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89 One aluminium drinks can costs 0.6kWh. The mass of one can is 15 g. Estimates of the total energy cost of aluminium manufacture vary from 60 MJ/kg to 300 MJ/kg. [yx7zm4], [r22oz], [yhrestj. The figure I used is from The Aluminum Association [y5as53]: 150 MJ per kg of aluminium (40 kWh/kg).

- The embodied energy of a water bottle made of PET. Source: Hammond and Jones (2006) - PET's embodied energy is 30 kWh per kg.

- The average Brit throws away 400g of packaging per day. In 1995, Britain used 137kg of packaging per person (Hird et al., 1999).

- Apersonalcomputercosts 1800kWhofenergy. Manufacture of a PC requires (in energy and raw materials) the equivalent of about 11 times its own weight of fossil fuels. Fridges require 1-2 times their weight. Cars require 1-2 times their weight. Williams (2004); Kuehr (2003).

- ...a rechargeablenickel-cadmium battery. Source: Rydh and Karlstrom (2002)

- ... steel... From Swedish Steel, "The consumption of coal and coke is 700 kg per ton of finished steel, equal to approximately 5320 kWh per ton of finished steel. The consumption of oil, LPG and electrical power is 710 kWh per ton finished product. Total [primary] energy consumption is thus approx. 6000 kWh per ton finished steel." (6 kWh per kg.) [y2ktgg]

90 A new car's embodied energy is 76000kWh. Source: Treloar et al. (2004). Burnham et al. (2007) give a lower figure: 30 500 kWh for the net life-cycle energy cost of a car. One reason for the difference may be that the latter life-cycle analysis assumes the vehicle is recycled, thus reducing the net materials cost.

Tide: 11 kWh/d

Deep offshore wind: 32 kWh/d

Shallow offshore wind: 16 kWh/d

Biomass: food, biofuel, wood, waste incin'n, landfill gas: 24 kWh/d

Solar heating: 13 kWh/d

Wind: 20 kWh/d

Figure 15.11. Making our stuff costs at least 48 kWh/d. Delivering the stuff costs 12 kWh/d.

Transporting stuff: 12 kWh/d

Stuff: 48+kWh/d

Food, farming, fertilizer: 15 kWh/d

Gadgets: 5

Light: 4 kWh/d

Heating, cooling: 37 kWh/d

Jet flights: 30 kWh/d

90 Paper has an embodied energy of 10kWh per kg. Making newspaper from virgin wood has an energy cost of about 5kWh/kg, and the paper itself has an energy content similar to that of wood, about 5kWh/kg. (Source: Ucuncu (1993); Erdincler and Vesilind (1993); see p284.) Energy costs vary between mills and between countries. 5 kWh/kg is the figure for a Swedish newspaper mill in 1973 from Norrstrom (1980), who estimated that efficiency measures could reduce the cost to about 3.2 kWh/kg. A more recent full life-cycle analysis (Denison, 1997) estimates the net energy cost of production of newsprint in the USA from virgin wood followed by a typical mix of landfilling and incineration to be 12 kWh/kg; the energy cost of producing newsprint from recycled material and recycling it is 6 kWh/kg.

91 The energy intensity of road transport in the UK is about 1kWh per t-km. Source: datatablespublications/energyenvironment.

- The energy intensity of freight transport by this container ship is 0.015 kWh per ton-km. The Ever Uberty - length 285 m, breadth 40 m - has a capacity of 4948 TEUs, deadweight 63 0001, and a service speed of 25 knots; its engine's normal delivered power is 44 MW. One TEU is the size of a small 20-foot container - about 40 m3. Most containers you see today are 40-foot containers with a size of 2 TEU. A 40-foot container weighs 4 tons and can carry 26 tons of stuff. Assuming its engine is 50%-efficient, this ship's energy consumption works out to 0.015 kWh of chemical energy per ton-km. www.mhi . co. jp/en/products/detail/container_ship_ever_uberty .html

- Britain's share of international shipping... Source: Anderson et al. (2006).

92 Figure 15.8. Energy consumptions of ships. The five points in the figure are a container ship (46km/h), a dry cargo vessel (24 km/h), an oil tanker (29 km/h), an inland marine ship (24 km/h), and the NS Savannah (39 km/h).

Dry cargo vessel 0.08 kWh/t-km. A vessel with a grain capacity of 5200 m3 carries 3360 deadweight tons. (Deadweight tonnage is the mass of cargo that the ship can carry.) It travels at speed 13 kn (24 km/h); its one engine with 2MW delivered power consumes 186 g of fuel-oil per kWh of delivered energy (42% efficiency).

Oil tanker A modern oil tanker uses 0.017 kWh/t-km [6lbrab]. Cargo weight 40 000 t. Capacity: 47000 m3. Main engine: 11.2 MW maximum delivered power. Speed at 8.2 MW: 15.5 kn (29 km/h). The energy contained in the oil cargo is 520 million kWh. So 1% of the energy in the oil is used in transporting the oil one-quarter of the way round the earth (10000 km).

Roll-on, roll-off carriers The ships of Wilh. Wilhelmsen shipping company deliver freight-transport with an energy cost between 0.028 and 0.05 kWh/t-km [5ctx4k].

92 Water delivery and sewage treatment costs 0.4kWh/d per person. The total energy use of the water industry in 2005-6 was 7703 GWh. Supplying 1 m3 of water has an energy cost of 0.59 kWh. Treating 1 m3 of sewage has an energy cost of 0.63 kWh. For anyone interested in greenhouse-gas emissions, water supply has a footprint of 289 g CO2 per m3 of water delivered, and wastewater treatment, 406 g CO2 per m3 of wastewater.

Domestic water consumption is 151 litres per day per person. Total water consumption is 2211/d per person. Leakage amounts to 57 litres per day per person. Sources: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology [www.parliament. uk/documents/upload/postpn282.pdf ], Water UK (2006).

93 Supermarkets in the UK consume 11TWh/y. [yqbzl3]

- Helm et al. suggest that, allowing for imports and exports, Britain's carbon footprint is nearly doubled to about 21 tons. Helm et al. (2007).

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