Urban Survival Secrets for Terrorist Attacks

Urban Survival Guide

Discover How You Can Easily Have A Survival Plan Staying Right Where You Currently Live That's Better Than Having. A Fully Stocked Rural Retreat That You Can't Get To! Finally Revealed: Urban Survival Secrets For Surviving Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters And Pandemics! In The Real World, Most People Don't Have A Fully Stocked Retreat They Can Escape To. Even If You've Planned Ahead And You Do, There's No Guarantee That You'll Leave In Time Or That You'll Be Able To Make It There. Your First Plan Must Be To Survive In Place. More here...

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Beliefs and Practices about Terrorism

With terrorism, the picture is altogether different. After the 9 11 attacks, the risk of terrorism has been consistently ranked among the most pressing problems facing the United States.56 With respect to the war on terror, Americans disagree on a great deal. But they agree that the risk ofterrorism is both serious and real, and they favor expensive precautions to reduce that risk. In 2006, the Pew Research Center found that defending the nation from terrorism was a top priority for 80 percent of Americans a higher percentage than for any other problem.57 In the period shortly after the 9 11 attacks, 88 percent of Americans believed that it was either very likely or somewhat likely that there would be another terrorist attack within the next few months with about half of Americans worrying about the possibility that a family member might become a victim of a terrorist attack, and over 40 percent worrying that terrorist attacks might take place where they live or work. 58 with many...

Chairs and rapporteurs S Arlosoroff terrorism and JAA Jones

Both terrorism and armed conflict can be threats to water security, either directly or indirectly. Both forms of violence have used disruption or poisoning of water supplies as a weapon, and both may cause collateral damage to water supplies. The distinction between war and terrorism can be arguable. Special Operations forces may use some tactics similar to terrorists, with similar repercussions for water systems, but the main practical distinction is between formal military actions and more informal, smaller scale guerrilla-style activities that may be directed more at civilian personnel and designed to engender fear and panic as much as specific damage.

On Islam Saudi Arabia And Terrorism

See No Evil The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. New York Three Rivers Press, 2002. Contains much good anecdotal material relating to terrorist activity in the Middle East and central Asia. Ehrenfeld, Rachel. Funding Evil How Terrorism Is Financed and How to Stop It. Chicago Bonus Books, 2003. A fascinating examination of terror financing, with special emphasis on the growing links between terror groups and criminal organizations, especially those involved in narcotics traffic. Written by a former Drug Enforcement Agency official. Zubrin, Robert. The Holy Land. Lakewood, CO Polaris Books, 2003. The Middle East situation and international terrorism, dissected and examined through the instrument of science-fiction satire. In humor there is truth.

Nuclear Power and Terrorism

The explosion at Chernobyl in 1986 resulted from human error. But following the attacks in New York and Washington by terrorists on September 11, 2001, concerns have arisen about the possibility of similar attacks on America's nuclear power installations. None of these facilities were built to withstand the impact of a fuel-laden 757 or 767 jetliner, but expert opinion is that reactor containment vessels could withstand even this impact, although uranium reprocessing facilities could not.20 There are no uranium reprocessing facilities in the United States, but there are several in Europe and Asia. The impact of a fuel-laden 757 or 767 could not cause a nuclear explosion but could release radiation sufficient to cause the permanent evacuation of hundreds of square miles of densely populated suburbs and cities. The accident at Chernobyl rendered more than 1,000 square miles unsafe for human life for at least 100 years. France has installed surface-to-air missiles around its nuclear...

Relationship between Resource Competition and Terrorism

The United States is often a target of asymmetrical warfare, such as terrorism, because of its military superiority and worldwide economic interests. Many scholars studying peace have reasoned that, in order to defeat terrorism, we must remedy the conditions that give rise to it. Although there is some debate among scholars about the difference between war and terrorism, the retreating Iraqi army committed two particularly wanton acts of environmental destruction during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. First, they released six million barrels of oil from the Kuwaiti Sea Island offshore loading terminal, and scuttled five fully loaded oil tankers at the Mina Ahmadi terminal. They also set fire to 732 oil wells across Kuwait. These burned for months before they were extinguished. The combined oil pollution output from these acts totaled 1.5 billion barrels, or 6,000 times the amount spilled from the Exxon Valdez. To reduce this potential for conflict, developed societies are being encouraged...

Effectiveness of Ecoterrorism and Law Enforcement Response

Eco Terrorism

By financial standards, ecoterrorists have been very effective. ELF's campaign of property destruction has cost some 43 million since 1996, including the 1998 firebombing of the Vail, Colorado, ski resort that resulted in 12 million in damage. It has also generated considerable media attention in order to air its grievances. However, ELF has been less successful at stopping or slowing the development it seeks to prevent. In fact, those who have had property destroyed often feel a renewed resolve to continue with their projects so as not to give in to terrorists. Of the sixteen major actions taken by the ELF in 2001, none have resulted in the permanent closure of a business or facility. The Vail ski resort, in fact, was rebuilt on a larger scale. Very few ELF activists have been caught so far, due in large part to the anonymous and decentralized structure of ELF. Each cell operates individually and anonymously, and only notifies the ELF press office after an action has occurred. This...

Food Terrorism And The Individuals Right To Know

The food industry offers another excellent example of the diminished rights of the individual relative to the corporate sector within the context of the War on Terror. Even in the absence of any intentional terrorist acts, both industries presently create serious health risks to the public. I have already discussed the widespread deaths and illnesses from food-borne illnesses. The potential for terrorists to use the food supply to harm the public is fairly obvious. For example, a single 4-ounce ground beef patty may contain flesh from more than a thousand different carcasses (Smith et al. 2000). As a result, a single carcass could infect a wide range of people across the country. Protecting against such a low-tech attack would be challenging, not to mention costly. Just as the food industry has been quite successful in preventing the government from using its regulatory powers to protect the public from food-borne contamination, it is proving equally effective in minimizing government...

Terrorist Attack on the World Trade Center

The secondary environmental effects of terrorism can often be as significant as its primary effects. The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on September 11, 2001, had negative health consequences beyond the staggering loss of life. The collapse of the structures and subsequent fires spewed an enormous cloud of dust and toxins into the air over the city. South tower of the World Trade Center collapsing as black smoke billows from the burning north tower following the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, by members of al-Qaeda. (AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission.)

Safeguards Against Terrorists

It has been suggested that a terrorist gang could steal nuclear fuel elements from a reactor and make a bomb out of it. As already mentioned in Section 5.1.3, the fuel elements of a nuclear reactor are totally unsuitable for a bomb. If terrorists wish to build a nuclear weapon from reactor fuel elements by stealing them from a nuclear plant, they must steal several hundred highly radioactive fuel elements from two or more nuclear reactors. They must first construct a fifty-million-dollar special fuel reprocessing plant whereto they can take the stolen reactor fuel. Next they would have to spend six months or so to carefully extract fissionable uranium and plutonium in such a plant and figure out how to construct a nuclear bomb, which requires a technically very advanced group of engineers. Clearly from the review of criticality accidents in Section 6.6, ignition of a nuclear fissionable critical mass (e.g. Tokaimura) does not produce a Hiroshima-like explosion. To make an effective...

The Range of Terrorist Threats

Potential terrorist attacks, including attacks using nuclear bombs or carried out against nuclear facilities, have long been a matter of concern. However, the events of September 11, 2001 have greatly heightened the sense of concern. The emergence of Al Qaeda has demonstrated the existence of a large terrorist group that appears to have access to skilled and dedicated personnel and ample financial resources. The willingness of individual terrorists to die in their attacks broadens the scope of their potential operations. Thus, what may have seemed to many people to be a vague threat or in a some cases, a threat with specific and limited goals has become concrete and open-ended in scope.27 A face had been put on what had previously been a faceless danger. The impact has been particularly great in the United States, which had relatively little prior experience of terrorist attacks. The Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 was a traumatic event and smaller attacks such as those of the Before...

Threat Bigger than Terrorism

Current preoccupation is with terrorism, but in the long term climate change will outweigh terrorism as an issue for the international community. . . . Climate change is going to make some very fundamental changes to human existence on the planet. David Anderson, a former Canadian environment minister. Quoted in CNN.com, Official Global Warming Bigger Threat than Terrorism, February 6, 2004. reut index.html.


Terrorism, as defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. The destruction inherent in any act of mass terrorism inevitably causes secondary environmental pollution effects, many of them serious. Acts of terrorism can also be directed against the environment itself, or specific natural resources such as freshwater, oil, or agricultural products.


Probably the easiest biological substance to use as a terrorist weapon is botuli-num toxin. The toxin is produced by Clostridium botulinum in foods that have been poorly processed in any preserving method, particularly home preservation of fruit and vegetables that have not been held at a high enough temperature for sufficient length of time. When these foods are eaten, the patient, after a brief incubation period of 12-36 h, develops a dry mouth followed by blurring of vision, difficulty in swallowing, weakness and in the severe case a flaccid paralysis, with mortality of about 10 . It would, therefore, be quite easy to produce the toxin and introduce it as a foodstuff to the unsuspecting recipients or administer it as an aerosol in a direct attack. So if there is no obvious source of botulism in a food source, then bioterrorism should be suspected. With any biological weapon, it is the preparation and means of administration that are the key factors, so unless the terrorist has...

Terrorist Attacks

I should start by emphasizing that this discussion is not about state-operated terror aimed at a ruling regime's domestic enemies, a bloody ingredient of modern history that was elevated to governmental policy in revolutionary France (Wright 1990) and perfected during the twentith century in many countries on four continents, but surely to the greatest extent and with the most ruthless reach in Stalinist Russia (Conquest 1990). My focus is on global transformations that can be effected by relatively small groups of internationally operating terrorists, that is, on global impacts arising from asymmetrical violence whereby a few can inflict serious damage on the many. Although possessing enormous arsenals of armaments and astonishing technical prowess, states find it very difficult to eliminate such threats or even to keep them within acceptable bounds. There has been no shortage of terrorist actions ( politics by other means ) in modern history (Lacquer 2001 Carr 2002 Maxwell 2003...

Terrorism and war

This has really come to the fore since the events of 9 11, but in fact it is as old as warfare itself. Withholding or poisoning water supplies was a military tactic often used in the ancient world. As noted in the Working Group 1 Report (this volume), water is still being used as a weapon by both national armies and non-state terrorist organisations, from American rainmaking exercises to bog down the Vietcong in the Vietnamese war, and the recent US Air Force intelligence briefing Owning the Weather in 2025 , to the foiling of an attempt by Islamist terrorists to poison the water supply in Rome in 2002. After 9 11 in 2001, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the establishment of a Water Protection Task Force. The President's Infrastructure Assurance Office concluded The water supplied to US communities is potentially vulnerable to terrorist attacks The possibility of attack is of considerable concern These agents inserted at...

Worst Cases Over Time

The worst-case scenarios associated with terrorism are highly salient. American reactions are greatly affected by availability, probability neglect, and outrage. By contrast, the worst-case scenarios are dampened for climate change, because Americans believe that they have relatively little to lose from greenhouse gas emissions and that expensive regulation would mostly help people in other nations in the distant future. Partly for that reason, they have not been willing to spend a great deal to reduce the problem. The images associated with terrorism are concrete and easy to envision the images associated with climate change are highly abstract. Because of the 9 11 attacks, and because serious efforts to control climate change would inevitably impose high costs on the United States, any American official will have limited ability to shift the public's level of concern. But the fear of terrorist attacks can certainly be heightened or diminished and public officials could heighten the...

Consumption and the Maintenance of Power

In 2002, the Bush administration gave the American public the impression that Saddam Hussein was connected to the 9 11 terrorist attacks and declared the Iraq invasion to be part of a war on terrorism. The main justification among many put forth was that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction and posed an imminent threat to Americans.61 That Iraq has Earth's second largest petroleum reserves was never mentioned.62 The invasion of Iraq revealed the great ease with which the powerful can manipulate the opinion of a large portion of a trusting and often poorly educated populace. The fundamental reason for the invasion was to enhance U.S. power to gain solid control over an area rich in a key resource, petroleum 63 to improve the U.S. strategic position relative to the oil- and gas-rich Caspian region 64 and at the same time to teach the world the lesson that nothing would be allowed to prevent continued American overconsumption. A major source of petroleum for the West had been Saudi...

New Realities of the st Century Emerging Tri Polar World

Let the present America expend what remains of its energy, if that is what it wants to do, on the war on terrorism a substitute battle for the perpetuation of a hegemony that it has already lost. If it stubbornly decides to continue showing off its supreme power, it will only end up exposing to the world its powerlessness. what the world needs is not that America disappear, but that it return to its true self democratic, liberal, and productive. These observations were also articulated by former president Jimmy Carter The restrictions on civil rights in the US and at Guantanamo, cancellation of international accords illustrates contempt for the rest of the world, and finally triggered an unprovoked attack on Iraq, although there was no threat to the US from Baghdad . . This entire unilateralism will increasingly isolate the US from those nations that we need in order to do battle with terrorism. 6

Energy Independence WlTHlN A Decade

Bush has said that Iraq is the central front in the War on Terrorism. He is wrong. The central, decisive front is America's fight for energy independence. Using portions of the hundreds of billions of petrodollars they are annually draining from our economy, the Saudis have set up more than twenty thousand radical madrassas around the world to indoctrinate young boys with the idea that the way to paradise is to murder Christians, Jews, Buddhists, Taoists, and Hindus.1 The graduates of these academies killed three thousand American civilians on September 11, 2001, and have continued to kill large numbers of Americans in uniform in Iraq. Arab oil revenues are underwriting news media outlets that propagandize hatefully against the United States and the West, supporting training centers for terrorists, paying bounties to the fami And we have not yet reached the culmination of the process. Iran and other states are now using petroleum lucre to underwrite the development...

Benefits Costs and Rational Choice

When thinking about risk and its regulation, citizens engage in at least some kind of weighing of costs and benefits. If people conclude that they have a lot to gain and little to lose from taking precautions against worst-case scenarios, they will favor precautions. Leaders will respond to what citizens believe, though their judgments will be influenced by a separate analysis of their own. Perhaps the cost-benefit ratio is simply higher for reducing certain terrorist threats than for reducing the risks of climate change. Let us see if we can explain Americans' divergent reactions to terrorism and climate change in this way. Benefits Americans might well believe that they have far more to gain from efforts to reduce the risks of terrorism than from efforts to reduce the risks of climate change. Perhaps they think that catastrophic worst-case scenarios are more likely for the former than for the latter. Much depends on the specific measures proposed, of course. But the simplest claim...

Disavow the Preventative War Doctrine

The unrealistic neoconservative goal of global domination must be quickly discarded by any new US administration if it seeks to reduce current and future geopolitical tensions. The concept of the US openly violating international law with unilateral preventative wars in the oil-rich regions of the world will simply not be tolerated by most industrialized nations.46 Hopefully one of the first official acts of the 44th president will be to officially disavow this Bush doctrine and state a desire for a multilateral approach to international terrorism. Such a gesture would allow the world community to breathe a collective sigh of relief and extend to the new administration much needed political capital. Multilateral cooperation will be needed for the following issues reforms.

Cultural and Social Influences

I have attempted to explain the divergent American reactions to terrorism and climate change by reference to individual cognition. But different groups with different cultural orientations focus on different sources of danger and on widely diverse worst cases. Consider a mundane example Many Germans believe that drinking water after eating cherries is deadly they also believe that putting ice in soft drinks is unhealthy. The English, however, rather enjoy a cold drink of water after some cherries and Americans love icy refreshments. 167 Other cultural variations are more dramatic. In some cultures, judgments about what causes risks, and what reduces risks, would seem extremely puzzling in others.168 In the context of climate change, those who believe society has become too soft and feminine or government interferes too much in our daily lives are more likely to resist strong measures to combat climate change. Cultural differences might also be associated with different judgments about...

Redundant and Far Away

For a time, dispersal as a response to terrorism was all but official government policy. The Department of Homeland Security initially sought to build a headquarters in rural Virginia it would be difficult to do business, officials reasoned, in the middle of the nation's capital should it become a terrorist target once again. But the move was abandoned as they came to appreciate the message it would send if the nation's anti-terror agency chose to locate as far away from the capital city as possible.

Market Signals As Peaking Is Approached

Oil prices have traditionally been volatile. Causes include political events, weather, labor strikes, infrastructure problems, and fears of terrorism.114 In an era where supply was adequate to meet demand and where there was excess production capacity in OPEC, those effects were relatively short-lived. However, as world oil peaking is approached, excess production capacity by definition will disappear, so that even minor supply disruptions will cause increased price volatility as traders, speculators, and other market participants react to supply demand events. Simultaneously, oil storage inventories are likely to decrease, further eroding security of supply, aggravating price volatility, and further stimulating speculation.115 The factors that cause oil price escalation and volatility could be further exacerbated by terrorism. For example, in the summer of 2004, it was estimated that the threat of terrorism had added a premium of 25 - 33 percent to the price of a barrel of oil.118 As...

Question feelings about public space and big event crimes

Because a top-down, all-powerful media theory (such as Gerbner's) might suggest that the saturation 'bombarding' of the public with 'big event' crimes (like the Port Arthur and Dunblane massacres, or the Atlanta Olympics bombing) would make the televiewing public even more convinced about a 'mean world', we asked people their responses to these televisual events. The Sydney group men felt that the main effect of the Port Arthur massacre was to increase the prime minister's popularity at the cost of the public as he peddled a rhetoric of 'gun reform', whereas guns in general are the result of the 'armament kings' making money. This led on to a discussion of imperialist countries using guns to control Africa, Europe and so on. 'Multinational capital is at the back of it', controlling for example development in Peru orAustralia, generating terrorism and so on. As regards the safety of public spaces, they argued for a routine return to 'more cops back on the beat', rather than any 'panic'...

E LNG Delayed Salvation

But the construction of new terminals demands state and local approvals. Because of NIMBYism and fear of terrorism at LNG facilities, a number of the proposed terminals have been rejected. There are also objections from Mexico, which has been proposed as a host for LNG terminals to support west coast natural gas demands.65 In the Boston area there is an ongoing debate as to whether the nation's largest LNG terminal in Everett, Massachusetts, ought to be shut down, because of terrorist concerns.66 Decommissioning of that terminal would exacerbate an already tight national natural gas supply situation. Public fears about LNG safety were heightened by an explosion at an LNG liquefaction plant in Algeria that killed 27 people in January 2004. Alternatively, some are considering locating LNG terminals offshore with gas pipelined underwater to land related costs will be higher, but safety would be enhanced. 65 Flalka, J.J. & Gold, R. Fears of Terrorism Crush Plans For Liquefied-Gas...

Beliefs and Regulation

Divergent judgments about climate change and terrorism help to account for governmental behavior. Of course there are many possible relationships between public attitudes and official responses (see Table 1). We can easily imagine cases in which both the public and its representatives insist on risk reduction, especially ifthe focus is on worst-case scenarios. After the attacks of 9 11, this was certainly the case with the war on terror. The same can plausibly be said about certain steps to reduce air pollution.68 In other contexts, such as acid deposition (sometimes called acid rain ), the public does not demand risk reduction, but officials favor it they are permitted to take certain steps because the public does not oppose But sometimes neither the public nor officials demand a response to a real or apparent risk. This is a plausible account of the recent situation with respect to climate change, and it certainly explains the state of airport security before the 9 11 attacks. At...

The Risks of Technological Complexity

One important aspect of the human predicament that is too rarely discussed is the growing complexity (and thus vulnerability) of human technological systems. With all highly complex, tightly coupled technologies, such as jet aircraft and nuclear power plants, a major factor in accidents is operator failure. (Tightly coupled systems are ones in which processes are fast, stopping them takes time, failure in one subsystem is difficult or impossible to isolate and can propagate to other systems, and diagnosis of the problem by even alert and skilled operators may be difficult or impossible in the time available. Tight coupling implies, among other things, that a change in one part inevitably leads to a change in another.)112 It's something to think about when seeking technological fixes for environmental problems, including those that might be created by acts of terrorism. Dependence on complex systems and the risks they carry is not an issue connected only to terrorism perhaps equally...

Weather risk trends in the United Kingdom

The UK insurance industry has been willing to underwrite the broadest range of weather perils compared with other insurance markets. However, the prospective increase in UK weather damage may make such risks unacceptable for insurers. Two approaches indicate that the risk is already rising quickly, so that this could soon become a significant issue for the industry and its customers. The first approach is based on projections by the Foresight Programme (Foresight, 2004) in their recent work on flooding, while the second looks at the issue with an illustrative example for a reinsurer. It is important to remember that without reinsurance many risks would not be insured at all. This fact became evident when reinsurers withdrew from the insurance market for terrorism risk in 1993. The UK government had to step in with the creation of Pool Re to provide a backstop for the primary insurers.

World Assembly Of Muslim Youth

WAMY, however, does not limit its activities to campus politics. During the 1990s the president of WAMY in the United States was Abdullah bin Laden, brother of Osama, and under his leadership the organization allegedly maintained ties to al Qaeda.19 In 1996 the FBI listed WAMY as an organization suspected of terrorism. 20 Reportedly suspected of having contact with four of the September 11 hijackers,21 the Washington, DC, office of WAMY was raided by federal agents in May 2004.

Clausewitz of Complexity

Greater connectivity harbors another peril too it can increase our vulnerability to terrorism. To see why, we need to delve just a bit deeper into the new science of networks. Almost certainly, malicious individuals and small groups, including terrorists, are starting to understand how to exploit our interconnected and high-velocity networks to multiply their disruptive power.35 But we shouldn't exaggerate the risks. Terrorists have to be clever to exploit the vulnerabilities of our networks. They have to attack the right hubs in the right networks at the right times, or the damage will remain isolated and the overall network will be resilient. We can also protect ourselves by introducing ways of tracing attacks, as we do already by using batch numbers on drugs and food products these numbers help authorities find items that have been contaminated and identify people who had access to them. Another protective factor is a network's redundancy that is, its ability to offload the...

Oil Crisis Helped Cement Saudi Friendship with the West

By contrast, relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States have grown stronger despite challenges posed by the global war on terrorism. However, it's important to remember that even before the past oil crisis, the kingdom long had warm relations with both the United States and Britain.

The Future Of Oil And The American Dream

How soon the world's supply of oil and oil equivalents will be exhausted is open to debate. There are a number of economic, political, and environmental factors at play, including global economic growth, Middle East violence, terrorism, and conservation efforts. Moreover, as prices rise, new supplies of oil emerge as do efforts to reduce consumption. At current consumption levels, experts say, the world's known oil supply could be exhausted within the next 30 years, but my guess is that the oil peak could come in the next 15 to 20 years.

Toward a Better International Regime

Many related issues ripe for attention are already on the international agenda, from dealing with greenhouse gases and sustainable fisheries management to control of weapons of mass destruction and the legitimacy of preemptive strikes against terrorism. The IPCC is already exploring pathways to an international consensus on global warming

Addressing and slowing the consequences of climate change

Change, described recently by the British Government's Chief Scientific Advisor as a threat to society greater than terrorism, may be the driving force behind most environmental change during the 21st century, but climate change does not act in isolation. Our ability to adapt to climate change is heavily dependent on solving other environmental problems, for example, bringing the human population increase under control. Other threats to society include the shortage of water and variations in rainfall already being felt in some areas of the world, the steady depletion of resources and continued existence of the consumptionist society, the accumulation of waste that we don't know what to do with, and the serious, irreparable damage to biodiversity.

Global Sustainability

Sustaining human society requires many resources, some permanent, others temporary. Culture, for example, is an important factor in human happiness and satisfaction yet is seldom considered a factor in measuring sustainability. Globalization is a process that cannot be reversed, but to be effective and fair it must be managed in the interest of all mankind and the earth we live on. It must be designed to solve global problems of security, need, health care, education, shelter, environmental maintenance, and communication. Today solutions of major problems such as climate change and energy supply require global approaches. Similarly, the major deterrents to human (economic, health, social, cultural, etc.) developments, such as corruption, crime, illicit markets, warfare, misuse of aid funds, terrorism, sickness, biological, nuclear, and chemical weapons, as well as human, labor rights and environmental protection, etc., all require worldwide approaches and actions, which in turn demand...

Precautions against Catastrophe

Any Catastrophic Harm Precautionary Principle must be attentive to the full range of social risks, including the expected losses from the precautions themselves. It makes no sense to take steps to avert catastrophe if those very steps would create catastrophic risks of their own. If a preventive war designed to reduce the risks of terrorism from one source would increase those very risks from another source, then the Catastrophic Harm Precautionary Principle is indeterminate. Risk-risk tradeoffs are common catastrophic risk-catastrophic risk tradeoffs are less so, but they are not difficult to find. And here as elsewhere, distributional considerations matter. The principle should be applied in a way that reduces extreme burdens on those least able to bear them.

Action on the International Scene

Lester Pearson, former prime minister of Canada and president of the United Nations General Assembly, said in 1969 A planet cannot, any more than a country, survive half slave, half free, half engulfed in misery, half careening along toward the supposed joys of almost unlimited consumption. Neither our ecology nor our morality could survive such contrasts. 77 As we have seen, those differences, now far greater than they were three decades ago, have grim environmental consequences they also are causing people increasingly to question the morality of the current world system. And the relatively powerless who do the questioning sometimes turn to terrorism. In the long run, understanding the connection between overcon-sumption and terrorism would help America economically, environmentally, militarily, and ethically. It is one more very good reason why the United States and other rich nations should move as rapidly as possible toward energy-efficient economies that minimize, and perhaps...

New Driving Forces Of The Energy Future

In fact, globalization is no longer just an economic or trade issue in an increasingly borderless world where people invade other's homelands and try to introduce or even impose their or new norms and values. Crime, corruption, and terrorism have become general global problems. Invasions by newcomers into old traditional nations, whom they try to not only convert but invert has become a worldwide issue, though it largely affects affluent secular countries. Human rights and freedom of expression are increasingly used to undermine the very cultures which invented and upheld these rights. So-called refugees are often emerging from their role of victims admitted to assist their safety to that of underminers and aggressors who aim to change and topple the very systems that allowed their escape from misery and even persecution. The increasing volatility and nastiness of extremist terrorism and the lack of effective response by most Middle Eastern regimes make it imperative to rapidly...

The Case of the Neutralized Opponents

Kimba Wood is a prominent New York US District judge. In 1992, federal investigators presented her with evidence showing involvement of Saudi royal family money handler Khalid bin Mahfouz and his Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) in channeling large sums of money to terrorists and other criminal operations. Wood responded very forcefully, freezing all Mahfouz-owned or controlled funds, assets, or other property within the jurisdiction of the United States. 42 In early 1993 the Clinton administration, looking for a well-qualified female Democrat to fill the position of attorney general, offered Wood the job. Shortly after she accepted, however, a nan-nygate character assassination scandal operation was run against her, conducted from inside the Clinton camp, and her nomination was then axed under the insistence of White House Assistant General Counsel Bruce Lindsey.43 Subsequently, Lindsey was given a position as an associate with Akin Gump, the Washington, DC,...

Energy Supply And Policy Issues

In any approach to effective energy policy. In fact, global and energy security have become intimately linked, as terrorists increasingly threaten the use of the oil or energy supply weapon. Wahhabi clerics in Saudi Arabia maintain not only a stranglehold on people's freedom but influence the government of Saudi Arabia. The government is dependent on Wahhabi support and the clerics in return assure the kingdom's hierarchy's survival. Women live under strict control and have few rights, and youth are often taught fanaticism and hatred as a sign of religious fervor and devout adherence to Islam. The corruption of the peaceful and tolerant Moslem faith by people who use ignorance and faith to foster their own political and economic interests is undermining any opportunity for the economic advancement of the population, including moves towards democracy, and social liberalization particularly in Saudi Arabia. Fanaticism has become a political dogma and not a sign of religious fervor in...

Where Is the Worlds Oil Located

It is worth noting, however, that the U.S. Energy Information Agency expects world oil demand to increase by 54 percent by 2025, largely due to increased demand from developing countries. For example, China's oil consumption grew 6 percent from 2001 to 2002, accounting for all of the world's oil-consumption growth. China replaced Japan as the world's second largest oil consumer. Increases in world oil consumption will have to be met primarily from the oil-rich Middle East, a region with a history of wars, illegal occupations, coups, revolutions, sabotage, terrorism, and oil embargoes. To this list of instabilities may be added growing Islamist movements with various antipathies to the West, particularly the United

Seven Valuable Virtues of the Modern Grid

Our third modern grid virtue is its resistance to attacks. In today's world, security and the threat of terrorism is something that, sadly, must be taken into account when talking about a twenty-first-century power grid. This new security requirement begs for a system-wide solution that will reduce physical and cyber vulnerabilities and recovers one that can bounce right back quickly with minimal power-flow interruptions.

Melding science into the catastrophe risk business

Catastrophe risk models play a major role in the world of insurance for catastrophe risk. Risk models cover a variety ofnatural hazards as well as terrorism. The type and geographic range of commercial risk models are continually expanding. Hazards in countries with large amounts of insurance include earthquakes in Japan and the United States tropical cyclones in the United States, Japan, and Australia and winter storms and floods in Europe, as well as smaller-scale events such as tornadoes and winter storms in the United States. In addition, risk modeling companies produce catastrophe risk models for countries with smaller insurance markets, such as for earthquakes in Chile or typhoons in Guam.

The Relevance Of Comparative Environmental Politics

Globalization clearly challenges old assumptions about an international system of self-interested, self-motivated, and largely self-contained states. International relations scholars identify several important changes under the rubric of globalization increasing international trade and investment declining numbers of wars between states (and increasing incidents of stateless terrorism, intra-state and inter-communal violence) technologically driven explosions in transportation and communication growing international political networks standardization of beliefs about political and economic

Is there a place for nuclear energy in Australias future energy mix

In spite of this support from the government, considerable concerns have been raised with regard to the use of nuclear energy in Australia.11 First, nuclear power itself generates greenhouse gases because of the significant use of energy required to mine, mill and enrich the uranium for the fuel rods. Even where high-grade uranium ores are used, it takes 7 to 10 years to 'pay back' the energy used in the construction and fuelling of a typical reactor. Secondly, for a large-scale deployment of nuclear power to be sustainable in the long term, breeder reactors would have to be used, which create their own fuel in the form of plutonium. To date, these reactors have not generated sufficient new fuel. Ultimately, this would result in plutonium, a highly hazardous radioactive material, being transported around the world in increasing quantities. The risks associated with nuclear terrorism are clear. Thirdly, despite significant government support for the nuclear energy industry globally, it...

Risk to interdependent infrastructure and sectors of the economy

The myriad economic, organizational, and institutional sectors, among others, that characterize countries in the developed world can be viewed as a complex large-scale system of systems. (In a similar way, albeit on an entirely different scale, this may apply to the terrorist networks and to the global socio-economic and political environment.) Each system is composed of numerous interconnected and interdependent cyber, physical, social, and organizational infrastructures (subsystems), whose relationships are dynamic (i.e., ever changing with time), non-linear (defeating a simplistic modelling schema), probabilistic (fraught with uncertainty), and spatially distributed (agents and infrastructures with possible overlapping characteristics are spread all over the continent(s)). These systems are managed or coordinated by multiple government agencies, corporate divisions, and decision makers, with diverse missions, resources, timetables, and agendas that are often in competition and...

Transnational learning

Despite having a more socially and ideologically diverse constituency than its predecessors in the Clamshell and Abalone Alliances. This affinity group structure was adopted by peace movement NVDA activists in many countries in the 1980s. Also, in the 1980s cutting the fence at military bases became an accepted part of the repertoire of peace movement non-violent direct action, and activists made a strong distinction between violence against people or animals and property damage. In the 1990s debates over non-violence have remained lively (and are discussed further in Chapter Six), but have been much less divisive than in the 1970s because different groups of activists have learned how to manage differences by working together on some actions and separately on others. Furthermore even the small numbers who are supportive of the use of political violence in mass demonstrations have learned from the experience of urban leftist terrorism in the 1970s that a terrorist strategy leads only...

The Precautionary Principle

In the face of risks of serious harm, it has become common to invoke the Precautionary Principle.8 Vice President Cheney's One Percent Doctrine is itself a precautionary principle it insists that even if a serious terrorism-related harm is highly unlikely to come to fruition, we should take special steps to prevent it. And indeed, the United States has followed a kind ofPrecautionary Principle in the aftermath of the 9 11 attacks, responding to risks that were not likely to occur. The Iraq War was publicly defended by reference to the Precautionary Principle Even if we could not be certain that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction, or would use them, the war might be justified as a way of eliminating the threat. (Why take chances with Saddam Hussein ) In order to understand what I shall have to say about worst-case scenarios, we have to back up a bit and explore the Precautionary Principle more generally. Precautions and risk-taking everywhere It has become standard to say...

Causal Factors Self Defense Environmental Preservation and Anti Global Rhetoric

The motivations driving eco-terrorist activity are diverse. While concern for preventing environmental degradation is often at the core of such actions, the philosophy of Deep Ecology plays no small role in forming an intellectual framework from which eco-terrorists may justify their actions. This biocentric view is a hallmark of splinter activists, including eco-terrorists 2,37 , and can explain much of the opposition to industrialization, an emphasis on preserving the natural order, and the seeming disregard for human institutions such as private property. It is not difficult to understand particular activists embracing violence as a means for actualizing their philosophical beliefs, any more than it is hard to understand how fundamentalist terrorists the world over regularly rely upon a violent interpretation of their respective creeds to justify their actions. The tenets of Deep Ecology provide a backdrop well-suited for the opposition to timber harvesting, itself a cornerstone of...

Future Energy Challenges

U.S. crude oil imports are quite diversified and their origin changes quite often as price, risk, and other market considerations come into play. In the first half of 2004, for example, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, Canada supplied 1.6mbbls day, Mexico 1.6mbbls day, Saudi Arabia 1.4mbbls day, Venezuela 1.3 mbbls day, and Nigeria 1.1 mbbls day in addition to smaller suppliers. This distribution though changed soon afterwards when Nigeria, among others, suffered production problems caused by terrorism, corruption, and more.

The Individual European Countries

Clean Development Mechanism by helping a developing country build a nuclear power reactor, a concept frightening both to environmentalists and those worried about weapons proliferation. Although it did not pursue this at the time, recently it agreed to help Libya to develop a civilian nuclear program. Libya did promise to give up nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Yet, this was still the same country that sponsored terrorism in the 1980s, including bombing civilian airlines over Scotland and Niger. Furthermore, it hardly seemed to need more sources of energy in view of all its oil.

Optimists and pessimists realists and idealists

Michael Klare sees a future where resource wars will become, in the years ahead, the most distinctive feature of the global security environment (Klare 2001 213). Klare focuses on energy (especially oil), water, minerals, and timber. Two of these resources are finite (energy and minerals) and two are renewable (water and timber). Terrorism is likely to become a common feature of future resource wars (Klare 2001 222). In habitats where resources wars are likely,

Realigning US Foreign Policies Rebuilding Good Will Towards America

Despite an initial outpouring of public sympathy for America following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, discontent with the United States has grown around the world over the past two years. Images of the US have been tarnished in all types of nations among longtime NATO allies, in developing countries, in Eastern Europe, and, most dramatically, in Muslim societies.

As the Pendulum Swings

Coincidentally, these distribution utilities are mostly located in those areas of the country where electricity prices are rising the most rapidly, places like California, Chicago and northern Illinois, and the Northeast. These are the places where it is most difficult to build central power stations. These are the places where T&D infrastructure is most inadequate. It is perhaps wiser to think of DP not as disintermediating the electric utility, but the physical transmission grid itself. Guess what else These large population centers, especially the coastal areas, are the most vulnerable to terrorist attacks and infrastructure threats, and most accessible for LNG shipments. Personally, I think a large-scale escalation in LNG imports is a bad idea as explained in an earlier chapter. But a strategic escalation near population centers is a way to maintain intrafuel competition, keep fuel prices reasonable over the long term, and feed robust DP networks.

Leadership And Security Challenges Facing Saudi Arabia

New King Abdullah is in his 80s, and at some time soon leadership will have to change to another one of the many Saudi princes, a situation that might cause instability and could be utilized by terrorists to cause more havoc in Middle East politics. That should be of great concern to Saudi's major customers, including the United States. A few years ago I had a long discussion with one of the many Saudi princes in England. We were classmates in a media law course at Oxford's centre for socio-legal studies, and during one of the many private chats we had, he told me that the ruling monarch in Saudi Arabia typically doles out cash to the various tribal leaders, and then goes behind the tribal leaders to find out whether they are sharing the money with the rest. It was very clear to me from those discussions that the monarch survives by pitting the various Saudi clans against each other and by bribing most of the clan leaders. In any case, the prince agreed that the grip that the monarch...

The Dark Street When Electricity Does Not Flow

Even these outage events pale in significance to our industry compared to the 9 11 attack on the World Trade Center towers. It is said that 9 11 changed everything. Many of those changes are in our face and stark. Regarding the electricity business, the changes are nuanced. I would argue that the attack has caused many to rethink globalism and global economic expansion. 9 11 has also imposed a whole new element in the design and shape of energy infrastructure, that of how to enhance national security and prevent and or recover from terrorist attacks.

Security Issues and Conflict

Central Intelligence Agency is working to secure the favor of a fictional Middle Eastern country. Tension arises when a new member of the royal family of the country is chosen to ascend the throne. The movie unveils the corruption involved in the oil industry and how oil deals between countries can be tied to terrorist activities. Although the movie was fictional, it illustrates the importance of energy security issues. Conflict between countries is historically linked to resource acquisition. Chapter 1 reveals that many of the energy crises in the latter half of the twentieth century were caused from military conflicts. First, the 1956 Suez Crisis brought about an energy emergency in Europe. Then, the Arab Oil Embargo in 1973 caused the worst energy crisis in U.S. history. While energy resources were not the cause of these conflicts, energy supply was greatly impacted, raising alarm over the extent of U.S. reliance on imported fuels. Not only are...

Rising Temperatures and Rising Seas

Such intense heat waves also take a direct human toll. In 2003, the searing heat wave that broke temperature records across Europe claimed more than 52,000 lives in nine countries. Italy alone lost more than 18,000 people, while 14,800 died in France. More than 18 times as many people died in Europe in this heat wave as died during the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.4

Numerous Value Buckets

The first value bucket is national energy security. Our electricity system is vulnerable to threats and attacks as described in earlier chapters. Strategically placed and well-protected storage assets should be considered vital to this country's ability to survive and recover from terrorist attacks or reliability events. Remember Figure 1.1, which showed how electricity is the juice that feeds the rest of the energy, water, communications, and transportation infrastructure. It is nothing short of embarrassing that we maintain such fleet preparedness for our military arsenal but do almost nothing to protect the electricity assets.

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

The Bush administration has argued that as energy needs in the United States grow, the oil that lies underneath this wildlife refuge will be integral for maintaining supply. Furthermore, arctic drilling has been promoted for its importance to national security. Soon after September 11, 2001, the administration appealed to Congress to open ANWR to drilling, emphasizing the need to pass legislation that would allow the United States to rely less on sources of foreign oil. After meeting with his cabinet a month after the terrorist attacks, Bush told the press, The less dependent we are on foreign sources of crude oil, the more secure we are at home (Seelye 2001).

New and Potential Diseases

The term 'conflict' has been used above not only because our battle with parasitic organisms is like an arms race, but also because the horror of using infectious organisms by terrorist organizations in a purposeful way to attack people is now a possibility. This will probably be with organisms that are known to us, but in a way that would ensure that they are particularly potent. The last section of this chapter, therefore, looks at possible bioterrorist-induced diseases.

Diversion Of Nuclear Materials

Public acceptance of nuclear power requires satisfactory answers to questions such as Can terrorists steal uranium or plutonium from nuclear power plants to make bombs Could they make a bomb if they had the material Could hostile nations make weapons from their own spent nuclear fuel These questions are reasonable because explosive devices can be made from small amounts of either U-235 or plutonium amounts in the range of 20 to 50 pounds are adequate, depending on the choice and purity of the material.

Activities in Other Nations

Theft of spent fuel by terrorists may be more probable in other nations than in the United States some nations may have less-stringent security measures than we do. Even so, the other obstacles to building a successful bomb would still exist. Successful plutonium diversion would be more likely by a nation rather than by a small terrorist group. A nation having nuclear power plants would have access to its own spent fuel. It could bypass several of the obstacles discussed previously toward making a bomb. In particular, it could discharge fuel rods from its own reactors a few months after the fuel was loaded then, there would be little Pu-238 or other impurities in the plutonium. Further, no country is likely to make plutonium in a commercial power plant there are simpler ways to obtain it. A power plant is large, complex, and expensive a U.S. plant costs in the range of a billion dollars. In contrast, plutonium can be made in a simpler reactor that might cost only a fraction of that...

Separation of Plutonium in Spent Fuel

As noted earlier, many countries chemically process their spent fuel and separate the plutonium. The plutonium is then used to make new fuel rods it is substituted for part of the U-235 in the rods. The United States may do the same in the future. The question then arises Would use of this process change the likelihood of terrorists making bombs from stolen fuel rods In one respect, the terrorist's job would be easier fresh fuel rods containing plutonium would be a new target for theft. Fresh fuel rods would be much less radioactive than spent fuel handling them would be simpler than handling spent fuel. One or two hundred shipments of fresh rods might be made yearly from fuel fabrication plants to power plants. However, our federal agencies would no doubt require stringent security measures to safeguard them. Thousands of plutonium shipments have been made in the United States in the last 50 years without apparent theft. I believe the terrorist would be no more successful than...

Brief Differences Between A Nuclear Reactor And A Nuclear Bomb

It is fortunate that building nuclear weapons is enormously expensive and difficult to carry out for a small group of terrorists. Even if they stole weapons-grade Uranium-235 or plutonium from an enrichment or reprocessing plant (Subchapter 5.2), it would cost a terrorist gang hundreds of millions of dollars of sophisticated equipment and a sizable work force that included some highly educated scientists to construct a usable nuclear bomb. Such an activity could hardly escape the attention of an effective global intelligence agency. It would be simpler for terrorists to steal an already manufactured nuclear weapon (still very difficult -Chapter 7) or use chemical or biological weapons to achieve their nefarious goals.

The Scales Of Victory

America currently faces a foe whose power rests almost exclusively on their control over oil. It is the revenue from oil that is allowing Saudi Arabia to finance the global propagation of the Islamo-fascist movement as well as the systematic corruption of many Western governments, including our own. It is revenue from oil that is providing Iran with the wherewithal to develop the atomic bombs that will give its Hezbollah terrorists who are now expanding their operations to the Western Hemisphere the capacity to slaughter millions of people. It is our dependence upon the oil controlled by such enemy powers that is preventing us from undertaking effective action against them. It is their control over oil vital to us that allows the Islamists to laugh in the face of our complaints as they teach terrorism, sharpen their nuclear knives, and call for our doom.

Decommissioning Fusion Power Plants

Unlike the waste from fission reactors, none of the radioactive materials present in the decommissioned fusion reactor can be used to make bombs. The expended fusion reactor parts will hold no interest for terrorist groups. The materials are only radioactive isotopes formed in the structural elements of the reactor caused by the neutrons from the fusion reaction. There are no fertile elements or isotopes. No dangerous fission products are produced by the fusion reaction. Disposal of worn out fusion reactors will be safe and simple as compared to the disposal of waste and structures of decommissioned fission reactors. Even though the challenge posed by decommissioning and disposal of fusion reactors is small, none of the current schemes for the disposal of radioactive materials is satisfying. The current schemes provide short-term protection and storage, but the waste can pose a hazard for 25,000 years. It is difficult to imagine a place on earth where it can be stored with total...

The Political Questions

To counter the argument that keeping all of the country's nuclear waste at one location is inherently dangerous, proponents of the plan argue that having that waste scattered at the 131 current sites is even worse. Proponents of the Yucca Mountain repository maintain that it will be much easier to secure the waste on a government reservation that is already protected by the military. It would be very difficult, they say, for terrorists to break through the multiple layers of security, reach the burial chamber, grab the radioactive waste, and then escape with it.

Asbestos And The World Trade Center Disaster

On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked four airliners and turned them into weapons, killing about 3,000 people. This number is only a partial accounting of the human toll from the attack. Besides the initial burst of fire and smoke, when the planes exploded, they released a lethal mix of toxic materials

Leaving Our Wealth and Our Waste

This is a huge vulnerability with multiple dimensions. Here are just two issues to consider What if we sequester all this gas and it springs a leak and we don't know about it What if the government does build and operate a long-term repository for nuclear fuel rods, and it becomes the singular focus of terrorists I can tell you emphatically that I haven't heard anyone in the top ranks of the electricity industry, in think tanks or in the environmental movement discussing the implications of these issues. If they are, they are being strangely quiet about it. It used to be that the legacy we dreamt of leaving to our children consisted of our accumulated wealth and dreams of increased opportunities for the future. Now, we can no longer escape thinking about the less savory aspects of our legacy.

West Africa Expanding the War on Terror or War on Global Oil Control

I think Africa is a continent that is going to be of very, very significant interest in the 21st century we're going to have to engage more in that theater warning that West Africa's ungoverned regions could become terrorist breeding grounds. The US is always looking for alternative sources of oil. We need to find sources that we can depend on, and certainly the Gulf of Guinea is one of those areas, but oil is not the driving force in this region. Clearly, shoring up security in these regions helps us in our global war on terrorism, which is a major linchpin of our current foreign policy.

International Islamic Relief Organization

The International Islamic Relief Organization (IIRO) serves as a financial arm of the Muslim World League. It is fully funded by the government of Saudi Arabia.22 In addition to financing many MWL proselytizing activities, it has also served as the conduit for transferring vast amounts of funds directly to a large portfolio of Wahhabi terrorist organizations created or inspired by the MWL.23 These include the Abu Sayyaf organization in the Philippines, Hamas in Gaza and the West Bank, the Salafist Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) and Groupe Islamique Arm insurgents (guilty of an estimated 150,000 murders over the past decade) in Algeria, the Taliban in Afghanistan, and the al-Khattab terrorists operating against both the Russians and the pro-peace Sufi Chechens in the Caucasus.

Energy Policy Issues And International Impacts

At the same time energy markets have become more volatile with oil and gas prices fluctuating by as much as 50 within a year. These price uncertainties have made the energy markets more speculative. In part the uncertainties were driven by fears of terrorist or political interference in the free global markets for oil and gas. But other factors also intervened, such as cartelization, nationalization, and consolidation of producers and traders. As a result, these fuel markets have become much less predictable.

Waste Treatment in Other Countries

However, dissolving the rods under the process currently used leads to the presence of pure plutonium. Plutonium is relatively easy to handle, and it can be the major ingredient in atomic bombs. Officials in Presidents Ford's and Carter's administrations in the late 1970s became concerned about separating the uranium and plutonium they worried that the existence of pure plutonium at several locations worldwide would lead to the theft or diversion of the material by terrorist organizations and rogue nations. Consequently, the policy was established under President Carter that the United States would not dissolve rods before burial it was hoped that other nations

Technofixes Nuclear Power

As physicist John Holdren frequently points out,94 a number of standards must be met before it would be reasonable to expand the contribution of nuclear energy in the United States (or world) power mix.95 First, the costs must become competitive, which they are not in areas where fossil fuels, hydropower, or renewable energy sources are cheap. That may well change, though, as the social costs (such as deleterious climate changes and involvement in resource wars) of using fossil fuels rise and as the most favorable sites for renewable sources are utilized. Second, reactor safety must be greatly improved. In the United States, many of the few hundred reactors are operating well past their original life expectancy, and dangerous cracks and leaks have been showing up in some reactor vessels.96 Furthermore, nuclear power plants are alarmingly vulnerable to terrorist attack.97 Third, nuclear power plants produce large amounts of highly radioactive wastes, which pose unique disposal risks...

Introduction to a Cause

The behavior of militant, radical environmentalists has recently drawn unprecedented attention, both from the media and from law enforcement authorities. The flamboyancy, economic impact and countercultural bravado of their actions have provided material for books, regular media coverage, and even congressional hearings in the United States. While the movement is certainly not new, arguably arising during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the heightened international emphasis and awareness of terrorist activities since the international terror attacks in the United States in 2001 has cast the efforts of these individuals and groups in a new light. The advance of globalization, regardless of the particular international setting, may also be providing new rallying points or causa belli for the expansion of aggressive direct action environmentalism.

Other Protections Against Business Risk

Besides protecting business against future risk, once an unexpected event harms business, the government often steps in to help business recover. Once again, the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 provided an excellent opportunity. Taking advantage of the resulting hysteria, Congress moved swiftly to approve financial support for the airlines, which were already reeling well before the disaster. Not surprisingly, Congress offered nothing to the workers who lost jobs from the same event, providing further evidence of the asymmetric treatment of business and workers.

Top Misconceptions Concerning Nuclear Power

Critics against the expansion of U.S. nuclear power believe that both existing and potential new facilities will be vulnerable to terrorist attack. Unfortunately, in the post-9 11 world in which we live, the security of all critical infrastructure assets is of significant importance. Since 2001, there have been considerable security upgrades to the nation's 103 commercially operating nuclear units. Additional measures have been enacted to protect these assets from air attack, and while there have been differing opinions regarding the structural integrity of such facilities if hit with a commercial airliner, those familiar with aviation note that the likelihood of hitting such a relatively small target while traveling at high speed is extremely remote.

Interaction of Fuel with

Nuclear Energy Drawings

Here, Lyman touches on a major point, because proponents of HTGRs have sometimes viewed them as being so safe that a strong containment is not needed. However, omitting the containment is justified only if it can be unambiguously shown that the possibility of a significant radiation release from the reactor is negligible. Presumably, this will be a crucial point for the NRC to consider should it receive a license application for an HTGR. The containment issue is further complicated by concerns about terrorist attacks, which may provide an argument for a containment even for an otherwise accident-proof reactor.

Socioeconomic Political Development

America's fight against the unprovoked terrorism of September 11th is considered anti-Moslem notwithstanding the fact that this atrocity was perpetuated by Moslems, mostly Saudis. In fact, there are many political, religious, and cultural leaders of Islam who until today and notwithstanding irrefutable evidence still claim that others such as the Jews perpetuated these horrid crimes. This is in line with the traditional attitude of many Arab leaders and governments to abdicate any responsibility and present themselves as the victims, even when all the facts show otherwise. There is no self-criticism in Arab culture, and no freedom of expression or of the press. economically and backward culturally and politically, all at the same time. The threat of political and social instability are woven into the fabric of Saudi society that tries to advance technologically while maintaining narrow religious and social intolerance. Supporting religious fanaticism had been cheap for the Saudi...

Breeder Reactor Energy

Lot of Pu * and IT flowing in the energy infrastructure. The more there is, the more difficult it will be to prevent its theft by terrorists. The amount of Pu239 required for the fabrication of a bomb is less than 20 kilograms. Plutonium has a specific gravity of 17. Because of the

Peter Taylor Catastrophes and insurance

In capitalist economies, insurance is the principal method of mitigating potential financial loss from external events in capitalist economies. However, in most cases, insurance does not directly mitigate the underlying causes and risks themselves, unlike, say, a flood prevention scheme. Huge losses in recent years from asbestos, from the collapse of share prices in 2000 2001, the 9 11 terrorist attack, and then the 2004 2005 US hurricanes have tested the global insurance industry to the limit. But disasters cause premiums to rise, and where premiums rise capital follows. Models notwithstanding, there is still a swathe of risks that commercial insurers will not carry. They fall into two types (1) where the risk is uneconomic, such as houses on a flood plain and (2) where the uncertainty of the outcomes is too great, such as terrorism. In these cases, governments in developed countries may step in to underwrite the risk as we saw with TRIA (TerrorismRisk Insurance Act) in the United...

Sources of Weapons and Weapons Materials

Terrorists might obtain, through theft or gift, a bomb built as part of a government-run nuclear weapons program. The above-mentioned Making the Nation Safer (MNS) study considered this possibility along with a broad array of other terrorist threats, both nuclear and non-nuclear. It assessed the level of danger of such diversion to be low for weapons made in the United States, Britain, China, France, and Israel because the weapons are well protected and, except for the United States, the inventories are relatively small 25, p. 42 . However, it judged the level of threat to be medium for Pakistan, India, and Russia for Pakistan and India because the political situation is unstable and for Russia because of a large number of weapons with poor inventory controls. that were under Soviet control before the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the words of the NAS report Theft or diversion of Russian nuclear weapons for terrorist use may represent a significant near-term threat to the United...

Status of Fast Reactor Programs

However, during the 1980s and 1990s, growth of nuclear power fell far short of earlier expectations, there was little pressure on uranium supplies, and interest in fast breeder reactors declined. Further, the initial fast breeder reactors proved to be more expensive than alternatives, such as the LWR or HWR. Particularly in the United States, there was also the concern that the large-scale use and availability of 239Pu might increase dangers from terrorism and nuclear weapon proliferation (see Section 9.4.2 and Chapter 17). These factors made breeder programs a vulnerable target, at a time when there was significant opposition to any projects to advance nuclear power. Nonetheless, some development of breeders has continued, in part to maintain the technology as insurance against future needs.

Militant environmentalism

In the 1980s and 1990s splinter organizations emerged, such as Earth First and the Sea Shepherds. These organizations have brought new issues on to the agenda, as well as developing new methods of protest. Many of these more recent organizations have been inspired by the so-called deep ecology, and have also been influenced by anarchist, syndicalist, and even terrorist political and ideological traditions. On a cosmological level militant environmentalists share a belief in what might be termed species equality, a form of biocentrism or ecocentrism that places human beings on an equal footing with other life forms (for critical discussion, see e.g. Ferry 1995 Taylor 1995 Harvey 1996). If the mainstream organizations stand for a kind of incorporation of activism into the dominant culture, splinter groups can be characterized as a sort of a residual cultural formation in relation to the emergent ecological culture. On the one hand, they are often infused with political ideologies, such...

Challenges to Overcome

The Yucca Mountain site has received approval from the U.S. government's General Accounting Office (GAO) with regards to safety and possible terrorist vulnerability.The GAO stated that the likelihood of any attacks being successful are very low and extremely unlikely because the material is hard to disperse and would be stored in protective containers. The United States stopped reprocessing in 1970 because the technology of that day separated plutonium, which presented a significant terrorist and proliferation concern. The United States now proposes to develop, in partnership with these other nations, technologies that will allow for the recycling of spent fuel but not separate plutonium, and to couple them with fast reactors that can burn down the spent fuel. One proposal under the GNEP plan is to have Australia become the world's nuclear bank, leasing enriched uranium to other countries to generate power and then storing depleted fuel rods in its vast, empty outback. Under this...

Buildup to Gulf War II Saddam Hussein and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Regarding Iraq, the effective use of propaganda techniques by the Bush administration was especially critical, given their unique task of justifying the US' first-ever preventative war. However, well before this campaign, it is clear that invading Iraq was a priority from the beginning. Former secretary of the treasury Paul O'Neill recalled that, during the very first national security meeting of the Bush administration, toppling Saddam Hussein was its focus. The Price of Loyalty revealed that this was at the top of the national security agenda just ten days after George W. Bush was sworn in as the 43rd president, a full eight months before the September 11th terrorists attacks.7 Documents and maps released from Vice President Cheney's spring 2001 National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG) supported this assertion. On September 19, 2002, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld stated, No terrorist state poses a greater or more immediate threat to the security of our people and the...

Brief Diagram Of The Chernobyl Rbmk Reactor

Sabotage or suicide missions by terrorists could damage a reactor, but they would be unable to initiate a Chernobyl-like explosion in a modern reactor. A negative reactivity coefficient makes it physically impossible for reactors to go much beyond the onset of 'a prompt critical' and shuts them down automatically if too much fission heat is generated.

The conjunction fallacy

In Johnson et. al. (1993), MBA students at Wharton were scheduled to travel to Bangkok as part of their degree program. Several groups of students were asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance. One group of subjects was asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance covering the flight from Thailand to the US. A second group of subjects was asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance covering the round-trip flight. A third group was asked how much they were willing to pay for terrorism insurance that covered the complete trip to Thailand. These three groups responded with average willingness to pay of 17.19, 13.90, and 7.44 respectively. People might pay more for international diplomacy intended to prevent nanotechnological warfare by China, than for an engineering project to defend against nanotechnological attack from any source. The second threat scenario is less vivid and alarming, but the defense is more useful because...

Ten Paradoxes for the Journey Communication Strategies to Mobilize the Climate Movement

Tough to make the prospect of climate change, even runaway climate change, relevant and urgent when so many hard-working Americans worry more about terrorism, how to make ends meet, their job security or their kids' education, and lack of health care or insurance. We therefore need to help Americans make the connection between the climate crisis and the things they care about in their daily lives. In this section, ten communication strategies to deal with these communication challenges are offered. People respond to fear with attempts to reduce the external danger or contain the internal anxiety. Alarmist messages are intended to mobilize people to reduce the external danger (for example, reduce emissions and thus global warming). Often what they achieve, though, is people simply turning down the internal anxiety. They block out more news on the topic or distract themselves from feeling the fear. They hang on to the tiniest threads of uncertainty to tell themselves (and others) that...

Oil Infrastructure Attacks And Bin Laden

Mark Williams Army

While the U.S. has tried to gain control of Iraq's oil, the world's most notorious terrorist, Osama bin Laden, has repeatedly said that his hatred of the West stems, in part, from his disgust over America's consumption of Arab oil. That anger over oil has led him to call for attacks on pipelines, refineries, and other oil-related infrastructure. And those attacks on oil infrastructure have led some of America's energy isolationists to insist that the best remedy to the problem is to use less foreign oil. In 2004, one of those leading energy isolationists, Gal Luft, a former lieutenant colonel in the Israel Defense Forces and now the head of the Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, wrote that oil terrorism is now emerging as one of the biggest threats to global economy sic . He went on, saying that pipelines, tankers, and other oil infrastructure are soft targets which can be easily sabotaged by those willing to sacrifice their lives. 29 In the late 1930s, Arab terrorist...

Impact On Arabia And The Persian Gulf

It is interesting to note that while the rest of the world is rapidly committing to the new energy horizon by the development of alternative energy sources, more efficient energy use, and new oil and gas production sources, Persian Gulf countries, and particularly Saudi Arabia, appear to maintain business as usual. There are some small movements in their anti-terrorist) activities and slight accommodations in

Potential Effects of Future Bombs

The most imminent threat at the moment for the United States, and perhaps for the world as a whole, appears to be from the possible use of single weapons by terrorist groups. Such bombs are likely to be relatively small in yield. In its Report No. 138 on Management of Terrorist Events Involving Radioactive Material, the U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) summarized the damage that might be done by terrorist-size weapons. For example, for a 1-kt bomb, the estimated range for 50 mortality from thermal burns is 610 m (assuming no intervening structures) and the estimated range for an absorbed dose of 4 grays (Gy) (400 rads) from the initial gamma ray and neutron radiation extends to 790 m 8, p. 23 .8

Structure Of The Iraqi Constitution

Prior to taking up those specific powers in sweeping, outline form, however, a few brief comments should be offered about the Constitution's provisions on fundamental principles, rights and liberties, and distribution of powers between the branches of government. With respect to some of the fundamental principles, Islam is guaranteed its place as the official religion and the foundation of all legislation 29 law is declared sovereign over all 30 transfers of power are directed to be peaceful and through democratic processes 31 terrorism is denounced 32 and Baghdad is designated the nation's capital.33 More relevant here, though, are both articles 1 and 13. Article 1 declares Iraq to be a single federal,. state, 34 and article 13, First, that the Constitution is the preeminent and supreme law in Iraq and shall be binding in all parts of Iraq without exception. 35 Article 13, Second, follows this by noting that any law at the central level, or constitutional provision or law at the...

Attacking The Myth Of Individualism

The corporate sector has also been enormously successful in using pseudoscience to distort the nature of the risks that corporations impose on society. Chapter 7 explains how such tactics are destroying what is left of the already-frayed regulatory system. The distortion of risk assessment is particularly clear when comparing the regulations imposed to protect people from terrorism with the regulations used to protect us from corporate-imposed risk, which has taken many, many times more lives than terrorism. The corporate sector has succeeded in hobbling the consumer's right to know about the dangers posed by pollution or by unsafe products, such as a large part of the food supply. If the consumer is king, he is a beggarly sort of king. I close this discussion by considering the precautionary principle as an antidote to the corporate attack on regulation.

Extrapolating conflict trends

Actors Mapping Mali Conflict

The distribution of the cases for the amber forecasts, the minor wars, shifts somewhat from those in the red forecasts (see Table 3.7). The red forecasts are overwhelmingly located in Africa and there is a low relative impact from climate change compared to most countries. African countries account for ten of the 23 in the amber category, and most are countries that are part of the Sahel. Countries with near-desert conditions account for 13 of the 23 cases. Included are seven countries in Europe, though these conflicts are often tied to secessionist causes and terrorism (for example, France and Corsica Russia and Chechnya and the United Kingdom and the Irish Republican Army).

An Advanced Turbine Design For Versatile Missiles By Steven Ashley

Rolls Royce Yj102r Jet Engine

Suppose that U.S. intelligence finds indisputable evidence that a major terrorist leader is dining right now in a remote farmhouse in central Asia. Say also that local political sensitivities prohibit calling in bombers for an air strike and that the meal is unlikely to last the two hours it would take a Tomahawk cruise missile to reach the site from its maximum range. How to respond Pentagon weapons procurers hope to have an answer in an advanced turbine engine that can shrink a cruise missile's time on target to tens of minutes. Such a system might catch the hypothetical terrorist chief before dessert.

Nuclear Facts And Fables

When uranium fissions, its energy is conducted through solid material to heat adjacent water (or gas) that runs the steam (or gas) turbines. In this heat transfer, radioactive fission products stay in the solid fuel elements, in contrast to coal burning, where species embedded in coal are sent into the atmosphere when coal is burning with oxygen in the air. Fissioned uranium products cannot undergo further fission or explode. They produce only low-level heat from radioactive decay. Even if a spent-fuel element were exposed to air during its transport in a collision-proof casket (e.g. if a terrorist fired a bullet into the casket), the solid form of radioactive products in fuel elements prevents their entry into the air. The heavy steel caskets are designed to tolerate external bomb blasts. It would take a casket-piercing missile with high explosives to vaporize a fuel element into radio-active aerosols.

The violencenonviolence debate

This has taken the form of specialist units, disingenuous warnings of the dangers of environmental terrorism, (related) demands for new resources and legislation and revisions to tactical manuals. The legal definition of terrorism as including damage to property even where there has been no harm to people, and the use by the British Prime Minister of rhetoric such as 'mindless thugs' to describe Mayday protesters seem to EDAers to be paving the way for further repression. A shift by them to violence would provide justification for such a move, end both the style of open debate which characterises the movement, and prevent many of the activities that depend upon long-term links with local communities. The network would become secretive and even smaller than at present.

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