Urban Survival Secrets for Terrorist Attacks

Urban Survival Guide

Discover How You Can Easily Have A Survival Plan Staying Right Where You Currently Live That's Better Than Having. A Fully Stocked Rural Retreat That You Can't Get To! Finally Revealed: Urban Survival Secrets For Surviving Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters And Pandemics! In The Real World, Most People Don't Have A Fully Stocked Retreat They Can Escape To. Even If You've Planned Ahead And You Do, There's No Guarantee That You'll Leave In Time Or That You'll Be Able To Make It There. Your First Plan Must Be To Survive In Place. More here...

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Beliefs and Practices about Terrorism

With terrorism, the picture is altogether different. After the 9 11 attacks, the risk of terrorism has been consistently ranked among the most pressing problems facing the United States.56 With respect to the war on terror, Americans disagree on a great deal. But they agree that the risk ofterrorism is both serious and real, and they favor expensive precautions to reduce that risk. In 2006, the Pew Research Center found that defending the nation from terrorism was a top priority for 80 percent of Americans a higher percentage than for any other problem.57 In the period shortly after the 9 11 attacks, 88 percent of Americans believed that it was either very likely or somewhat likely that there would be another terrorist attack within the next few months with about half of Americans worrying about the possibility that a family member might become a victim of a terrorist attack, and over 40 percent worrying that terrorist attacks might take place where they live or work.58 with many...

Chairs and rapporteurs S Arlosoroff terrorism and JAA Jones

Both terrorism and armed conflict can be threats to water security, either directly or indirectly. Both forms of violence have used disruption or poisoning of water supplies as a weapon, and both may cause collateral damage to water supplies. The distinction between war and terrorism can be arguable. Special Operations forces may use some tactics similar to terrorists, with similar repercussions for water systems, but the main practical distinction is between formal military actions and more informal, smaller scale guerrilla-style activities that may be directed more at civilian personnel and designed to engender fear and panic as much as specific damage.

On Islam Saudi Arabia And Terrorism

See No Evil The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. New York Three Rivers Press, 2002. Contains much good anecdotal material relating to terrorist activity in the Middle East and central Asia. Ehrenfeld, Rachel. Funding Evil How Terrorism Is Financed and How to Stop It. Chicago Bonus Books, 2003. A fascinating examination of terror financing, with special emphasis on the growing links between terror groups and criminal organizations, especially those involved in narcotics traffic. Written by a former Drug Enforcement Agency official. Zubrin, Robert. The Holy Land. Lakewood, CO Polaris Books, 2003. The Middle East situation and international terrorism, dissected and examined through the instrument of science-fiction satire. In humor there is truth.

Relationship between Resource Competition and Terrorism

The United States is often a target of asymmetrical warfare, such as terrorism, because of its military superiority and worldwide economic interests. Many scholars studying peace have reasoned that, in order to defeat terrorism, we must remedy the conditions that give rise to it. Although there is some debate among scholars about the difference between war and terrorism, the retreating Iraqi army committed two particularly wanton acts of environmental destruction during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. First, they released six million barrels of oil from the Kuwaiti Sea Island offshore loading terminal, and scuttled five fully loaded oil tankers at the Mina Ahmadi terminal. They also set fire to 732 oil wells across Kuwait. These burned for months before they were extinguished. The combined oil pollution output from these acts totaled 1.5 billion barrels, or 6,000 times the amount spilled from the Exxon Valdez. To reduce this potential for conflict, developed societies are being encouraged...

Food Terrorism And The Individuals Right To Know

Just as the food industry has been quite successful in preventing the government from using its regulatory powers to protect the public from food-borne contamination, it is proving equally effective in minimizing government efforts to protect the food supply against terrorism (Sparshott 2003). In fact, the Department of Agriculture began a new inspection system in Fall 2002, which reduced the percentage of meat crossing the border that is inspected to 6 per cent from 17 per cent (E. Becker 2003b). Terrorism does represent a potential threat, but far more people routinely die each year from food-borne illnesses than died in the worst terrorist attack in United States history. I suspect that the annual death toll from the chemical industry would also greatly exceed that of the terrorist attack of September 11. Again, the government refuses to apply the same risk analysis to its anti-terrorism actions that it demands for other kinds of regulatory mandates.

Threat Bigger than Terrorism

Current preoccupation is with terrorism, but in the long term climate change will outweigh terrorism as an issue for the international community. . . . Climate change is going to make some very fundamental changes to human existence on the planet. David Anderson, a former Canadian environment minister. Quoted in CNN.com, Official Global Warming Bigger Threat than Terrorism, February 6, 2004. reut index.html.

Terrorism

Terrorism, as defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. The destruction inherent in any act of mass terrorism inevitably causes secondary environmental pollution effects, many of them serious. Acts of terrorism can also be directed against the environment itself, or specific natural resources such as freshwater, oil, or agricultural products.

Bioterrorism

Probably the easiest biological substance to use as a terrorist weapon is botuli-num toxin. The toxin is produced by Clostridium botulinum in foods that have been poorly processed in any preserving method, particularly home preservation of fruit and vegetables that have not been held at a high enough temperature for sufficient length of time. When these foods are eaten, the patient, after a brief incubation period of 12-36 h, develops a dry mouth followed by blurring of vision, difficulty in swallowing, weakness and in the severe case a flaccid paralysis, with mortality of about 10 . It would, therefore, be quite easy to produce the toxin and introduce it as a foodstuff to the unsuspecting recipients or administer it as an aerosol in a direct attack. So if there is no obvious source of botulism in a food source, then bioterrorism should be suspected.

Terrorist Attacks

There has been no shortage of terrorist actions (politics by other means) in modern history (Lacquer 2001 Carr 2002 Maxwell 2003 Sinclair 2003 Parry 2006), but as with classical armed conflicts, most of them have not risen to the level of globally transforming events. Following Rapoport's (2001) division of the history of terrorism into four waves, it is clear that neither the first wave, begun in 1879 and dominated by nearly four decades of Russia's narodnaya volya (the people's will) assassinations (Geifman 1993 Hardy 1987), nor the second wave, extending from the 1920s to the 1960s and characterized primarily by terror in the service of national self-determination, had globally transformative effects. Rapoport's (2001) third terrorist wave, in the 1960s and 1970s, was much more far-reaching. It included the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization), PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), IRA (Irish Republican Army), Basque ETA, Italian Brigatte Rosse, French Action...

Terrorism and war

This has really come to the fore since the events of 9 11, but in fact it is as old as warfare itself. Withholding or poisoning water supplies was a military tactic often used in the ancient world. As noted in the Working Group 1 Report (this volume), water is still being used as a weapon by both national armies and non-state terrorist organisations, from American rainmaking exercises to bog down the Vietcong in the Vietnamese war, and the recent US Air Force intelligence After 9 11 in 2001, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the establishment of a Water Protection Task Force. The President's Infrastructure Assurance Office concluded The water supplied to US communities is potentially vulnerable to terrorist attacks The possibility of attack is of considerable concern These agents inserted at critical points in the system could cause a large number of casualties. And the EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center initiated...

Worst Cases Over Time

The worst-case scenarios associated with terrorism are highly salient. American reactions are greatly affected by availability, probability neglect, and outrage. By contrast, the worst-case scenarios are dampened for climate change, because Americans believe that they have relatively little to lose from greenhouse gas emissions and that expensive regulation would mostly help people in other nations in the distant future. Partly for that reason, they have not been willing to spend a great deal to reduce the problem. The images associated with terrorism are concrete and easy to envision the images associated with climate change are highly abstract. Because of the 9 11 attacks, and because serious efforts to control climate change would inevitably impose high costs on the United States, any American official will have limited ability to shift the public's level of concern. But the fear of terrorist attacks can certainly be heightened or diminished and public officials could heighten the...

Consumption and the Maintenance of Power

In 2002, the Bush administration gave the American public the impression that Saddam Hussein was connected to the 9 11 terrorist attacks and declared the Iraq invasion to be part of a war on terrorism. The main justification among many put forth was that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction and posed an imminent threat to Americans.61 That Iraq has Earth's second largest petroleum reserves was never mentioned.62 The invasion of Iraq revealed the great ease with which the powerful can manipulate the opinion of a large portion of a trusting and often poorly educated populace. The fundamental reason for the invasion was to enhance U.S. power to gain solid control over an area rich in a key resource, petroleum 63 to improve the U.S. strategic position relative to the oil- and gas-rich Caspian region 64 and at the same time to teach the world the lesson that nothing would be allowed to prevent continued American overconsumption. A major source of petroleum for the West had been Saudi...

New Realities of the st Century Emerging Tri Polar World

Let the present America expend what remains of its energy, if that is what it wants to do, on the war on terrorism a substitute battle for the perpetuation of a hegemony that it has already lost. If it stubbornly decides to continue showing off its supreme power, it will only end up exposing to the world its powerlessness. what the world needs is not that America disappear, but that it return to its true self democratic, liberal, and productive. These observations were also articulated by former president Jimmy Carter The restrictions on civil rights in the US and at Guantanamo, cancellation of international accords illustrates contempt for the rest of the world, and finally triggered an unprovoked attack on Iraq, although there was no threat to the US from Baghdad . . This entire unilateralism will increasingly isolate the US from those nations that we need in order to do battle with terrorism.6

Benefits Costs and Rational Choice

See if we can explain Americans' divergent reactions to terrorism and climate change in this way. Benefits Americans might well believe that they have far more to gain from efforts to reduce the risks of terrorism than from efforts to reduce the risks of climate change. Perhaps they think that catastrophic worst-case scenarios are more likely for the former than for the latter. Much depends on the specific measures proposed, of course. But the simplest claim here would be that even if significant climate change is already occurring, its effects will not be truly significant in the United States.77 If we doubt the risk of serious harm, we might well resist regulatory responses. Perhaps the best response to existing concerns involves continued research, especially if little is gained by acting now rather than a few years from With respect to terrorism, by contrast, it is senseless to say that the risk is not real or that the threat is too speculative to warrant immediate action....

Disavow the Preventative War Doctrine

The unrealistic neoconservative goal of global domination must be quickly discarded by any new US administration if it seeks to reduce current and future geopolitical tensions. The concept of the US openly violating international law with unilateral preventative wars in the oil-rich regions of the world will simply not be tolerated by most industrialized nations.46 Hopefully one of the first official acts of the 44th president will be to officially disavow this Bush doctrine and state a desire for a multilateral approach to international terrorism. Such a gesture would allow the world community to breathe a collective sigh of relief and extend to the new administration much needed political capital. Multilateral cooperation will be needed for the following issues reforms.

Cultural and Social Influences

I have attempted to explain the divergent American reactions to terrorism and climate change by reference to individual cognition. But different groups with different cultural orientations focus on different sources of danger and on widely diverse worst cases. Consider a mundane example Many Germans believe that drinking water after eating cherries is deadly they also believe that putting ice in soft drinks is unhealthy. The English, however, rather enjoy a cold drink of water after some cherries and Americans love icy refreshments.167 Other cultural variations are more dramatic. In some cultures, judgments about what causes risks, and what reduces risks, would seem extremely puzzling in others.168 In the context of climate change, those who believe society has become too soft and feminine or government interferes too much in our daily lives are more likely to resist strong measures to combat climate change. Cultural differences might also be associated with different judgments about...

Market Signals As Peaking Is Approached

Oil prices have traditionally been volatile. Causes include political events, weather, labor strikes, infrastructure problems, and fears of terrorism.114 In an era where supply was adequate to meet demand and where there was excess production capacity in OPEC, those effects were relatively short-lived. However, as world oil peaking is approached, excess production capacity by definition will disappear, so that even minor supply disruptions will cause increased price volatility as traders, speculators, and other market participants react to supply demand events. Simultaneously, oil storage inventories are likely to decrease, further eroding security of supply, aggravating price volatility, and further stimulating speculation.115 The factors that cause oil price escalation and volatility could be further exacerbated by terrorism. For example, in the summer of 2004, it was estimated that the threat of terrorism had added a premium of 25 - 33 percent to the price of a barrel of oil.118 As...

Question feelings about public space and big event crimes

Because a top-down, all-powerful media theory (such as Gerbner's) might suggest that the saturation 'bombarding' of the public with 'big event' crimes (like the Port Arthur and Dunblane massacres, or the Atlanta Olympics bombing) would make the televiewing public even more convinced about a 'mean world', we asked people their responses to these televisual events. The Sydney group men felt that the main effect of the Port Arthur massacre was to increase the prime minister's popularity at the cost of the public as he peddled a rhetoric of 'gun reform', whereas guns in general are the result of the 'armament kings' making money. This led on to a discussion of imperialist countries using guns to control Africa, Europe and so on. 'Multinational capital is at the back of it', controlling for example development in Peru orAustralia, generating terrorism and so on. As regards the safety of public spaces, they argued for a routine return to 'more cops back on the beat', rather than any 'panic'...

E LNG Delayed Salvation

But the construction of new terminals demands state and local approvals. Because of NIMBYism and fear of terrorism at LNG facilities, a number of the proposed terminals have been rejected. There are also objections from Mexico, which has been proposed as a host for LNG terminals to support west coast natural gas demands.65 In the Boston area there is an ongoing debate as to whether the nation's largest LNG terminal in Everett, Massachusetts, ought to be shut down, because of terrorist concerns.66 Decommissioning of that terminal would exacerbate an already tight national natural gas supply situation. Public fears about LNG safety were heightened by an explosion at an LNG liquefaction plant in Algeria that killed 27 people in January 2004. Alternatively, some are considering locating LNG terminals offshore with gas pipelined underwater to land related costs will be higher, but safety would be enhanced. 65 Flalka, J.J. & Gold, R. Fears of Terrorism Crush Plans For Liquefied-Gas...

Beliefs and Regulation

Divergent judgments about climate change and terrorism help to account for governmental behavior. Of course there are many possible relationships between public attitudes and official responses (see Table 1). We can easily imagine cases in which both the public and its representatives insist on risk reduction, especially ifthe focus is on worst-case scenarios. After the attacks of 9 11, this was certainly the case with the war on terror. The same can plausibly be said about certain steps to reduce air pollution.68 In other contexts, such as acid deposition (sometimes called acid rain), the public does not demand risk reduction, but officials favor it they are permitted to take certain steps because the public does not oppose ernment responses in their preferred directions. In the context of terrorism, the airline industry played a significant role in preventing more extensive security procedures before 9 11.73 Powerful organizations have also discouraged aggressive measures to control...

The Risks of Technological Complexity

One important aspect of the human predicament that is too rarely discussed is the growing complexity (and thus vulnerability) of human technological systems. With all highly complex, tightly coupled technologies, such as jet aircraft and nuclear power plants, a major factor in accidents is operator failure. (Tightly coupled systems are ones in which processes are fast, stopping them takes time, failure in one subsystem is difficult or impossible to isolate and can propagate to other systems, and diagnosis of the problem by even alert and skilled operators may be difficult or impossible in the time available. Tight coupling implies, among other things, that a change in one part inevitably leads to a change in another.)112 It's something to think about when seeking technological fixes for environmental problems, including those that might be created by acts of terrorism. Dependence on complex systems and the risks they carry is not an issue connected only to terrorism perhaps equally...

Weather risk trends in the United Kingdom

The UK insurance industry has been willing to underwrite the broadest range of weather perils compared with other insurance markets. However, the prospective increase in UK weather damage may make such risks unacceptable for insurers. Two approaches indicate that the risk is already rising quickly, so that this could soon become a significant issue for the industry and its customers. The first approach is based on projections by the Foresight Programme (Foresight, 2004) in their recent work on flooding, while the second looks at the issue with an illustrative example for a reinsurer. It is important to remember that without reinsurance many risks would not be insured at all. This fact became evident when reinsurers withdrew from the insurance market for terrorism risk in 1993. The UK government had to step in with the creation of Pool Re to provide a backstop for the primary insurers.

World Assembly Of Muslim Youth

WAMY, however, does not limit its activities to campus politics. During the 1990s the president of WAMY in the United States was Abdullah bin Laden, brother of Osama, and under his leadership the organization allegedly maintained ties to al Qaeda.19 In 1996 the FBI listed WAMY as an organization suspected of terrorism.20 Reportedly suspected of having contact with four of the September 11 hijackers,21 the Washington, DC, office of WAMY was raided by federal agents in May 2004.

Clausewitz of Complexity

Greater connectivity harbors another peril too it can increase our vulnerability to terrorism. To see why, we need to delve just a bit deeper into the new science of networks. who had access to them. Another protective factor is a network's redundancy that is, its ability to offload the functions once served by damaged hubs onto undamaged hubs. But strategies like improving tracing and redundancy aren't foolproof, and the incentives for terrorists are large if they succeed in attacking our complex networks, they can spark cascading failures causing immense hardship.38 In fact, according to Langdon Winner, a theorist of politics and technology, the first rule of modern terrorism might be Find the critical but nonredundant parts of the system and sabotage them according to your purposes. Referring to the great Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz, Winner concludes that the science of complexity awaits its own Clausewitz to make the full range of possibilities clear.39 Along...

Oil Crisis Helped Cement Saudi Friendship with the West

By contrast, relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States have grown stronger despite challenges posed by the global war on terrorism. However, it's important to remember that even before the past oil crisis, the kingdom long had warm relations with both the United States and Britain.

The Future Of Oil And The American Dream

How soon the world's supply of oil and oil equivalents will be exhausted is open to debate. There are a number of economic, political, and environmental factors at play, including global economic growth, Middle East violence, terrorism, and conservation efforts. Moreover, as prices rise, new supplies of oil emerge as do efforts to reduce consumption. At current consumption levels, experts say, the world's known oil supply could be exhausted within the next 30 years, but my guess is that the oil peak could come in the next 15 to 20 years.

Toward a Better International Regime

Many related issues ripe for attention are already on the international agenda, from dealing with greenhouse gases and sustainable fisheries management to control of weapons of mass destruction and the legitimacy of preemptive strikes against terrorism. The IPCC is already exploring pathways to an international consensus on global warming

Addressing and slowing the consequences of climate change

Change, described recently by the British Government's Chief Scientific Advisor as a threat to society greater than terrorism, may be the driving force behind most environmental change during the 21st century, but climate change does not act in isolation. Our ability to adapt to climate change is heavily dependent on solving other environmental problems, for example, bringing the human population increase under control. Other threats to society include the shortage of water and variations in rainfall already being felt in some areas of the world, the steady depletion of resources and continued existence of the consumptionist society, the accumulation of waste that we don't know what to do with, and the serious, irreparable damage to biodiversity.

Global Sustainability

Sustaining human society requires many resources, some permanent, others temporary. Culture, for example, is an important factor in human happiness and satisfaction yet is seldom considered a factor in measuring sustainability. Globalization is a process that cannot be reversed, but to be effective and fair it must be managed in the interest of all mankind and the earth we live on. It must be designed to solve global problems of security, need, health care, education, shelter, environmental maintenance, and communication. Today solutions of major problems such as climate change and energy supply require global approaches. Similarly, the major deterrents to human (economic, health, social, cultural, etc.) developments, such as corruption, crime, illicit markets, warfare, misuse of aid funds, terrorism, sickness, biological, nuclear, and chemical weapons, as well as human, labor rights and environmental protection, etc., all require worldwide approaches and actions, which in turn demand...

Precautions against Catastrophe

Any Catastrophic Harm Precautionary Principle must be attentive to the full range of social risks, including the expected losses from the precautions themselves. It makes no sense to take steps to avert catastrophe if those very steps would create catastrophic risks of their own. If a preventive war designed to reduce the risks of terrorism from one source would increase those very risks from another source, then the Catastrophic Harm Precautionary Principle is indeterminate. Risk-risk tradeoffs are common catastrophic risk-catastrophic risk tradeoffs are less so, but they are not difficult to find. And here as elsewhere, distributional considerations matter. The principle should be applied in a way that reduces extreme burdens on those least able to bear them.

Action on the International Scene

Lester Pearson, former prime minister of Canada and president of the United Nations General Assembly, said in 1969 A planet cannot, any more than a country, survive half slave, half free, half engulfed in misery, half careening along toward the supposed joys of almost unlimited consumption. Neither our ecology nor our morality could survive such contrasts.77 As we have seen, those differences, now far greater than they were three decades ago, have grim environmental consequences they also are causing people increasingly to question the morality of the current world system. And the relatively powerless who do the questioning sometimes turn to terrorism. In the long run, understanding the connection between overcon-sumption and terrorism would help America economically, environmentally, militarily, and ethically. It is one more very good reason why the United States and other rich nations should move as rapidly as possible toward energy-efficient economies that minimize, and perhaps...

New Driving Forces Of The Energy Future

In fact, globalization is no longer just an economic or trade issue in an increasingly borderless world where people invade other's homelands and try to introduce or even impose their or new norms and values. Crime, corruption, and terrorism have become general global problems. Invasions by newcomers into old traditional nations, whom they try to not only convert but invert has become a worldwide issue, though it largely affects affluent secular countries. Human rights and freedom of expression are increasingly used to undermine the very cultures which invented and upheld these rights. So-called refugees are often emerging from their role of victims admitted to assist their safety to that of underminers and aggressors who aim to change and topple the very systems that allowed their escape from misery and even persecution. The increasing volatility and nastiness of extremist terrorism and the lack of effective response by most Middle Eastern regimes make it imperative to rapidly...

The Case of the Neutralized Opponents

Laurent Murawiec was a RAND Corporation analyst who presented an extensive dossier of evidence showing Saudi involvement in financing international terrorism to the Defense Policy Board (DPB) on July 10, 2002. This was a very important briefing, because the DPB reports directly to the secretary of defense. Its conclusions were unambiguous The Saudis are active at every level of the terror chain, from planners to financiers, from cadre to foot soldier, from ideologist to

Energy Supply And Policy Issues

Wahhabi clerics in Saudi Arabia maintain not only a stranglehold on people's freedom but influence the government of Saudi Arabia. The government is dependent on Wahhabi support and the clerics in return assure the kingdom's hierarchy's survival. Women live under strict control and have few rights, and youth are often taught fanaticism and hatred as a sign of religious fervor and devout adherence to Islam. The corruption of the peaceful and tolerant Moslem faith by people who use ignorance and faith to foster their own political and economic interests is undermining any opportunity for the economic advancement of the population, including moves towards democracy, and social liberalization particularly in Saudi Arabia. Fanaticism has become a political dogma and not a sign of religious fervor in Arabia where church and state are one. Saudi Arabia provides much of the religious, political, and economic support for terrorism notwithstanding the adamant denial of the Saudi regime. There...

Where Is the Worlds Oil Located

It is worth noting, however, that the U.S. Energy Information Agency expects world oil demand to increase by 54 percent by 2025, largely due to increased demand from developing countries. For example, China's oil consumption grew 6 percent from 2001 to 2002, accounting for all of the world's oil-consumption growth. China replaced Japan as the world's second largest oil consumer. Increases in world oil consumption will have to be met primarily from the oil-rich Middle East, a region with a history of wars, illegal occupations, coups, revolutions, sabotage, terrorism, and oil embargoes. To this list of instabilities may be added growing Islamist movements with various antipathies to the West, particularly the United

Seven Valuable Virtues of the Modern Grid

Our third modern grid virtue is its resistance to attacks. In today's world, security and the threat of terrorism is something that, sadly, must be taken into account when talking about a twenty-first-century power grid. This new security requirement begs for a system-wide solution that will reduce physical and cyber vulnerabilities and recovers one that can bounce right back quickly with minimal power-flow interruptions.

Melding science into the catastrophe risk business

Catastrophe risk models play a major role in the world of insurance for catastrophe risk. Risk models cover a variety ofnatural hazards as well as terrorism. The type and geographic range of commercial risk models are continually expanding. Hazards in countries with large amounts of insurance include earthquakes in Japan and the United States tropical cyclones in the United States, Japan, and Australia and winter storms and floods in Europe, as well as smaller-scale events such as tornadoes and winter storms in the United States. In addition, risk modeling companies produce catastrophe risk models for countries with smaller insurance markets, such as for earthquakes in Chile or typhoons in Guam.

The Relevance Of Comparative Environmental Politics

Globalization clearly challenges old assumptions about an international system of self-interested, self-motivated, and largely self-contained states. International relations scholars identify several important changes under the rubric of globalization increasing international trade and investment declining numbers of wars between states (and increasing incidents of stateless terrorism, intra-state and inter-communal violence) technologically driven explosions in transportation and communication growing international political networks standardization of beliefs about political and economic

Is there a place for nuclear energy in Australias future energy mix

In spite of this support from the government, considerable concerns have been raised with regard to the use of nuclear energy in Australia.11 First, nuclear power itself generates greenhouse gases because of the significant use of energy required to mine, mill and enrich the uranium for the fuel rods. Even where high-grade uranium ores are used, it takes 7 to 10 years to 'pay back' the energy used in the construction and fuelling of a typical reactor. Secondly, for a large-scale deployment of nuclear power to be sustainable in the long term, breeder reactors would have to be used, which create their own fuel in the form of plutonium. To date, these reactors have not generated sufficient new fuel. Ultimately, this would result in plutonium, a highly hazardous radioactive material, being transported around the world in increasing quantities. The risks associated with nuclear terrorism are clear. Thirdly, despite significant government support for the nuclear energy industry globally, it...

Transnational learning

Despite having a more socially and ideologically diverse constituency than its predecessors in the Clamshell and Abalone Alliances. This affinity group structure was adopted by peace movement NVDA activists in many countries in the 1980s. Also, in the 1980s cutting the fence at military bases became an accepted part of the repertoire of peace movement non-violent direct action, and activists made a strong distinction between violence against people or animals and property damage. In the 1990s debates over non-violence have remained lively (and are discussed further in Chapter Six), but have been much less divisive than in the 1970s because different groups of activists have learned how to manage differences by working together on some actions and separately on others. Furthermore even the small numbers who are supportive of the use of political violence in mass demonstrations have learned from the experience of urban leftist terrorism in the 1970s that a terrorist strategy leads only...

The Precautionary Principle

In the face of risks of serious harm, it has become common to invoke the Precautionary Principle.8 Vice President Cheney's One Percent Doctrine is itself a precautionary principle it insists that even if a serious terrorism-related harm is highly unlikely to come to fruition, we should take special steps to prevent it. And indeed, the United States has followed a kind ofPrecautionary Principle in the aftermath of the 9 11 attacks, responding to risks that were not likely to occur. The Iraq War was publicly defended by reference to the Precautionary Principle Even if we could not be certain that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, or would use them, the war might be justified as a way of eliminating the threat. (Why take chances with Saddam Hussein ) In order to understand what I shall have to say about worst-case scenarios, we have to back up a bit and explore the Precautionary Principle more generally. Precautions and risk-taking everywhere It has become standard to say...

Causal Factors Self Defense Environmental Preservation and Anti Global Rhetoric

There are, however, other motivations that may spur eco-terrorism. Related to environmental concerns is the perception that the environment needs defenders or champions willing to take the steps necessary to protect the natural world. This obligation is compounded by a reactionary perception that direct action environmentalists are being persecuted. Beltran presents the interesting argument that eco-terror in the U.S. is a response to violent repression of environmental interests in the 1980 and 1990s, coupled with a general

Future Energy Challenges

U.S. crude oil imports are quite diversified and their origin changes quite often as price, risk, and other market considerations come into play. In the first half of 2004, for example, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, Canada supplied 1.6mbbls day, Mexico 1.6mbbls day, Saudi Arabia 1.4mbbls day, Venezuela 1.3 mbbls day, and Nigeria 1.1 mbbls day in addition to smaller suppliers. This distribution though changed soon afterwards when Nigeria, among others, suffered production problems caused by terrorism, corruption, and more.

The Individual European Countries

Clean Development Mechanism by helping a developing country build a nuclear power reactor, a concept frightening both to environmentalists and those worried about weapons proliferation. Although it did not pursue this at the time, recently it agreed to help Libya to develop a civilian nuclear program. Libya did promise to give up nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Yet, this was still the same country that sponsored terrorism in the 1980s, including bombing civilian airlines over Scotland and Niger. Furthermore, it hardly seemed to need more sources of energy in view of all its oil.

Optimists and pessimists realists and idealists

Michael Klare sees a future where resource wars will become, in the years ahead, the most distinctive feature of the global security environment (Klare 2001 213). Klare focuses on energy (especially oil), water, minerals, and timber. Two of these resources are finite (energy and minerals) and two are renewable (water and timber). Terrorism is likely to become a common feature of future resource wars (Klare 2001 222). In habitats where resources wars are likely,

Realigning US Foreign Policies Rebuilding Good Will Towards America

Despite an initial outpouring of public sympathy for America following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, discontent with the United States has grown around the world over the past two years. Images of the US have been tarnished in all types of nations among longtime NATO allies, in developing countries, in Eastern Europe, and, most dramatically, in Muslim societies.

As the Pendulum Swings

Coincidentally, these distribution utilities are mostly located in those areas of the country where electricity prices are rising the most rapidly, places like California, Chicago and northern Illinois, and the Northeast. These are the places where it is most difficult to build central power stations. These are the places where T& D infrastructure is most inadequate. It is perhaps wiser to think of DP not as disintermediating the electric utility, but the physical transmission grid itself. Guess what else These large population centers, especially the coastal areas, are the most vulnerable to terrorist attacks and infrastructure threats, and most accessible for LNG shipments. Personally, I think a large-scale escalation in LNG imports is a bad idea as explained in an earlier chapter. But a strategic escalation near population centers is a way to maintain intrafuel competition, keep fuel prices reasonable over the long term, and feed robust DP networks.

Leadership And Security Challenges Facing Saudi Arabia

Osama bin Laden is more popular in Saudi Arabia than the monarch and has a huge following in the region, we can't rule out a revolution in the kingdom at some point if matters get worse. There have been numerous terrorist attacks on foreign targets foreign embassies and apartment buildings where expatriate workers live in the kingdom over the past three years, not to forget the Khobar Towers attack in the summer of 1996.

The Dark Street When Electricity Does Not Flow

Even these outage events pale in significance to our industry compared to the 9 11 attack on the World Trade Center towers. It is said that 9 11 changed everything. Many of those changes are in our face and stark. Regarding the electricity business, the changes are nuanced. I would argue that the attack has caused many to rethink globalism and global economic expansion. 9 11 has also imposed a whole new element in the design and shape of energy infrastructure, that of how to enhance national security and prevent and or recover from terrorist attacks.

Security Issues and Conflict

The problem of nuclear proliferation also raises energy security concerns. Because of its nonpolluting attributes and cheap operating costs, many developing countries have expressed interest in developing their nuclear energy capabilities. However, in light of increased terrorist attacks, concerns over the intentions of some countries have surfaced. The possibility that these nations will develop nuclear weapons in conjunction with nuclear fuels raises fears in industrialized countries. While the United Nations works to provide peaceful resolutions to these variances, it seems apparent that disagreements over these issues are heightening. Countries seeking to produce nuclear power are becoming increasingly frustrated at attempts to halt their development. At the same time, industrialized countries are becoming more convinced that illicit activities are occurring in other countries. For example, the United States invaded Iraq in 2003 using the rationale that Saddam Hussein's regime was...

Rising Temperatures and Rising Seas

Such intense heat waves also take a direct human toll. In 2003, the searing heat wave that broke temperature records across Europe claimed more than 52,000 lives in nine countries. Italy alone lost more than 18,000 people, while 14,800 died in France. More than 18 times as many people died in Europe in this heat wave as died during the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.4

Numerous Value Buckets

The first value bucket is national energy security. Our electricity system is vulnerable to threats and attacks as described in earlier chapters. Strategically placed and well-protected storage assets should be considered vital to this country's ability to survive and recover from terrorist attacks or reliability events. Remember Figure 1.1, which showed how electricity is the juice that feeds the rest of the energy, water, communications, and transportation infrastructure. It is nothing short of embarrassing that we maintain such fleet preparedness for our military arsenal but do almost nothing to protect the electricity assets.

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

The Bush administration has argued that as energy needs in the United States grow, the oil that lies underneath this wildlife refuge will be integral for maintaining supply. Furthermore, arctic drilling has been promoted for its importance to national security. Soon after September 11, 2001, the administration appealed to Congress to open ANWR to drilling, emphasizing the need to pass legislation that would allow the United States to rely less on sources of foreign oil. After meeting with his cabinet a month after the terrorist attacks, Bush told the press, The less dependent we are on foreign sources of crude oil, the more secure we are at home (Seelye 2001).

New and Potential Diseases

The term 'conflict' has been used above not only because our battle with parasitic organisms is like an arms race, but also because the horror of using infectious organisms by terrorist organizations in a purposeful way to attack people is now a possibility. This will probably be with organisms that are known to us, but in a way that would ensure that they are particularly potent. The last section of this chapter, therefore, looks at possible bioterrorist-induced diseases.

Interaction of Fuel with

Nuclear Energy Drawings

Here, Lyman touches on a major point, because proponents of HTGRs have sometimes viewed them as being so safe that a strong containment is not needed. However, omitting the containment is justified only if it can be unambiguously shown that the possibility of a significant radiation release from the reactor is negligible. Presumably, this will be a crucial point for the NRC to consider should it receive a license application for an HTGR. The containment issue is further complicated by concerns about terrorist attacks, which may provide an argument for a containment even for an otherwise accident-proof reactor.

Socioeconomic Political Development

America's fight against the unprovoked terrorism of September 11th is considered anti-Moslem notwithstanding the fact that this atrocity was perpetuated by Moslems, mostly Saudis. In fact, there are many political, religious, and cultural leaders of Islam who until today and notwithstanding irrefutable evidence still claim that others such as the Jews perpetuated these horrid crimes. This is in line with the traditional attitude of many Arab leaders and governments to abdicate any responsibility and present themselves as the victims, even when all the facts show otherwise. There is no self-criticism in Arab culture, and no freedom of expression or of the press. economically and backward culturally and politically, all at the same time. The threat of political and social instability are woven into the fabric of Saudi society that tries to advance technologically while maintaining narrow religious and social intolerance. Supporting religious fanaticism had been cheap for the Saudi...

Peter Taylor Catastrophes and insurance

Models notwithstanding, there is still a swathe of risks that commercial insurers will not carry. They fall into two types (1) where the risk is uneconomic, such as houses on a flood plain and (2) where the uncertainty of the outcomes is too great, such as terrorism. In these cases, governments in developed countries may step in to underwrite the risk as we saw with TRIA (TerrorismRisk Insurance Act) in the United States following 9 11. An analysis1 of uninsured risks revealed that in some cases risks remain uninsured for a further reason - that the government will bail them out There are also cases where underwriters will carry the risk, but policyholders find them too expensive. In these cases, people will go without insurance even if insurance is a legal requirement, as with young male UK drivers. We can map the semantic minefield by characterizing three types of catastrophic risk as treated in insurance (see Table 8.1) physical catastrophes, such as windstorm and earthquake,...

Status of Fast Reactor Programs

However, during the 1980s and 1990s, growth of nuclear power fell far short of earlier expectations, there was little pressure on uranium supplies, and interest in fast breeder reactors declined. Further, the initial fast breeder reactors proved to be more expensive than alternatives, such as the LWR or HWR. Particularly in the United States, there was also the concern that the large-scale use and availability of 239Pu might increase dangers from terrorism and nuclear weapon proliferation (see Section 9.4.2 and Chapter 17). These factors made breeder programs a vulnerable target, at a time when there was significant opposition to any projects to advance nuclear power. Nonetheless, some development of breeders has continued, in part to maintain the technology as insurance against future needs.

Militant environmentalism

If the mainstream organizations stand for a kind of incorporation of activism into the dominant culture, splinter groups can be characterized as a sort of a residual cultural formation in relation to the emergent ecological culture. On the one hand, they are often infused with political ideologies, such as anarchism and even terrorism, that are part of a tradition of protest in many countries. On the other hand, they are characterized by their defense of traditional practices and ways of life and for the protection of animal species that seem to be in danger of elimination. Their resistance is based on an active identification with tradition small-scale farming or shopkeeping, for example. Finally, these groups oppose any and all sorts of incorporation, and see the dominant culture of commercialization and globalization as their main enemy.

The conjunction fallacy

In Johnson et. al. (1993), MBA students at Wharton were scheduled to travel to Bangkok as part of their degree program. Several groups of students were asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance. One group of subjects was asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance covering the flight from Thailand to the US. A second group of subjects was asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance covering the round-trip flight. A third group was asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance that covered the complete trip to Thailand. These three groups responded with average willingness to pay of 17.19, 13.90, and 7.44 respectively. People might pay more for international diplomacy intended to prevent nanotechnological warfare by China, than for an engineering project to defend against nanotechnological attack from any source. The second threat scenario is less vivid and alarming, but the defense is more useful because...

Ten Paradoxes for the Journey Communication Strategies to Mobilize the Climate Movement

Tough to make the prospect of climate change, even runaway climate change, relevant and urgent when so many hard-working Americans worry more about terrorism, how to make ends meet, their job security or their kids' education, and lack of health care or insurance. We therefore need to help Americans make the connection between the climate crisis and the things they care about in their daily lives. In this section, ten communication strategies to deal with these communication challenges are offered. People respond to fear with attempts to reduce the external danger or contain the internal anxiety. Alarmist messages are intended to mobilize people to reduce the external danger (for example, reduce emissions and thus global warming). Often what they achieve, though, is people simply turning down the internal anxiety. They block out more news on the topic or distract themselves from feeling the fear. They hang on to the tiniest threads of uncertainty to tell themselves (and others) that...

Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center

The secondary environmental effects of terrorism can often be as significant as its primary effects. The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on September 11, 2001, had negative health consequences beyond the staggering loss of life. The collapse of the structures and subsequent fires spewed an enormous cloud of dust and toxins into the air over the city.

Oil Infrastructure Attacks And Bin Laden

Mark Williams Army

And those attacks on oil infrastructure have led some of America's energy isolationists to insist that the best remedy to the problem is to use less foreign oil. In 2004, one of those leading energy isolationists, Gal Luft, a former lieutenant colonel in the Israel Defense Forces and now the head of the Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, wrote that oil terrorism is now emerging as one of the biggest threats to global economy sic . He went on, saying that pipelines, tankers, and other oil infrastructure are soft targets which can be easily sabotaged by those willing to sacrifice their lives.29 In early 1973, as tensions between the Israelis and the Arab states grew, the Saudi oil minister, Ahmed Zaki Yamani, warned the U.S. that the Saudis' oil fields were highly vulnerable to acts of sabotage by terrorists. The New York Times reported that Yamani told the Nixon administration that the risk of terrorism could be diminished by progress toward a settlement of the...

Structure Of The Iraqi Constitution

Prior to taking up those specific powers in sweeping, outline form, however, a few brief comments should be offered about the Constitution's provisions on fundamental principles, rights and liberties, and distribution of powers between the branches of government. With respect to some of the fundamental principles, Islam is guaranteed its place as the official religion and the foundation of all legislation 29 law is declared sovereign over all 30 transfers of power are directed to be peaceful and through democratic processes 31 terrorism is denounced 32 and Baghdad is designated the nation's capital.33 More relevant here, though, are both articles 1 and 13. Article 1 declares Iraq to be a single federal,. state,34 and article 13, First, that the Constitution is the preeminent and supreme law in Iraq and shall be binding in all parts of Iraq without exception.35 Article 13, Second, follows this by noting that any law at the central level, or constitutional provision or law at the...

Attacking The Myth Of Individualism

The corporate sector has also been enormously successful in using pseudoscience to distort the nature of the risks that corporations impose on society. Chapter 7 explains how such tactics are destroying what is left of the already-frayed regulatory system. The distortion of risk assessment is particularly clear when comparing the regulations imposed to protect people from terrorism with the regulations used to protect us from corporate-imposed risk, which has taken many, many times more lives than terrorism. The corporate sector has succeeded in hobbling the consumer's right to know about the dangers posed by pollution or by unsafe products, such as a large part of the food supply. If the consumer is king, he is a beggarly sort of king. I close this discussion by considering the precautionary principle as an antidote to the corporate attack on regulation.

Extrapolating conflict trends

Actors Mapping Mali Conflict

The distribution of the cases for the amber forecasts, the minor wars, shifts somewhat from those in the red forecasts (see Table 3.7). The red forecasts are overwhelmingly located in Africa and there is a low relative impact from climate change compared to most countries. African countries account for ten of the 23 in the amber category, and most are countries that are part of the Sahel. Countries with near-desert conditions account for 13 of the 23 cases. Included are seven countries in Europe, though these conflicts are often tied to secessionist causes and terrorism (for example, France and Corsica Russia and Chechnya and the United Kingdom and the Irish Republican Army).

The violencenonviolence debate

This has taken the form of specialist units, disingenuous warnings of the dangers of environmental terrorism, (related) demands for new resources and legislation and revisions to tactical manuals. The legal definition of terrorism as including damage to property even where there has been no harm to people, and the use by the British Prime Minister of rhetoric such as 'mindless thugs' to describe Mayday protesters seem to EDAers to be paving the way for further repression. A shift by them to violence would provide justification for such a move, end both the style of open debate which characterises the movement, and prevent many of the activities that depend upon long-term links with local communities. The network would become secretive and even smaller than at present.

Conclusio Of Geography On Global Warming

The explanation of this paradox lies partly in the range of obstacles or problems that separate geographers and the policy realm. The higher status accorded to pure science over applied work, something buried deep in Western science and ironically reinforced by government policies towards academia, remains one significant problem. Other institutional obstacles include the proliferation of levels of government and the concentration of geographers on downstream outcomes. There are also 'cultural' differences between academics and policy-makers that can only be bridged through persistent hard work. But beneath this is a more profound question. To what extent should geographers not only set the agenda of research, but choose to whom their work is relevant One the one hand, there is research that assists the management of society and the environment, clearing up their messes without necessarily addressing the cause of the problem. A recent example is a collection of short essays by US...

Environmental Toxins as Stressors

Cartoonbank Hot Dogs

Another example of the interaction between physical, environmental, and psychological stressors was observed following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax incidents. Public fears about the attacks resulted in 2,300 false reports of anthrax exposure in early October 2001. Wessely (2002) observed that the social, psychological, and economic effects of mass sociogenic illness caused by psychological reactions and associated anxiety may be as significant as that which results from actual attacks.

The Methanol Economy General Aspects

Another potentially significant application of the direct conversion of natural gas (methane) to methanol is in its ready and safe transportation when pipelines are neither feasible nor available. Today, LNG is transported across oceans under cryogenic conditions by using very large tankers (> 200 000 tonnes). The LNG is unloaded at terminals and fed into pipelines to satisfy increasing needs, or to serve as a substitute for diminishing local natural gas sources. LNG is potentially hazardous, however, due perhaps to accidents or to acts of terrorism, and a single supertanker exploding close to high-density population area might have the devastating effect of a hydrogen bomb. Whilst hoping that such a situation will never occur, realistically we must be prepared to find alternative, safe methods of transporting natural gas. In this respect, its conversion to methanol is a feasible alternative. The direct conversion of natural gas to liquid methanol, in contrast to its prior...

Distinguishing Attributes of Nuclear Material

To the four natural attributes must be added security issues related to terrorism, insurgency, tribal warfare or civil war. A small amount of stolen highlevel radioactive material magnifies the effect of many violent acts. A conventional car bomb, such as those that explode nearly every day somewhere in the world, would be two or three orders of magnitude more dangerous if irradiated materials were used in a densely populated urban area. A so-called dirty bomb can be constructed using a few pounds of radiological waste, without the technical sophistication of a nuclear device. While such a bomb might not cause the immediate wide-scale damage of a conventional nuclear device, it would require the complete evacuation of a population for an extended period of time.

Definitions Semantics and a Common Syntax

Every discussion of eco-terrorism faces the recurrent difficulty of defining precisely what is being described. Terms such as eco-terrorism, environmental terrorism, and ecotage, are used almost interchangeably, generating confusion and misunderstanding, and sub-definitions such as impact eco-terror and ideological eco-terror 12 further complicate the lexicon. An excellent example of this confusion is found within the Encyclopedia Britannica, where ecological terrorism and environmental terrorism are lumped together, with a definition that includes both terroristic crimes utilizing or targeting environmental resources, and the use of terror for the sake of protecting the environment 13 . Additionally, the terms environmental terror and eco-terror are often used interchangeably 14 , though they represent very different practices. Effort must be made to distinguish exactly which actions of concern are being addressed 15 . While the term eco-terrorism has been well-recognized in a number...

Senator Inhofes Case Against Global Warming

Much of the debate over global warming is predicated on fear, rather than science. Global warming alarmists see a future plagued by catastrophic flooding, war, terrorism, economic dislocations, droughts, crop failures, mosquito-borne diseases, and harsh weather all caused by human-made greenhouse gas emissions. . . .

Preface to the Second Edition

This second edition represents an extensive revision of the first edition, although the motivation for the book and the intended audiences, as described in the previous preface, remain the same. The overall length has been increased substantially, with revised or expanded discussions of a number of topics, including Yucca Mountain repository plans, new reactor designs, health effects of radiation, costs of electricity, and dangers from terrorism and weapons proliferation. the U.S. government will act to further the construction new reactors, the outcome of on-going debates on the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, and the extent to which nuclear weapons proliferation and nuclear terrorism can be restrained. In the broader energy picture, concern about climate change caused by fossil fuel combustion has intensified, with increased interest in the potential of sequestering carbon dioxide after it is produced and in finding alternatives to fossil fuels.

Important Miscellaneous Adjectival Provisions

Regarding the exact language of article 40 of the model PSC, it goes through a nonexhaustive and merely illustrative litany of events or phenomena from war and terrorism, strikes and blowouts, to epidemics and natural disasters, and KRG or other governmental acts or orders, that prevents or impedes execution of all or part of a contractor's obligations and therefore qualify as force majeure.221 But under the terms of article 40, force majeure is also represented by events or phenomena considered unforeseeable, insurmountable and irresistible, as well as due to circumstances beyond the control of, and not due to any error or omission of the contractor.222 Apart from the fact that much disagreement is likely to exist in specific factual contexts over whether certain events or phenomena leading to nonperformance of contractual obligations truly were unforeseeable, insurmountable, and irresistible, the precise wording of article 40 raises the interesting interpretive question of whether...

Direct Action in a Contemporary Context

One of the most interesting aspects of eco-terror is the choice of direct action tactics. While arson is typically preferred, certainly due to its destructive effect and anonymity, others tactics include property-based crimes (e.g. sabotage to equipment, vehicles, buildings, laboratories), animal liberations (e.g. from research facilities, farms), intimidation campaigns (e.g. harassing letters, telephone calls, vandalism), and direct physical violence (e.g. assault). In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, widespread concerns have arisen over the potential for terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). This heightened concern has had implications for whether the actions of eco-terrorists might present a more serious threat, and if such activists might consider use of WMDs for indiscriminate attacks. While the likelihood of such an occurrence remains debatable 19,27 , the potential for such an attack has not gone unnoticed by anti-terrorism...

Americans Rank Their Concerns

In March 2005 Gallup asked poll participants to rate their level of worry regarding twelve social and political issues. (See Figure 1.9.) The availability and affordability of healthcare garnered the most concern with 60 of respondents expressing a great deal of worry about it. It was followed by social security, crime and violence, drug use, terrorism, energy, the economy, and hunger and homelessness. The environment ranked ninth with 35 of those asked expressing a great deal of worry about it. Concern was greatest among people aged eighteen to twenty-nine years and those that classified themselves as nonwhite.

Advanced fossil fuel and nuclear technologies

Serious security issues are also associated with the use of nuclear energy. Of increasing concern is the possibility of nuclear terrorism, whereby a radical group acquires plutonium and produces a crude nuclear device. The method of constructing a nuclear device is not complex, the major difficulty being the availability of plutonium, an essential component. Disturbingly, there have been several reports of theft or the mysterious disappearance of small quantities of plutonium and other components of nuclear devices.

Controlling Information

The Bush administration's control of information throughout the federal government is greatly aided by the dramatic increase in secrecy it has imposed compared to previous presidencies. From the start, the Bush administration created one of the least transparent federal government systems in memory, as exemplified by Vice President Cheney's energy task force, for which the administration claimed executive privilege to prevent public access to even a listing of participants invited to its closed-door meetings. This initial penchant for secrecy was dramatically expanded in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and has continued to grow rapidly. Some 15.6 million documents were classified by the federal government in 2005, nearly double the number classified at the start of the Bush administration in 2001. At the current rate, according to a recent report, Bush administration officials are classifying as secret roughly 125 documents every minute.14

Us Withdrawal And Cop Part Ii

This unusual step of elevating Kyoto to a level usually reserved for trade or defence issues was clearly ineffective, if not counterproductive, although British Prime Minister Tony Blair subtly linked climate change to EU support in the battle against terrorism after the World Trade Center attack on 11 September. It remained to be seen whether the USA would take the hint and what any concessions might be. Canadian Environment Minister David Anderson laid the blame for the US decision at the door of the EU 'The problem was the rigid position of the Europeans who thought they could force the Americans to do something they knew the Americans couldn't do' (Reuters, 31 March 2001). The EU very quickly ruled out any possibility of trade sanctions against the USA as a result, as environmental groups organized boycotts against US oil companies, which were widely seen as having orchestrated the decision, a 1.2 million contribution to the Bush campaign from Exxon-Mobil frequently being cited as...

Renewed Efforts to Protect Environmental Infrastructure

York City and other large cities immediately took steps to protect their water systems by guarding the infrastructure and testing the water for known contaminants. In 2002 President George W. Bush's administration passed the Public Health and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act, which required, among other actions, that all water utilities across the country conduct security assessments to gauge possible vulnerability and take steps to protect their water.

Radioactive Waste Disposal

States is currently being stored on-site at the point of generation. In Europe, prior to on-site storage, spent fuel is first sent to either the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom or the La Hague site in France to be reprocessed in order to recover usable fuel. No reprocessing of commercial spent fuel is being conducted in the United States. In the United States, spent fuel and other high-level radioactive waste awaits the construction of a central, permanent repository. It is currently stored in spent fuel pools or, in some cases, in dry casks. Spent fuel pools are water-filled, lead-lined chambers that are adjacent to reactors on civilian power reactor sites. Dry-cask storage has become necessary in some cases where the on-site spent fuel pools have reached capacity. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with developing this federal repository. Amid local opposition, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently under study...

Pulitzer Prizes Awarded For Environmental Reporting

The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, a war in Iraq, and the nation's sputtering economy (which might be used to rally support for decreased environmental protections) will present a new challenge to the coverage and interest in environmental issues. The environmental beat also faces an internal pressure. More newsroom staffs are being pared as the economy contracts and media competition increases.

Getting to Know a World of Wounds

The world is losing key components of its precious biological and cultural diversity, globally and very rapidly. McDonald's and CNN are everywhere. In Jerry Mander's words, we're moving rapidly toward a global monoculture.18 Over the next decades, terrorism permitting, international travel may become even easier for those who can afford it, at least to those areas where political stability makes it advisable. But there will be less and less incentive for doing it, so those with the most influence may become even more insulated from increasing numbers of poor people and the deteriorating state of the world's ecosystems. The disconnect between culture and the facts of life will then be even greater. Museum collections can travel natural wonders can be preserved on videotape or disk and enjoyed in one's living room without the risk of falciparum malaria or other resurgent diseases that are now ravaging much of the globe.19 Virtual reality seems to be arriving at just the right time, as...

Safeguards Against Terrorists

Still another operation that might be vulnerable to terrorist attacks is the shipment of unirradiated (fresh) U-235 or plutonium fuel elements when they are transported from the fuel fabricator to a reactor plant. To minimize the consequences of armed attacks and thefts, precautions are usually taken which include insuring that the amount of fuel is less than required for a critical assembly. Thus the theft of fuel from two or three transports would have to be carried out if the objective of the terrorists is to obtain enough for a nuclear weapon. Should a shipment of irradiated fuel elements with freshly bred plutonium be attacked and robbed on its way to a reprocessing facility, not much could be done with the stolen fuel since it is intermixed with Pu-240 and other neutron 'poisons' that prevent nuclear chain reactions. It is the reason why the shipment was on its way to be 'reprocessed' to take out undesirable elements that inhibit nuclear fission. Thus unless the terrorists...

Brief Future Global Energy

Entirely with solar cells and wind mills. Instead, government leaders must heed warnings of the nuclear energy engineering profession. Otherwise disastrous energy shortages will surely develop resulting in similar finger-pointing as with the 9 11 terrorist attacks on New York's World Trade Center, or the dam breaches around New Orleans from hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005. Many early warnings were ignored. History shows time and time again that people and government bureaucracies tend to keep their heads in the sand till jolted. Unless remedied on time, oil depletion will produce a downward spiral of rapidly escalating shortages of food and goods, collapse of the economy, serious impoverization of the majority of people, and an increase of war-provoking world tensions. Desert cities like Las Vegas, Nevada and Phoenix, Arizona which are totally dependent on a cheap-oil economy, will become ghost-towns Ref 53 . Construction of a nuclear power

The Range of Terrorist Threats

Potential terrorist attacks, including attacks using nuclear bombs or carried out against nuclear facilities, have long been a matter of concern. However, the events of September 11, 2001 have greatly heightened the sense of concern. The emergence of Al Qaeda has demonstrated the existence of a large terrorist group that appears to have access to skilled and dedicated personnel and ample financial resources. The willingness of individual terrorists to die in their attacks broadens the scope of their potential operations. Thus, what may have seemed to many people to be a vague threat or in a some cases, a threat with specific and limited goals has become concrete and open-ended in scope.27 A face had been put on what had previously been a faceless danger. The impact has been particularly great in the United States, which had relatively little prior experience of terrorist attacks. The Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 was a traumatic event and smaller attacks such as those of the Given the...

Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

Although Making the Nation Safer did not suggest an urgent need for such a transfer, the report did endorse the use of dry storage casks, expressing the view that they are very robust and would probably stand up to aircraft attacks as well 25, p. 47 . A similarly positive assessment of the protection provided against terrorist attacks was made for the casks to be used in the transportation of spent fuel to a waste repository 25, p. 48 . Concerns about the dangers associated with terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants have, in some cases, led to calls that they be shut down. In particular, in 2003 a vigorous local campaign was started to shut down the two Indian Point reactors located about 35 miles north of New York City. The chief expressed fear is that evacuation could not be accomplished quickly enough to protect the surrounding population. On the other hand, a group of present and past leaders in the nuclear industry and nuclear education have argued that there is little...

Restoring Scientific Integrity

See National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, The 9 11 Commission Report (Washington, DC GPO, 2004). A review of the report's recommendations is available at www.gao.gov. See also Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, March 2005 available at www.wmd.gov.

The Good The Bad And The Ugly

Our global village is currently beset by a series of microbial threats dubbed emerging infections, abetted by a seditious menace, bioterrorism. Both require elucidation and comprehension. Emerging infectious diseases are infections that have newly appeared in a population, or have existed previously but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range 1 .

Backward Glance for Perspective

Biological terrorism began with hurling of diseased animal and human cadavers, clothing, bedding, over city walls or into wells to contaminate water supplies, in attempts to subdue an enemy city. The spread of infections disease along with the sixteenth century age of exploration resulted in untold numbers of deaths. It's estimated that the arrival of smallpox in Mexico with the Spanish Conquistadors reduced the Aztec population by 10-15 million, effectively ending the Aztec civilization 19 . The glorious victories attributed to Spanish arms would not have been possible without the devastation wrought by Spanish diseases. During World War I, Germany successfully infected allied livestock and animal feed with the bacilli of anthrax and Glanders, to infect mules and horses of the French Calvary. Argentinean livestock intended for allied troops were also infected with anthrax. As many as 15 million fleas per city were released by the Japanese over 11 Chinese cities during World War II,...

Protection of Agriculture and the Food Supply

In his October 2001 executive order establishing the Office of Homeland Security, President Bush added agriculture and the food industries to the list of critical infrastructure sectors requiring protection, and acknowledged that the agriculture sector and the food supply are vulnerable to bioterrorists. The Secretaries of both Agriculture and Health and Human Services have publicly recognized that the US food supply is susceptible to deliberate contamination. Attacks could be directed at livestock, crops, and food products. Terrorists seeking ways to harm the United States, could deliberately introduce foreign animal diseases into the country. Accepting that idea, the USDA recently calculated that a foot-and-mouth outbreak could spread to 25 states in as little as 5 days. A simulation by the National Defense University in June 2002 predicted that a foot-and- mouth outbreak could spread to more than one-third of the nation's cattle herds 39 . When it does, vesicles appear in the mouth...

The Cost of Misconceptions

Many approaches can be used to calculate the cost of misconceptions related to global warming. For example, it is possible to estimate the cost of one or many events related to extreme weather, an approach that has inspired the insurance industry to advocate for prompt climate action. In a report to Congress weeks after Hurricane Katrina, the Congressional Research Service estimated the private-insurer losses at 40 to 60 billion, making Hurricane Katrina the costliest single event in U.S. history, exceeding even the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The report calculates total economic losses (insured and uninsured) at over 200 billion.5

Threats To The Survival Of The Human Race

2 Biological warfare or terrorism or criminality. Biological weapons could actually be more dangerous than nuclear ones less costly, and with a field of destruction harder to limit because the weapons were self-reproducing organisms. 3 Chemical warfare or terrorism or criminality.

Disasters Nuclear Accidents

Concerns over potential nuclear disasters center on nuclear reactors, typically those used to generate electric power. Other concerns involve the transport of nuclear waste and the temporary storage of spent radioactive fuel at nuclear power plants. The fear that terrorists would target a radiation source or create a dirty bomb capable of dispersing radiation over a populated area was added to these concerns following the 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. Fears of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants have prompted state and local health offices to distribute supplies of potassium iodide pills, known as KI, to be taken in the event of a release of radioactive materials. KI blocks the intake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid and helps prevent thyroid cancer. The pills were provided by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Brother Can You Spare an Engineer

It is clear to some executives that the industry must begin to tap the global engineering talent pool. But that isn't a straightforward process in this day and age of heightened concern about terrorism. Getting visas for foreign workers has become a nightmare. Plus, the places where these workers might originate Asia, for example are dealing with their own booms in power industry growth.

Cradle Of The Petroleum

There is an urgent need to carry out reforms but these could only be introduced if done in a way as though the process has nothing to do with the U.S. or the West. Even though many Arabs may be happy with the removal of Saddam from power in Iraq, the U.S. and Britain are not considered liberators but occupiers of Iraq. Similarly, to placate the U.S., Arab regimes are usually willing to pay lip service to the war against terrorism and even arrest a few minor Al Qaeda operatives as well as supposedly support the roadmap to peace in Palestine. This is often done not out of conviction or recognition of correctness of these actions but to placate the U.S. At the same time there is growing frustration among Arabs with their impotence in political and military terms as well as the lack of technological and economic advancement. It is not by chance that the Arabs who contributed to human development, science, technology, literature, and arts so greatly between 700 AD and 1600 AD have made...

Martin J Rees Foreword

19 Catastrophic nuclear terrorism a preventable peril 402 19.2 Historical recognition of the risk of nuclear terrorism 403 19.3 Motivations and capabilities for nuclear terrorism 406 19.3.1 Motivations the demand side of nuclear terrorism 406 19.3.2 The supply side of nuclear terrorism 411 19.5 Consequences of nuclear 427 20.7 Catastrophic biological 466

The First Oil Crisis of the Twentyfirst Century

As in the early 1970s, there were many economic reasons that fed the crisis, whose explosion was mainly the result of many years of inadequate investments in new oil production capacity and infrastructure. However, as in the 1970s, a new political drama anticipated the crisis and shaped its psychological background. Once again, that drama erupted from the unsolved problems of the most oil-rich region of the world, the Middle East this time, though, it took an unprecedented and dreadful form, through the terrorist attacks to the soil of the United States that, on September 11, 2001, destroyed New York's World Trade Center, a wing of the Pentagon in Washington, and the lives of nearly 3,000 people. The evisceration of Islamic terrorism paralleled the rise and fall of hope for a peaceful Israeli-Palestinian settlement in the mid-1990s, and was partly fed by it. Terrorist attacks throughout the Iraqi territory became a common daily occurrence, many of them directed against the oil...

An Overlap In Vital Interests

Members of a megacommunity do not necessarily need to have the same objectives, but they must share a problem (climate change, the threat of terrorism), resource availability (oil, water, the Amazon rainforest), or aspiration (education, health care, enhanced business interaction). Everything starts with some shared issue which is why, depending on their mission and or operations, all organizations are de facto members of megacommunities. In most of these situations, individual organizations cannot opt out of their megacommunity unless they change their mission. As long as, say, you are there to fight HIV AIDS in Africa, and are affected in some way by the HIV AIDS issue, then you are automatically part of that megacommunity. You can choose how much to participate, and you can choose the form of your participation. But even if you don't show up, you are still a member, and your absence or lack of contribution will be noted.

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