Notes and further reading

page no.

142 Loft and cavity insulation reduces heat loss in a typical old house by about a quarter. Eden and Bending (1985).

143 The average internal temperature in British houses in 1970 was 13 °C! Source: Dept. of Trade and Industry (2002a, para 3.11)

145 Britain is rather backward when it comes to district heating and combined heat and power. The rejected heat from UK power stations could meet the heating needs of the entire country (Wood, 1985). In Denmark in 1985, district heating systems supplied 42% of space heating, with heat being transmitted 20 km or more in hot pressurized water. In West Germany in 1985, 4 million dwellings received 7kW per dwelling from district heating. Two thirds of the heat supplied was from power stations. In Vasteras, Sweden in 1985, 98% of the city's heat was supplied from power stations.

147 Heat pumps are roughly four times as efficient as a standard electrical bartire. See www.gshp.org.uk.

Some heat pumps available in the UK already have a coefficient of pefor-mance bigger than 4.0 [yok2nw]. Indeed there is a government subsidy for water-source heat pumps that applies only to pumps with a coefficient of peformance better than 4.4 [2dtx8z].

Commercial ground-source heat pumps are available with a coefficient of performance of 5.4 for cooling and 4.9 for heating [2fd8ar].

153 Air-source heat pumps with a coefficient of performance of 4.9... According to HPTCJ (2007), heat pumps with a coefficient of performance of 6.6 have been available in Japan since 2006. The performance of heat pumps in Japan improved from 3 to 6 within a decade thanks to government regulations. HPTCJ (2007) describe an air-source-heat-pump water-heater called Eco Cute with a coefficient of performance of 4.9. The Eco Cute came on the market in 2001. www.ecosystem-japan.com.

Further reading on heat pumps: European Heat Pump Network ehpn.fiz-karlsruhe.de/en/, www.kensaengineering.com, www.heatking. co.uk, www.iceenergy.co.uk.

Figure 21.14. Advertisement from the Mayor of London's "DIY planet repairs" campaign of 2007. The text reads "Turn down. If every London household turned down their thermostat by one degree, we could save 837000 tons of CO2 and £110m per year." [london.gov.uk/diy] Expressed in savings per person, that's 0.12 tCO2 per year per person. That's about 1% of one person's total (111), so this is good advice. Well done, Ken!

Figure 21.14. Advertisement from the Mayor of London's "DIY planet repairs" campaign of 2007. The text reads "Turn down. If every London household turned down their thermostat by one degree, we could save 837000 tons of CO2 and £110m per year." [london.gov.uk/diy] Expressed in savings per person, that's 0.12 tCO2 per year per person. That's about 1% of one person's total (111), so this is good advice. Well done, Ken!

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