How To Get Rid Of Termites
You Might Start Missing Your Termites After Kickin'em Out. After All, They Have Been Your Roommates For Quite A While. Enraged With How The Termites Have Eaten Up Your Antique Furniture? Can't Wait To Have Them Exterminated Completely From The Face Of The Earth? Fret Not. We Will Tell You How To Get Rid Of Them From Your House At Least. If Not From The Face The Earth.
There's also research to replicate termite gut cellulose breakdown. Termites depend on fascinating creatures called protists54 in their guts to digest wood. The protists in turn outsource the work to multiple kinds of bacteria living inside of them. This is done with adenosine triphosphate energy55 and architecture (membranes) in a system that evolved over millions of years. If the termite could fire the protists and
Methane (CH4) is released by the bacterial decomposition of celluloses in the digestive systems of ruminant animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats, and of termites the bacteria make it possible for termites to digest wood. Methane-releasing bacteria also inhabit airless mud and flooded rice paddies. Natural gas consists mainly of methane, and leaks from gas pipes also release methane into the air.
Climatic conditions and termites exclude the option of wooden frames for windows and doors. Aluminium frames encase double glazing for acoustical considerations and are fitted with mosquito screens. To further reduce solar gains in the summer, external aluminium rolling shutters filled with insulation (expanded polyurethane) and interior venetian horizontal and vertical blinds are fitted.
The final greenhouse gas to be discussed here is methane. Bacteria produce methane by anaerobic fermentation in wet locations where oxygen is scarce swamps, peat bogs, other natural wetlands, paddies, and the intestinal tracts of cattle, sheep, and termites. Oil and natural gas exploitation also may be a significant source. Studies of the carbon-14 content of atmospheric methane indicate that at least 80 must have biological origin.
If all plants store energy in their cells, then why choose food crops for biofuel There must be plenty of other plants that produce energy without driving up the price of pasta. And it turns out that there are. Everything from wood chips to grass clippings to energy crops like switchgrass and jatropha are potential biofuel sources. But unlocking their energy is tricky. Whereas corn starch is easy to break down into alcohol, the potential energy in many other plants is located in their cellulose, which, along with lignin, forms the tough cell walls of stalks and leaves. Because cellulose and lignin evolved to protect cells from the elements and predators, they don't break down easily. But nature has its ways. Soil bacteria use enzymes to digest plant matter, cows and other ungulates have second stomachs full of microorganisms that turn grass and leaves into energy, and termite guts work similar transformations on wood. So it's doable. The challenge is to do it cheaply and on an...
For decades the family built structures that stood up to the predictable rhythms of the Bay. But about ten years ago they began seeing dramatic changes. Water levels in the Bay were gradually rising, and warmer winters allowed termite-like marine bores to survive year round, increasing damage to wooden piers throughout the Eastern Shore. At a family meeting they decided it was time to warn property owners that bulkheads would have to be built higher and stronger to withstand the rising water and stronger storms they were starting to see, and that piers would need to be replaced more frequently. All of this, of course, meant more business for Weems Brothers. But Joe's concern is first and foremost the changes he is seeing in the Bay. This is not the Bay I remember as a child. We used to crab around the
The insect- and meat-eating propensities and aggressive predation of monkeys by chimpanzees are now well known. But their (and our) near cousins the gorillas were considered to be totally vegetarian. Once again, however, more recent and thorough studies have shown that all is not what it seems. Insects, especially ants and termites, but also caterpillars, are an important and regular component of the food of gorillas, conservatively estimated to account for 5 per cent of their diet. As in so many cases where insects are eaten by seemingly herbivorous animals, it is mostly the immature stages which are taken. This means that there are few if any hard parts left in samples collected from their guts or from their faeces to indicate the presence of animal tissues in their diet. So it is with the gorillas. They break open the sides of termite nests and eat the soft-bodied workers within. They pluck the nests of weaver ants - about 5 grams of soft eggs, larvae and pupae enclosed within...
Control and prevention Cases of the disease are normally sporadic, so should be treated to prevent flies from becoming infected. Repellents and personal protection adequately protect the individual from being bitten. Sandfly nets can be used, but a more effective solution is ITMN or LLIN (see Malaria above). Because of the fragile nature of the vector, it is easily attacked with insecticides, either with a residual house spray if the vector comes indoors, or by insecticide powder blown into mammal burrows, ant hills and similar micro-habitats. A long-term solution is to alter the micro-environment, such as by the destruction of termite hills and killing of rodents. Proper control of domestic animals, especially dogs, can be effective where they are important reservoirs. Low-dose inocula and attenuated vaccines have been developed to minimize the severity of disease in some endemic areas. The concomitant problem of HIV infection has added to the seriousness of dual infection, so a...
Methane is a natural component of the earth atmosphere system with its origin in the anaerobic decay of organic matter, mainly in the earth's natural wetlands. Significant amounts of CH4 are also produced by the global termite population (Crutzen et al. 1986). Levels of atmospheric CH4 at 1.72 ppmv are very low compared to those of CO2. Molecule for
Termites, or white ants, are a prime example. They live on a diet of wood. But not really. Like the cow, they are not the pure herbivores they appear to be. You will be hard-pressed to find food with less protein in it than wood it is mostly cellulose and lignin which the termites are unable to digest. So they cannot survive on wood alone. They must enlist microbes to digest it, and then digest the microbes. Termites harbour a large population of microbes, mostly protozoans, in their enlarged hind-gut. But these do more than digest the wood the termites eat they also fix atmospheric nitrogen and recycle metabolic waste nitrogen. Experiments have shown that the rate at which they fix nitrogen can vary 200-fold, depending on how much nitrogen is already in the diet. But it can contribute up to half of all the nitrogen that a colony of termites needs. Termites probably can't digest the bodies of their microbes in the hind-gut to any extent, but they achieve this by actively eating their...
New Orleans, where I live, has not had a killing freeze in several years. Quite possibly, as a result, there has been a large and rapid increase in the termite population in the city. Termites cause a lot of problems, but they do not directly influence human health. Instead, the point to be made is that other insects that do carry diseases and normally thrive in warmer regions will likely become more populous in subtropical regions, increasing the spread of vector-borne diseases (diseases that are spread by these insects, which are called disease vectors). There already appears to be a widespread increase in such vector-borne and infectious diseases such as dengue, malaria, hantavirus, and cholera. We had an abnormally high population of mosquitoes in New Orleans during the summer of 1999.
Mines and pipelines, but most comes from organic material decaying with a lack of oxygen, e.g. municipal waste dumps, rice paddies, swamps, freshwater sediments, tundra, terrestrial debris on the continental shelves, enteric fermentation (in the intestines) of animals and termites. The main sink is removal by reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH), created by photo-induced reactions involving water vapour. Carbon monoxide (CO), emitted in industrial processes, fires and from automobile exhausts, also reacts with hydroxyl radicals. Thus, increasing CO reduces the sink for methane allowing a faster rate of build-up in the atmosphere.
The land biosphere provides many of the natural sources of greenhouse gases for the atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. It can be thought, therefore, to contribute to its own existence.7 Carbon dioxide is a product of respiration, as oxygen is a product of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis itself allows the terrestrial biosphere to act as a sink for CO2 by storing it in each year's growth. This cycle will be discussed in detail in Chapters 3 and 4. Methane (CH4) is another important greenhouse gas with significant natural sources. It is produced in anaerobic (oxygen poor) conditions by bacterial decay. This often occurs within bodies of standing, stagnant water, such as bogs, tundra, and rice paddies. It also occurs as a by-product within the digestive systems of animals (enteric fermentation), particularly ruminants such as cattle. Termites also produce CH4 in their digestion of plant material. The production of CH4 due to water-supported anaerobic decay...
Methane is produced by anaerobic processes which occur in a variety of settings. Natural wetlands such as bogs and swamps emit methane. Termites also emit methane in significant quantities. Both these natural sources can be directly influenced by human actions through land use changes. They may also be affected indirectly through climate change. Methane levels are positively correlated with global surface temperature on both the 10 000-year and shorter time-scales. This is due to climate feedback with climatic changes influencing the release of methane from wetlands (Houghton et al., 1995). Methane is removed by chemical reactions in the atmosphere with the hydroxyl (OH) radical. A radical is an atom or, as in this case, a group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron. As a consequence the compound will not exist for long, reacting quickly with another to form a stable molecule. Therefore the main sink for methane occurs in the troposphere where other gases also compete to react...
Transmission is by the minute and fragile phlebotomine sandflies, Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. They are weak fliers, utilizing a hopping flight that only carries them a short distance from their habitat. This requires conditions of high humidity as found in animal burrows and moist tropical forests. Typical habitats are tree holes, new or old animal burrows, termite hills, rock crevices, foliage clumps and fissures that
Most mammals (including humans), as well as termites, produce a flammable gas termed biogas when they digest their food. Biogas is also generated in wetlands, swamps and bogs where large amounts of rotting vegetation may accumulate. Biogas is formed when anaerobic bacteria break down organic material in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria are some of the oldest forms of life on Earth, having evolved before the photosynthetic processes of green plants were able to release large quantities of oxygen into the primitive atmosphere.
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 30 times stronger per molecule than CO2, and it is produced during both the short-term and long-term carbon cycles. In the (prehuman) short-term cycle, it is produced mainly from wetlands and animal exhalation such as from bovids and termites. (These organisms have bacteria located in their digestive systems that break down carbohydrates to methane.) In wetlands and other water-logged, organicrich sediments, methane forms from a variety of microbial processes and chemical pathways, but the overall reaction can be simplified as
Greater thermal comfort and energy efficiency (see Figure 6.8), or it can represent a more sustainable way of living, suggesting a hand-sculpted, human-scale building, putting its owners more in touch with nature. The Canelo Project takes this latter approach, favouring the empowerment of small, cheap and simple self-build (see Figure 6.4), over the mainstream, impersonal and industrial-scale construction techniques. This type of building is well-suited to the desert climate, but simple adaptations to different climates can include termite rodent barriers, stone foundations, and overhanging roofs to reduce rainfall on the outer walls (Steen et al., 1994). Common concerns about strength, fire-safety and waterproofing of straw-bale buildings are generally unfounded, and plastered straw-bale buildings have been known to last 50-100 years.
The normal digestive process of most animals produces methane. While true for everything from termites to humans, emission reduction efforts focus on commercially valuable species. Cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels are the major sources.31 Tufts' School of Veterinary Medicine maintains a research herd at the Grafton campus. In 2001, the herd consisted of approximately 50 dairy cows, more than 300 swine, and a few sheep, goats, and horses. The herd's emissions of methane add up despite the small herd size because methane has a global warming potential 21 times greater than carbon dioxide. Agricultural and veterinary schools
As we have seen termites are herbivorous, albeit with the aid of microbes. Yet their workers will kill and eat many of their own kind when nitrogen in their food is very low, and especially when the nest is producing the winged reproductives which must leave the nest to attempt to establish new colonies. And all cast skins, the injured and the dead in the nest are quickly devoured. How can they do this There are two possible clues, both of which await careful investigation by insect physiologists. The first is the very high pH of the gut of these larvae - often pH 10 or more, as high as pH 12.5 in one species of termite a very caustic brew But such an alkaline environment is extremely efficient at extracting virtually every last trace of protein from the ingested plant tissues much more so than the acidic gut secretions of other animals. This may increase the efficiency with which they can extract nitrogen from their food just sufficiently to tip the balance.