Cuban farms were divided into state and non-state ownership. After the agrarian reforms of the Revolution, approximately 30 per cent of agricultural land was owned by individual farmers, and after that time the state made various attempts to integrate these into the centralized and specialized food planning, production and distribution system, by purchasing or renting this land (Zimbalist and Eckstein, 1987; Ramirez Cruz, 1994). By the late 1980s, these efforts had led to four main types of farm organization: state farms, Agricultural Production Cooperatives (CPA), Cooperatives for Credit and Services (CCS), and individual farmers. In 1989, private or non-state production contributed 35 per cent of national production and 48 per cent of export foodstuffs, despite the fact that it covered only 20 per cent of total agricultural area and received lower investments (Nova, 1994; Nova, 2002). Each of these four main types of farm organization is described below.
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