbine for power, power-driven cooling and heating

8.3.5 Program deviceTL (design analysis of energy conversion devices)

38. (1) MSF notations for thermodynamic and heat transfer analyses

39. (2) ME notations for thermodynamic analysis

40. (3) VC notations for thermodynamic analysis

41. (4) RO notations for thermodynamic analysis

42. (5) Steam ejectors notations for thermodynamic analysis

43. (6) The design features of a single stage radial steam compressor

44. (7) Bending stresses of the radial compressor blades

45. (8) Velocity triangles of the radial compressor

46. (9) Velocity triangles of the axial compressor

I SIMPLE GAS TURBINE UNIT

I SIMPLE GAS TURBINE UNIT

Flowsheet Turbine

SIMPLE COMBINED CYCLE

FileFSl power File FS7 power/heat File GL1 flowsheet

17 States 10 Components

Combined Cycle Process Flow Diagram

Read by: System Tool

TWO-PRESSURE COMBINED CYCLE

Low Firing Temperature » 1600 F

File : FS2 Graph: GL2

33 States 17 Devices 22 Components

Williams Diagram Economics

Read by: System Tool

TWO-PRESSURE COMBINED CYCLE

High Firing Temperature = 2300 F, Aircooled gt blades

File : FS3 Graph: GL3

35 States 17 Devices 23 Components

splitter

Fuel

7

17

HP ecnmzr

HP stm turbine

HP blr/sphtr

merger

HPpmp

LP ecnmzr

LP stm turbine

LP blr/sphtr

condnsr

33 CW

Read by: System Tool

THREE-PRESSURE COMBINED CYCLE

Low Firing Temperature = 1600 F

File

FS4

Graph

Marine Steam System Heater

STEAM POWER CYCLE (5 FEED HEATERS)

Sub-critical and Super-critical

51 States 26 Devices 37 Components

Subcritical Boilers

SIMPLE COMBINED CYCLE/COLD AIR COGENERATION

File : FSB Graph: GL8

27 States 16 Devices 18 Components

fuel

tear at product ratio

Hi J

calc xi stm turbine

GT unit

|sphtr blr

vapor compr

condnsr

evaportr throt vlv

1.1

cold air

23 22

fan condnsr

Read by: System Tool

GAS TURBINE POWER/MSF DISTILLATION

MSF Recycle Version

54 States 22 Devices 32 Components fuel to ejectors

GT unit suprhtr boiler

16 28

bp stm turbine throt vlv

desuprhtr

_blwdwn I

"OTT

make-up 27

I cooling]

[product I

I cooling]

37 3 splitter

30 3S

47 A 29

37 3 splitter

30 3S

.(Iii splitter 39

32"

24, species separator msf rej

Read by: System Tool recycle pmp msf recv bm htr

GAS TURBINE POWER/MSF DISTILLATION

MSF Once Thru Version

54 States (active 45) 22 Devices (active 19) 32 Components (active 26)

fuel to ejectors splitters

GT unit suprhtr boiler

9 bp stm turbine

throt vlv

desuprhtr

12 1

blwdwn

30 29

make-up

feed

product

I reject I

species separator once thru msf brn htr

Read by: System Tool

STEAM POWER BP TURBINE/ME DISTILLATION

File

FS10

Graph

GL10

52 States 21 Devices 32 Components

Msf Distillation

Configuration 1 Simple Basic Boiler /MSF Distillation System (Case 1)

Natural Gas 185 MW

Natural Gas 185 MW

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 2

The Simple Boiler/MSF with a Two-Stage Recovery Ejector (Case 2)

Simple Boiler

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 3

The Simple Boiler/MSF with a Thermocompression Recovery Effect (Case 3)

Flow Diagram Production Steam Boiler

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 4 Simple Boiler/MSF Producing its Own Power Needs (Case 4)

Simple Boiler

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 5 Boiler, Thermocompression Multiple Effect, Power Imported

Distillation Par Thermocompression

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 6 Steam Power/MSF Conventional Cogeneration System

Reheater Definition

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 7

Back pressure steam turbine, One reheater, (no feed htrs), MSF distiller

Steam Turbine Single Stage Diagram

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 8 Cogeneration Back pressure steam turbine and ME distiller

Extraction Turbine

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 9 Cogeneration Extraction Steam Turbine and ME Distiller

Steam Boiler Return Diagram

Read by: Desal Tool

Condenser Water Flow Diagram

Configuration 11 Internal Cogeneration All-Water System (case 6)

Marine Turbo Generator Diagram

Read by: Desal Tool

Configurations 12,14 Gas turbine, Heat recovery steam generator, MSF distiller Case 12: Steam turbine not active Case 14:Steam turbine active

Fuel 46 Comp .

Comp

GasTurbine 3

Combustor

374 to ejectors

Superheater

Boiler

Economizer

38 10 9

1M Stm Turbine JLl 8

Mixer

3^1 1^40 return.makeup

f*23

Rejection Stages 13

Recovery Stages 12

rine eater

Read by: Desal Tool

Configurations 13,15 Gas turbine, Heat recovery steam generator, Multiple effect distiller Case 13:Steam turbine 7 is not active Case 15:Steam Turbine 7 active

Fuel 46 Comp

Comp 44

Combustor

GasTurbine 3

37+ to ejectors

Superheater

Boiler

Economizer

38 10

1 StmTurbineJLl8

L42.

3ffil<40 re turn,makeup

Condenser

"23

Evaporators 23

Pumps

Multiple Effect Distiller

Read by: Desal Tool

Configuration 16 Simple Gas Turbine

Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Flow Diagram

Read by: Desal Tool

Hrybrid Msf And Plant Diagram

Configurations 18,19 Gas Turbine Power , VC, MSF Hybrid All-Water System Case 18: Steam turbine not active Case 19: Steam turbine active

Fuel 46 Comp Comp 44 l**"

GasTurbine 3

Combustor

57 28 54

52 56

37 to ejectors

Superheater

Boiler

Economizer

Ifil^l Stm TurbinaJL. 18

Mixer

3§JT«40 return,makeup

Rejection Stages 13

32hr 14

Pumps

Recovery Stages 12

rine eatei

*fl5 Recycle Pump

Read by: Desal Tool

Configurations 20,21 Vapor-Compression Unit 20: T= 212 F, p=l atm 21: T=120-140 F, pel atm

ATHT = ATC

say 120 F:

• Cost would be about 14% less, setting a target cost .75-.80 $/ton and efficiency (as defined) 5-6%

• Compressor Capacity would increase 15 times.

• Venting substitutes vacuum.

T1 fuel b

single stage compressor AT„.= 10F

evaporator/ condenser atT

power to maintained vacuum, p<l atm recovery exchangers product

+5016

Configuration 22 Atmospheric Pressure Power Driven Flash-Vapor Compression Unit

IF Throttle and Pump were a Turbine-Pump Unit:

• The flash chamber process approaches the process of a liquid-vapor separator.

Configuration 22 Atmospheric Pressure Power Driven Flash-Vapor Compression Unit

3

18

1

[Brine Heater |

2 27F

Recovery Exchangers

Throttle &Pump

222F 19

2 27F

Rcycle Pump z thrtle

single-stage compressor power

1 unit

Flash Chamber

212F

jpn1

Mixing chmbr

Read by: Desal Tool

Product

Feed

Reject

Configuration 23 250-212 F Flash-Vapor-Compression Acid-Treated Power-driven Unit

Vapor Compression Distiller

Read by: Desal Tool

Figure a Atmospheric Pressure Flash-Vapor Compression Unit

Brine Heater

Throttle &Pump

222F 63

100 units

Recovery Exchangers

227F

Rcycle Pump z

1 unit

Flash Chamber

212F

64 1

Mixing chmbr

Product

Feed

Reject

|desuperhtr |

250F

Temps for illustration

brine htr

250F

"6i

237F

condensers flash chambers

232F

227F

Feed

Reject

7.17F 717F 62-

7.17F 717F 62-

222F

recycle pump

Figure b

250-212 F Flash-Vapor-Compression Acid Treated Unit

222F

Read by: Desal Tool

atm press flash chamber (212 F)

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