## Geothermal power that would be sustainable forever

First imagine using geothermal energy sustainably by sticking down straws to an appropriate depth, and sucking gently. Sucking at such a rate that the rocks at the end of the our straws don't get colder and colder. This means sucking at the natural rate at which heat is already flowing out of the earth.

As I said before, geothermal energy comes from two sources: from radioactive decay in the crust of the earth, and from heat trickling through the mantle from the earth's core. In a typical continent, the heat flow from the centre coming through the mantle is about 10mW/m2. The heat flow at the surface is 50mW/m2. So the radioactive decay has added an extra 40 mW/m2 to the heat flow from the centre.

So at a typical location, the maximum power we can get per unit area is 50mW/m2. But that power is not high-grade power, it's low-grade heat that's trickling through at the ambient temperature up here. We presumably want to make electricity, and that's why we must drill down. Heat is useful only if it comes from a source at a higher temperature than the ambient temperature. The temperature increases with depth as shown in figure 16.4, reaching a temperature of about 500 °C at a depth of 40 km. Between depths of 0 km where the heat flow is biggest but the rock temperature is too low, and 40 km, where the rocks are hottest but the heat flow is 5 times smaller (because we're missing out on all the heat generated from radioactive decay) there is an optimal depth at which we should suck. The exact optimal depth depends on what sort of sucking and powerstation machinery we use. We can bound the maximum sustainable power one milliwatt (1 mW) is 0.001 W.

/ Temperature crust 40 km mantle

100-200 km

/ Temperature crust 40 km mantle

100-200 km

500-600°C

Figure 16.4. Temperature profile in a typical continent.

500-600°C

Depth

Figure 16.4. Temperature profile in a typical continent.

by finding the optimal depth assuming that we have an ideal engine for turning heat into electricity, and that drilling to any depth is free.

For the temperature profile shown in figure 16.4, I calculated that the optimal depth is about 15 km. Under these conditions, an ideal heat engine would deliver 17mW/m2. At the world population density of 43 people per square km, that's 10kWh per person per day, if all land area were used. In the UK, the population density is 5 times greater, so wide-scale geothermal power of this sustainable-forever variety could offer at most 2 kWh per person per day.

This is the sustainable-forever figure, ignoring hot spots, assuming perfect power stations, assuming every square metre of continent is exploited, and assuming that drilling is free. And that it is possible to drill 15-km-deep holes.

### Geothermal power as mining

The other geothermal strategy is to treat the heat as a resource to be mined. In "enhanced geothermal extraction" from hot dry rocks (figure 16.5), we first drill down to a depth of 5 or 10 km, and fracture the rocks by pumping in water. (This step may create earthquakes, which don't go down well with the locals.) Then we drill a second well into the fracture zone. Then we pump water down one well and extract superheated water or steam from the other. This steam can be used to make electricity or to deliver heat. What's the hot dry rock resource of the UK? Sadly, Britain is not well endowed. Most of the hot rocks are concentrated in Cornwall, where some geothermal experiments were carried out in 1985 in a research facility at Rosemanowes, now closed. Consultants assessing these experiments concluded that "generation of electrical power from hot dry rock was unlikely to be technically or commercially viable in Cornwall, or elsewhere in the UK, in the short or medium term." Nonetheless, what is the resource? The biggest estimate of the hot dry rock resource in the UK is a total energy of 130000TWh, which, according to the consultants, could conceivably contribute 1.1 kWh per day per person of electricity for about 800 years.

Other places in the world have more promising hot dry rocks, so if you want to know the geothermal answers for other countries, be sure to ask a local. But sadly for Britain, geothermal will only ever play a tiny part.

Doesn't Southampton use geothermal energy already? How much does that deliver?

Yes, Southampton Geothermal District Heating Scheme was, in 2004 at least, the only geothermal heating scheme in the UK. It provides the city with a supply of hot water. The geothermal well is part of a combined heat, power, and cooling system that delivers hot and chilled water to customers, and sells electricity to the grid. Geothermal energy contributes about 15% of the 70 GWh of heat per year delivered by this system. The population

Figure 16.5. Enhanced geothermal extraction from hot dry rock. One well is drilled and pressurized to create fractures. A second well is drilled into the far side of the fracture zone. Then cold water is pumped down one well and heated water (indeed, steam) is sucked up the other.

of Southampton at the last census was 217445, so the geothermal power being delivered there is 0.13kWh/d per person in Southampton.