Main agricultural imports and their contribution to total national food requirements in Cuba, by the late 1980s (%) 64 Losses of major agricultural imports after the dissolution of the Socialist Bloc 68

Sugar exports from Cuba, 1989-93 70

Changes in the food consumption at level of macronutrients 71 Selected livestock production indicators, 1986-98 102

Participation in the supply of crops to the farmers' markets, by farm type 114

Percentage of farmers receiving technical assistance by thematic area 153

Summary of production performance and staff income for one CPA, between 1983 and 1998 160

Changes in staffing and structure of MINAG HQ, comparing 1990 with 1998 175

Input recommendations for sweetpotato from technical instruction leaflet provided by MINAG, 1998 179

Input recommendations for commercial maize varieties and hybrids, from technical instruction leaflets of agricultural research institutes 180

Table 8.4 Area treated with biological control methods, 1988 to 1998 182























Table 9.1 Selection of contrasting opinions on the performance of organic agriculture based on experiences in the Special Period 210


Box 3.1 Main institutions visited for field data collection, at national, provincial and municipal levels, in Cuba during 1999-2001 46 Box 4.1 Sources of inputs used in Cuba up to 1989 58

Box 5.1 Objectives of the National Urban Agriculture Programme,

2001 89

Box 6.1 Objectives of the National Nutritional Action Plan 97

Box 6.2 The growth of the People's Rice Programme 101

Box 6.3 The growth of farm and household self-provisioning 107

Box 6.4 The transport connection 110

Box 6.5 The organization of food supply in one municipality of

Havana City 118

Box 6.6 Hardworking but constrained: food security strategies of

José, a CCS farmer in rural eastern Cuba 121

Box 6.7 Resourceful with remittances: food security strategies of the

Conejo family living in a provincial town 122

Box 6.8 Feeling insecure: food security strategies of the Sanchez family in Havana City 123

Box 7.1 Farmer types in relation to attitude towards agrochemical usage 143

Box 7.2 Traditional methods for maize production in Cuba, as described by an elderly CPA cooperative member 152

Box 7.3 Coping strategies for farm management during the Special

Period 154

Box 7.4 Managing large-scale plantations on a human scale: linking man to the land 158

Box 8.1 The ten-year plan for maize production of MINAG, at 1999 171 Box 8.2 Pioneering localized approaches to plant breeding and seed management 186

Box 8.3 Experiences with certified organic citrus production 190

Box 9.1 The Cuban organic movement (ACAO) and its achievements up to 1999 200

Box 9.2 Perceptions and practices of organic agriculture by a pioneer farmer veteran in Havana Province 216

Box 10.1 The impacts of a rapid introduction of liberalized markets on agriculture and rural livelihoods in post-Soviet Eastern Europe 228

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