Energy

Table 2.1 is presented to illustrate the magnitude of energy use in the United States.

1985

1990

1995

1998

1999

2005

2010

Consumption

78.05

88.71

95.86

99.77

101.91

108

114

Fossil Fuels

69.86

75.91

81.17

84.94

86.05

Coal

18.82

20.15

21.19

22.78

22.89

Natural Gas

18.81

20.36

23.37

23.13

23.31

Petroleum

32.62

35.40

36.57

38.96

39.78

Nuclear Electric

4.38

6.50

7.57

7.55

8.15

Renewable

3.59

6.51

7.13

7.37

7.77 t

Hydroelectric

3.59

3.27

3.66

3.75

3.61

Geothermal

0.21

0.37

0.36

0.36

.35

Biofuels

0.01

2.49

3.01

3.15

3.70

Solar Energy

0.00

0.07

0.07

0.07

0.08

Wind

0.00

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

Table 2.1 Energy Use in the United States (2005 & 2010 are estimated)

Table 2.1 Energy Use in the United States (2005 & 2010 are estimated)

Adapted from: The World Almanac, 2001, Energy Consumption in units of 1018 Joules (One Joule = one watt • second)

Table 2.1 covers actual energy consumption in the United States from 1985 to 1999 with a linear projection through 2010.

To place future energy needs in proper perspective, let us look at the natural energy flux on the earth. The sun provides 8.38 Joules/cm2/min at earth's distance. 74 The earth intercepts a circular area of 4.068 x 1017 cm2. There are 525,600 minutes per year. Thus, solar energy flux on earth is 1.792 x 1024 Joules per year. The 1999 United States Energy use from Table 2.1 is about 1.02 x 1020 Joules per year. United States energy use is 0.00568% of the total solar flux.

Table 2.2A, B & C lists the non-fossil energy sources that are potential candidates to fill all or part of our future energy needs as defined in Table 2.1. They are divided into renewable sources, nonrenewable sources with relatively short lifetime and non-renewable sources with a long lifetime. In this context, a lifetime less than 100 years is considered short.

Potential Energy Sources for the Replacement of Fossil Fuels

Table 2.2A, B & C lists the non-fossil energy sources that are potential candidates to fill all or part of our future energy needs as defined in Table 2.1. They are divided into renewable sources, nonrenewable sources with relatively short lifetime and non-renewable sources with a long lifetime. In this context, a lifetime less than 100 years is considered short.

Potential Energy Sources for the Replacement of Fossil Fuels

SOURCE

POTENTIAL USE

Solar

Space heat, industrial process heat, and

Electric power generation.

Biomass

Space heat, industrial process heat, and

Electric power generation.

Geothermal

Space heat, industrial process heat, and

Electric power generation.

Wind

Electric power generation.

Hydropower

Electric power generation.

Ocean Thermal Gradients

Electric power generation.

Ocean Tides

Electric power generation.

Ocean Waves

Electric power generation

Table 2-2A Renewable Sources

SOURCE

POTENTIAL USE

Burner nuclear fission

Space heat, Industrial process heat

And electric power generation

Table 2-2B Non-renewable sources with short use life

SOURCE

POTENTIAL USE |

Breeder nuclear fission

Space heat, Industrial process heat

And electric power generation.

Thermonuclear fusion

Space heat, Industrial process heat

And electric power generation.

Table 2-2C Non-renewable sources with long service life

This chapter will sketch the characteristics of each of these sources. The sketches are adequate to provide for understanding the long-range utility of each of the energy sources. All these sources require a complex fixed facility to produce or harvest (in the case of the renewables) the energy. It

Weast, Robert, Editor, "Handbook of Physics and Chemistry", 67 edition, 1987

should be noted, however, that none of the sources of energy listed in Table 2.2 provides a portable fuel of high-energy content, as is provided by gasoline, diesel or jet fuel.

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