State schemes for the development of the national economy, the protection of ecological environments, renewable energy development, as well as related plans and programs, have been put forward. For example, the Ninth Five-Year Scheme of Energy Saving and Integrated Utilization put forward preferential polices such as "taxation adjustment, financial subsidies and discounted government loans."60 The Tenth Five-Year Scheme on Energy Saving and Integrated Utilization of Resources put forward policies such as the "transfer of tax and tax burdens" and "public financial support."61 The Tenth Five-Year Scheme on State Environmental Protection put forward the objectives that the integrated utilization rate of straws all over China reach eighty percent, and seventy percent of animal excrement be turned into resources.62 The Development Scheme of Projects of Changing Straws to Manure in Form of Animal Excrement (1996-2000) required that the "Ministry of Agriculture and all governments at the provincial level should set up a long- and mid-term scheme and an annual implementation plan for projects for changing straw to manure in the form of animal excrement."63 However, the related strategies and policies established in the development scheme, plan, and program of government have not been translated into legislation and so their objectives cannot be guaranteed by relevant legal systems and legal measures.
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