Sustainable Development

Related Regulations at the Level of State Legislation

In April 1999, the State Environmental Protection Administration of China and the Ministry of Agriculture formulated the Methods for the Prohibition of Straw Burning and Integrated Utilization, which sets out the scope of the definition of straw, the competent administrative authorities responsible for the supervision of the implementation of bans on straw burning, and instructions for the integrated utilization of straw are clarified. Approaches for the integrated utilization of crop straw and...

Government Procurement

All governments are major energy users. Legislation or regulation to require purchase by federal, state, and or municipal governments of clean energy products and processes can do much to promote cleaner and more affordable use of energy. Government procurements of green products also create markets to bring down their prices and set an example of the feasibility of their use for the private sector. In the United States, the government is the world's largest single buyer of energy-using...

Bibliography Of Sustanability Of Global Warming

Boyle, A. and Freestone, D., eds., International Law of Sustainable Development, Past Achievements and Future Challenges, Oxford University Press, 1999. Brans, E. H. P., Liability for Damage to Public Natural Resources, Standing, Damage and Damage Assessment, Kluwer, 2001. Freestone, D. and Hey, E., eds., The Precautionary Principle and International Law, the Challenge of Implementation, Kluwer, 1996. Kiss, A. and Shelton, D., International Environmental Law, 3rd ed. Transnational Publishers,...

The Evolving Legal Framework For Air Pollution Control

Isolated examples of laws to abate local air pollution can be traced to ancient Rome or ancient China. Governments have taken legal action to abate air pollution where it was a nuisance or frustrated other social goals. The first modern laws to cope with industrial air pollution were the Alkali Acts in England, adopted in the nineteenth century. Since then, and particularly in the second half of the twentieth century, the now familiar pattern of air pollution control laws has been implemented....

Reassessing Laws For Atmospheric Stewardship

Despite half a century of experience with contemporary air pollution, the legal regimes have yet to protect the air as effectively as hoped. Not all nations have enacted the national air pollution laws appropriate to their problems. Most nations have not adopted laws and treaties to eliminate unlawful transboundary air pollution, and relatively few nations are active participants in the decisions of the international organizations that address air pollution issues. States still allow their...

Energy And Socioeconomic Development

The linkages between energy systems and economic growth are apparent and well understood. However, the relationship between energy systems on one hand and social development, health, and the environment on the other has attracted much less attention until recently. The lack of access to modern energy carriers seriously constrains opportunities to earn incomes and lead healthy lives. Currently, almost 2 billion people have no access to electricity and an additional two billion people have access...

The Difference Between Energy Ethics And Ethics Of Sustainable Energy

The report of the COMEST Subcommission gives an excellent introduction to energy ethics in the age of sustainable development. In comparison to the general and fairly well-established field of energy ethics,3 sustainable energy ethics is relatively new and more focused. In the age of industrialism, energy has been promoted as a prerequisite for development the more energy, the more economic prosperity. The various forms of energy were assessed in terms of their short-term, not long-term,...

Equitable Use Of Shared Resources

As mentioned in Section 1, transfrontier damage to the environment was the starting point of the development of international environmental law. The notification of imminent harm and assistance in emergencies were important aspects of the cooperation 42 London, November 30, 1990, EMuT, 990 88. 43 Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, Barcelona, February 16, 1976, EMuT, 976 15. 44 Protocol...

The Ethics Of Sustainable Development

The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development WSSD focused on energy as one of the key areas for sustainable development. The importance of access to energy for human dignity was noted in the Johannesburg Declaration19 and further explained in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.20 The Plan of Implementation details eight recommendations for improved access to energy services and resources, cleaner use of fossil fuels, and the development of regulatory and institutional frameworks....

General Principles

Four important principles have developed a precise legal content and are described below. Two other principles are not discussed the polluter pays principle and common but differentiated responsibility. The first is essentially a guideline for improving the economic accountancy for environmental harm. It does not answer questions that have a fundamental importance for law, such as the identification of the polluter should the producer, the dealer, or the user of a product or substance be the...

The Framework Convention On Climate Change And The Cop Process

In 1992, before the IPCC identified the human fingerprint on global warming, the world was already concerned that human activities enhance the natural greenhouse effect and that this will result in additional warming of the earth's surface and atmosphere and may adversely affect natural ecosystems and humankind and determined to protect the climate system for present and future generations. 23 In response to this challenge, the UNFCCC was entered into to Achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas...

The Earth Charter as the Defining Framework

Like the Draft Covenant, the Earth Charter does not define sustainable development, but rather assumes the validity of the WCED definition. The Earth Charter aims, however, for a more complete elaboration on the guiding ethical principles. The key is Principle 1 ( Respect Earth and life in all its diversity ) with its definition for respect for life Recognize that all beings are interdependent and every form of life has value regardless of its worth to human beings. The principle of respect for...

The Ethical Framework for Sustainable Energy

It should not cause much difficulty to define ethics for sustainable energy as reflecting ethics for sustainable development. If sustainable development is the overarching concept for future energy policies, both need to be guided by the same ethical framework. Thus, the ethics of sustainable development provide the ethical framework for sustainable energy.67 All ethical considerations on energy should start from there. A first task for these considerations is to explore the ethical contents of...

The Academys Annals

This volume represents the first publication of the Colloquium research and the annual synthesis of the field, as the Annals of the IUCN Academy of Environmental Law. Dr. Charles-Alexandre Kiss organized and published the proceedings of one of the very first international colloquia on The Protection of the Environment and International Law in 1973.3 It is fitting that he provides this inaugural set of lectures for the Annals. Since the demand for energy has guided humans ever since the...

Current Energy Supply And Demand

During the last century, the use of fossil fuel resources - oil, natural gas, and coal - dominated world primary energy. In 2001, fossil energy use made up seventy-nine percent of world primary energy consumption. In comparison, renewables (including large hydro, traditional biomass, and new renewable like solar, wind, geothermal) made up fourteen percent and nuclear seven percent of world primary energy use. Furthermore, demand for energy services continues to increase with growing economies...

Introduction

Global warming is a paradigmatic sustainable development challenge. Greenhouse gases GHGs are emitted by a vast array of human activities that range from burning fossil fuels for electricity, heat, transportation, cooking, industrial, commercial, and governmental activities, to raising cows for meat and dairy products, growing rice, transporting natural gas, mining coal, and using fertilizer to grow the food we eat. The cumulative effect of the increased atmospheric concentration of GHGs is...

Green Power Green Pricing And Green Power Marketing Green Power

Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources, that mitigates climate change by producing few or no greenhouse gas emissions. 2 While there is no standard classification of the renewable energy sources that are green power sources, the generation of electricity is generally required to have a minimal impact on local and regional air quality water quality watersheds, river systems and fisheries flora and fauna geophysical features noise visual aesthetics and any additional...

Problems Concerning The Utilization Of Agricultural Renewable Energy In China

China is a great country with a large agrarian population and significant power to produce agricultural products, which has grown with China's economic expansion in the 1980s. China does not only produce large quantities of agricultural products to meet the needs of its domestic market, but also exports significant quantities of agricultural products. During the period from 1991 to 2000, comparing the first five years and the second five years, the output of agricultural products in China, such...

Relevant Legislative Systems for the Management of Agricultural Renewable Energy at State Levels Are Still Incomplete

The incompleteness of the state legislative system is demonstrated by 1. a lack of legislation concerning the management of agricultural renewable energy. Not only is there no specific legislation on this issue, there is even a lack of relevant provisions in related legislation. In terms of state legislation, only certain laws, such as the Law of Agriculture and Law of Energy Saving, are concerned with the integrated utilization and management of agricultural renewable energy. There are 58...

Dual Nature of Agricultural Renewable Energy Substances as Energies and Resources

Agricultural renewable energy refers to certain biological substances generated in the course of agricultural production or labor, including rural firewood, crop straw, animal excrement, and waste residues of agricultural products. They provide energy for economic production and household uses. Rural firewood includes reeds, Mao bamboo, shrubs, weeds, and tree branches. Crop straw includes the stem, leaf, vine, root, core, 5 General Editorial Board of Encyclopedia of China, Encyclopedia of...

Information and Assistance in Environmental Emergencies Information

According to Principle 18 of the Rio Declaration States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce harmful effects on the environment of those States. The foundation of the rule appears in general international law and is linked with humanitarian duties. The customary duty is spelled out more concretely in numerous international treaties. In this regard, the most important international instrument is the UN Convention on the...

Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Demand Side Mechanisms for Promoting Green Power in Deregulated Electricity

The production and use of electricity generated by fossil fuels is one of the most environmentally damaging human activities on this planet. It is generally acknowledged that increasing the share of electricity generated by renewable energy is vital for reducing the environmental impacts of electricity generated by fossil fuels and achieving sustainable development. Protection of the environment is a key reason for the introduction of government policies encouraging the development of renewable...

Definition of Agricultural Renewable Energy

For the purposes of this chapter, agricultural renewable energy combines the concepts of agriculture and renewable energy. According to the Dictionary of Agriculture, agriculture is a human productive activity combining natural reproduction and economic reproduction for the purpose of obtaining the material goods needed for living and production, through the production of products involving plants, animals, and microorganisms, taking living animals and plants as the main objects of labor, and...

Differences between the Concepts of Agricultural Renewable Energy and Rural Renewable Energy

Before considering the differences between the concepts of agricultural renewable energy and rural renewable energy, it is necessary first to define agricultural energy. According to the Dictionary of Agriculture and Encyclopedia of China (Agriculture Volume) it is energy developed and used in rural areas in accordance with local conditions including both renewable energies, such as firewood, straw, excrement, small hydropower schemes, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy, as well as...

Water Resources

This lecture started with the short presentation of a concrete problem, that of the shrinking of the glaciers in the Andes and the disastrous consequences which it is likely to produce on the water supply of populations. It must be recalled that the problems of water resources were in the very heart of the Johannesburg Conference. The Plan of Implementation advocates integrated water resource management, the preservation or restoration of water ecosystems and their functions, in particular in...

Why Do We Speak Of The Environment

The term environment can describe a limited area, the entire planet, or even include a part of the outer space that surrounds the Earth. The term biosphere, used in particular by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNESCO , is more precise, if still broad. It designates the totality of the human environment, the part of the universe where, according to present knowledge, all life is concentrated. In fact, the biosphere includes a very narrow stratum encircling...

Expressions in National and International Energy Law New Zealand

Examples for this broader expression can be found in the environmental legislation of New Zealand. The Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) is guided by the principle of sustainable management, which is not identical with sustainable development, but nevertheless related to it.73 Section 5(2) of the RMA reads Sustainable management means managing the use, development and protection of natural and physical resources in a way, or at a rate, which enables people and communities to provide for their...

Strengths And Limitations Of Green Pricing And Green Power Marketing Schemes

Green pricing programs and green power marketing schemes are market-based mechanisms that are used to increase demand by consumers for electricity produced from renewable energy sources. These programs are voluntary and depend upon the willingness of consumers to pay a price premium for the supply of green power to them directly or the investment by a utility in developing renewable energy technologies. As market-based mechanisms, green pricing programs offer a number of benefits but are also...

Low Utilization Rate of Resources and Improper Treatment of Wastes Lead to Not only Resource Waste but also

Although China is the world's largest consumer ofbiomass energy, the utilization of crop straw in China by the end of the 1990s was still just fifty percent,12 while the remainder was entirely unused for energy production. In keeping with the traditional lifestyles of many rural people, and the outdated means of production in many areas, many crop straw or other wastes are abandoned as they are considered improper, inconvenient, or unworthy for use. Such agricultural wastes are piled up at the...

The Simple Integrated and Efficient Utilization of Energy and Resources Is Not Achieved

Through the gasification treatment of crop straw, thermal efficiency in the context of direct burning of such straw can be enhanced from twenty percent to more than sixty percent.16 If all of the approximately 0.4 billion tonnes of animal excrement (dry matter) generated each year in rural and urban areas was processed into marsh gas, the annual output of marsh gas would reach 9 billion m3.17 The thermal efficiency of firewood is only approximately ten percent if traditional stoves are used,...

The Chinese Governments Efforts In The Management Of Agricultural Renewable Energy

Despite the problems mentioned in Section 2, Chinese governments at all levels since 1990 have established policies and plans, built legal capacity and frameworks, encouraged technical development, and supported projects relating to the management of agricultural renewable energy. 21 Kang Ren, Prohibition Mechanism of Straw Burning Should Be Put in Order, China Environment Online, see

Related Authorities Establish Development Schemes Action Plans and Development Programs for Agricultural Renewable

Since the Chinese government formulated China's Agenda 21 - White Paper of China's Population, Environment and Development in 21st Century China's Agenda 21 in 1994, related authorities under the State Council established future development schemes, action plans, or near-term and long- and mid-term development programs related to the integrated utilization and technical development of agricultural renewable energy. In China's Agenda 21, government proposals to hasten construction of rural...

Chinese Governments Have Made Significant Progress in the Development and Utilization of Agricultural Renewable Energy

Since the beginning of the 1990s, Chinese governments at all levels have continuously devoted significant manpower, material resources, and financial resources to the research, application, promotion, and popularization of technology for developing and utilizing agricultural renewable energy. After ten years of such government efforts, more rural areas in China have changed their traditional lifestyle and energy structures, while the quality of ecological environments in such regions has also...

No Effective Legislative Guarantee Is Provided for the Enforcement of Related State Policies Programs Schemes or Plans

State schemes for the development of the national economy, the protection of ecological environments, renewable energy development, as well as related plans and programs, have been put forward. For example, the Ninth Five-Year Scheme of Energy Saving and Integrated Utilization put forward preferential polices such as taxation adjustment, financial subsidies and discounted government loans.60 The Tenth Five-Year Scheme on Energy Saving and Integrated Utilization of Resources put forward policies...

Central Legislation Is Lacking and Cannot Actively and Effectively Inform Local Legislation

In comparison with local legislation, central legislation is obviously lagging behind in relation to the management of agricultural renewable energy. Although there is still no 60 Supra note 26. 61 Supra note 28. 63 Ministry of Agriculture, Development Scheme of Projects of Changing Straws to Manure in Form of Animal Excrement (1996-2000), see specific legislation for agricultural renewable energy in current local law, local legislation has begun to be enacted. This is before central...

The Case Of China

Over the last two decades, China has demonstrated a development strategy that has allowed for a significant decoupling of economic growth from energy use. The energy intensity of the Chinese economy hasbeen reduced by approximately fifty percent during the last twenty years, thereby significantly reducing costs, imports, and environmental degradation. Large opportunities to continue to improve energy intensity exist. The current development strategy of China is known as the 3E strategy and...

Alberta Canada

Under Canada's Constitution, electricity is primarily within the jurisdiction of the provinces, with the bulk of generation, transmission, and distribution provided by a few dominant utilities. While several provinces are now beginning to deregulate their electricity sectors, Alberta has been the leader in electricity industry restructuring in Canada. The deregulation and privatization of Alberta's electricity industry has occurred pursuant to the Electric Utilities Act of 1995 and the Electric...

International

Perhaps the best way to advance strong sustainable energy ethics is to promote them at the level of international law. So far, international energy law has not been guided by sus-tainability ethics despite the fact that most international agreements since the 1992 Rio Summit aim for contributions to sustainable development. Nicholas Robinson makes the point, for example, that the objectives of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change could not be achieved without building...

Sustainable Development Screen

The WWF Gold Standard is particularly innovative in its requirement that projects pass a sustainable development screen consisting of environmental impact analysis, public participation requirements, and a normative sustainability matrix.73 To pass the sustainable development screen, a proposed CDM project must conduct a best practice environmental impact assessment with local stakeholder input, based on explicit and transparent public participation procedure, in addition to input from project...

Richard L Ottinger

Traditional energy production, dependent largely on the burning of biomass in rural areas and the burning of fossil fuels in industrialized areas, poses threats of economic, environmental, and social hardship for the world through global warming and for developing countries through exhaustion on energy-related imports of hard currency resources that are desperately needed for education, sanitation, health care, and other vital human needs. There are proven cleaner and more affordable...

State Sovereignty

State sovereignty is one of the oldest principles of general international law. Its meaning is that a state has exclusive jurisdiction on its territory. In other words, the state is the only authority that can adopt legal rules for its territory, has executive power, and competence to judge litigation. This principle is applicable in environmental matters, but with certain restrictions concerning the preservation of the environment. Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration makes it explicit...

Prevention of Environmental Harm

Experience and scientific expertise demonstrate that prevention must be the Golden Rule for the environment, for both ecological and economic reasons. It is frequently impossible to remedy environmental injury the extinction of a species of fauna or flora, erosion, or even the dumping of long life pollutants into the sea create irreversible situations. Even if the damage is reparable, the costs of rehabilitation are often prohibitive. The duty of prevention also clearly emerges from the...

The Common Duty To Abate Air Pollution

Under the Charter of the United Nations, states have the duty to cooperate together to cope with problems such as air pollution. National laws, and cooperation through the World Health Organization (WHO) or the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), or the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), offer concrete evidence that the duty to cooperate is understood and is being implemented. Within each nation, the differentiated characteristics of its...