Expressions in National and International Energy Law New Zealand

Examples for this broader expression can be found in the environmental legislation of New Zealand. The Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) is guided by the principle of sustainable management, which is not identical with sustainable development, but nevertheless related to it.73 Section 5(2) of the RMA reads Sustainable management means managing the use, development and protection of natural and physical resources in a way, or at a rate, which enables people and communities to provide for their...

Reassessing Laws For Atmospheric Stewardship

Despite half a century of experience with contemporary air pollution, the legal regimes have yet to protect the air as effectively as hoped. Not all nations have enacted the national air pollution laws appropriate to their problems. Most nations have not adopted laws and treaties to eliminate unlawful transboundary air pollution, and relatively few nations are active participants in the decisions of the international organizations that address air pollution issues. States still allow their...

Sustainable Development Screen

The WWF Gold Standard is particularly innovative in its requirement that projects pass a sustainable development screen consisting of environmental impact analysis, public participation requirements, and a normative sustainability matrix.73 To pass the sustainable development screen, a proposed CDM project must conduct a best practice environmental impact assessment with local stakeholder input, based on explicit and transparent public participation procedure, in addition to input from project...

Dual Nature of Agricultural Renewable Energy Substances as Energies and Resources

Agricultural renewable energy refers to certain biological substances generated in the course of agricultural production or labor, including rural firewood, crop straw, animal excrement, and waste residues of agricultural products. They provide energy for economic production and household uses. Rural firewood includes reeds, Mao bamboo, shrubs, weeds, and tree branches. Crop straw includes the stem, leaf, vine, root, core, 5 General Editorial Board of Encyclopedia of China, Encyclopedia of...

Precaution

Should we speak of the precautionary principle or of the precautionary approach The first term is used in continental Europe, in domestic legislation as well as in the successive treaties related to the constitution of the European Union. It is a rather strong statement and excludes negotiation on the content of the precaution. The term approach, current in English speaking countries, indicates a method rather than an obligation and seems thus more flexible. In fact, the term appeared first in...

Low Utilization Rate of Resources and Improper Treatment of Wastes Lead to Not only Resource Waste but also

Although China is the world's largest consumer ofbiomass energy, the utilization of crop straw in China by the end of the 1990s was still just fifty percent,12 while the remainder was entirely unused for energy production. In keeping with the traditional lifestyles of many rural people, and the outdated means of production in many areas, many crop straw or other wastes are abandoned as they are considered improper, inconvenient, or unworthy for use. Such agricultural wastes are piled up at the...

William Chandler

The most significant achievements over the past two decades in sustainable energy development have stemmed from creating appropriate market conditions. Yet, sustainable development will be unachievable without agreement on setting appropriate boundaries on energy markets. Without aggressive efforts to deploy emissions mitigation technology over the next ten to twenty years, the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gas emissions will double, compared to preindustrial levels (see Figure 6.1)....

Equitable Use Of Shared Resources

As mentioned in Section 1, transfrontier damage to the environment was the starting point of the development of international environmental law. The notification of imminent harm and assistance in emergencies were important aspects of the cooperation 42 London, November 30, 1990, EMuT, 990 88. 43 Protocol Concerning Cooperation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, Barcelona, February 16, 1976, EMuT, 976 15. 44 Protocol...

Zhou Dadi

Chinese energy strategy must begin with an analysis of the county's current and future demand for energy. A rapid rise in energy demand is the key driving force for the development of an energy strategy. There is not only one possible future for China. The goal is to keep energy elasticity at 0.5 for the next twenty years. But is it possible to achieve this target Table 3.1 shows the year 2000 China energy demand by resource and the projected demand for years 2010 and 2020. The range of energy...

Prevention of Environmental Harm

Experience and scientific expertise demonstrate that prevention must be the Golden Rule for the environment, for both ecological and economic reasons. It is frequently impossible to remedy environmental injury the extinction of a species of fauna or flora, erosion, or even the dumping of long life pollutants into the sea create irreversible situations. Even if the damage is reparable, the costs of rehabilitation are often prohibitive. The duty of prevention also clearly emerges from the...

State Sovereignty

State sovereignty is one of the oldest principles of general international law. Its meaning is that a state has exclusive jurisdiction on its territory. In other words, the state is the only authority that can adopt legal rules for its territory, has executive power, and competence to judge litigation. This principle is applicable in environmental matters, but with certain restrictions concerning the preservation of the environment. Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration makes it explicit...

The Case Of China

Over the last two decades, China has demonstrated a development strategy that has allowed for a significant decoupling of economic growth from energy use. The energy intensity of the Chinese economy hasbeen reduced by approximately fifty percent during the last twenty years, thereby significantly reducing costs, imports, and environmental degradation. Large opportunities to continue to improve energy intensity exist. The current development strategy of China is known as the 3E strategy and...

Information and Assistance in Environmental Emergencies Information

According to Principle 18 of the Rio Declaration States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce harmful effects on the environment of those States. The foundation of the rule appears in general international law and is linked with humanitarian duties. The customary duty is spelled out more concretely in numerous international treaties. In this regard, the most important international instrument is the UN Convention on the...

General Principles

Four important principles have developed a precise legal content and are described below. Two other principles are not discussed the polluter pays principle and common but differentiated responsibility. The first is essentially a guideline for improving the economic accountancy for environmental harm. It does not answer questions that have a fundamental importance for law, such as the identification of the polluter should the producer, the dealer, or the user of a product or substance be the...

The Ethical Framework for Sustainable Energy

It should not cause much difficulty to define ethics for sustainable energy as reflecting ethics for sustainable development. If sustainable development is the overarching concept for future energy policies, both need to be guided by the same ethical framework. Thus, the ethics of sustainable development provide the ethical framework for sustainable energy.67 All ethical considerations on energy should start from there. A first task for these considerations is to explore the ethical contents of...

Related Authorities Establish Development Schemes Action Plans and Development Programs for Agricultural Renewable

Since the Chinese government formulated China's Agenda 21 - White Paper of China's Population, Environment and Development in 21st Century China's Agenda 21 in 1994, related authorities under the State Council established future development schemes, action plans, or near-term and long- and mid-term development programs related to the integrated utilization and technical development of agricultural renewable energy. In China's Agenda 21, government proposals to hasten construction of rural...

Introduction

Global warming is a paradigmatic sustainable development challenge. Greenhouse gases GHGs are emitted by a vast array of human activities that range from burning fossil fuels for electricity, heat, transportation, cooking, industrial, commercial, and governmental activities, to raising cows for meat and dairy products, growing rice, transporting natural gas, mining coal, and using fertilizer to grow the food we eat. The cumulative effect of the increased atmospheric concentration of GHGs is...

Why Do We Speak Of The Environment

The term environment can describe a limited area, the entire planet, or even include a part of the outer space that surrounds the Earth. The term biosphere, used in particular by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNESCO , is more precise, if still broad. It designates the totality of the human environment, the part of the universe where, according to present knowledge, all life is concentrated. In fact, the biosphere includes a very narrow stratum encircling...

The Ethics Of Sustainable Development

The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development WSSD focused on energy as one of the key areas for sustainable development. The importance of access to energy for human dignity was noted in the Johannesburg Declaration19 and further explained in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.20 The Plan of Implementation details eight recommendations for improved access to energy services and resources, cleaner use of fossil fuels, and the development of regulatory and institutional frameworks....

The Evolving Legal Framework For Air Pollution Control

Isolated examples of laws to abate local air pollution can be traced to ancient Rome or ancient China. Governments have taken legal action to abate air pollution where it was a nuisance or frustrated other social goals. The first modern laws to cope with industrial air pollution were the Alkali Acts in England, adopted in the nineteenth century. Since then, and particularly in the second half of the twentieth century, the now familiar pattern of air pollution control laws has been implemented....

Alberta Canada

Under Canada's Constitution, electricity is primarily within the jurisdiction of the provinces, with the bulk of generation, transmission, and distribution provided by a few dominant utilities. While several provinces are now beginning to deregulate their electricity sectors, Alberta has been the leader in electricity industry restructuring in Canada. The deregulation and privatization of Alberta's electricity industry has occurred pursuant to the Electric Utilities Act of 1995 and the Electric...

Germany

Looking at Germany's energy law, a similar picture emerges. The German Energy Report 2001 states the three objectives or pillars of sustainable energy as follows 81 Energy is sustainable when it meets the equal goals ofsupply security, economy and environmental protection. The three pillar concept underlies Germany's current energy laws82 such as Energy Industry Act 1998 Energiewirtschaftsgesetz , the Law of the Feeding in of Electricity 76 Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Sustainable...