Carbon Dioxide

During combustion, carbon in hydrocarbons is oxidized to carbon dioxide. The production rate for the various fuels is shown in Table 1.3. The exact fate of this carbon dioxide is not well known. The oceans adsorb some. Some is used by plant life for growth. Much of it remains permanently in the atmosphere.

Analysis of air bubbles trapped in Antarctic and Greenland ice show the carbon dioxide concentration prior to 1700, was about 260 parts per million. In 1900 it was 295 parts per million. Today it is near 360 parts per million, an increase of 38% in 300 years and 22% in the last 102 years. The increase appears to be largely the result of the combustion of fossil fuels.21


Grains gas per Kilowatt hour

Methane (natural gas)

190 grams/Kwh


250 grams/Kwh


260 grams/Kwh


430 grams/Kwh

Table 1.3 Greenhouse Gas from fossil fuels

Carbon dioxide dissolves in ocean water slightly increasing its acidity. The acidity increases the solubility of calcium carbonate, the material shellfish use to manufacture their shells. When the carbon dioxide concentration becomes high enough, a point not well defined, shellfish and coral will no longer be able to manufacture calcium carbonate shells and they will become extinct. 22 Predictions of when this will happen are inexact because the carbon dioxide concentration that prevents shellfish from making shells is not known with accuracy. The amount of carbon dioxide in the oceans is not accurately known, particularly at great depth. We have only limited knowledge of the rate the surface water mixes with the deep waters. These factors affect the estimates of the rate at which the oceans are able to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and the rate at which the acidity will increase. Because of these uncertainties, the estimated time for the extinction of shellfish and coral from excess carbon dioxide cannot be accurately predicted, but estimates as early as 2010 have been reported. The

Cifuentes, Luis, Boraj-Aburto, Victor H., Gouvela, Nelson, Thurston, George, Davis, Devra Lee, "Hidden Health Benefits of

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation", Science, Vol. 293, No. 5533, August 17 2001, Page 1257

Schneider Stephen H., "Climate Modeling", Scientific American, Vol. 256, No. 5, May 1987, Page 96

Kleypas, Joan A. Buddemeier, Robert W., Archer, David, Gattuso, Jean-Pierre, Langdon, Chris, Opdyke, Bradley N., "Geochemical Consequences of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Coral Reefs", Science, Vol. 284, No. 5411 Aprin 2, 1999, Page 118

shellfish are a significant portion of the total species present in the ocean. If this extinction occurs it will have a profound effect on the balance of life in the oceans and will ultimately affect life on land.23

The combustion of hydrocarbons may already have placed sufficient carbon dioxide in the oceans to affect sea life in a harmful manner. If not today, it will soon reach a dangerous level if we continue the combustion of fuels containing carbon. If we stop using fossil fuels soon we may be in time to halt the carbon dioxide increase before it causes permanent damage to sea life.24

Carbon Dioxide Concentration c o

Carbon Dioxide Concentration



■Measured Data ——Business as Usual ——Kyoto Treaty

Figure 1.1 Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere

Figure 1.1 shows the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since the start of fossil fuel use. During the summer in the northern hemisphere, the carbon dioxide concentration decreases because of plant photosynthesis. The decrease is in the range of 5 to 15 parts per million. In the fall, this carbon dioxide is largely returned to the atmosphere. The figure shows the average for the year. Values beyond the year 2000 are projected as a simple continuation of current trends. The Kyoto Treaty line will be addressed later in this chapter.

In laboratory surroundings, some plants respond to increased carbon dioxide by growing faster. There has been speculation this effect, operating on a worldwide basis, will limit or reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The amount of carbon removed from the atmosphere by this process will probably be small. In most natural environments plant growth is limited by the soil

Baxter, Barry, J. P., Sagarin, C. H., Gilman, R. D., "Climate-Related Long-Term Faunal Changes in a California Rocky Intertidal Community", Science, Vol. 267, February 1995, Page 961

MacDonald, Gordon J. (Editor) "The Long - Term Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels", by Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge, MA, 1982

nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Plants will not be able to take advantage of the extra carbon dioxide. Even when it is possible for plants to consume extra carbon dioxide, it is removed from the atmosphere for only a short time. In the normal process of growth and decay most of the carbon captured by plants is returned to the atmosphere in just a few years.25,26

A second problem presented by the increase in carbon dioxide stems from its effect on the thermal balance of the earth. The sun is at a temperature of about 6000 Kelvin and emits most of its energy in the visible and near infrared portion of the spectrum. The atmosphere and the carbon dioxide are transparent to the wavelengths of this portion of spectrum. These wavelengths pass through the atmosphere and warm the surface of the earth. Because of its transparency for short wave length solar energy, carbon dioxide does not reduce the amount of energy received at the earth's surface.27

The earth cools by radiating energy into the black of space during the night. This radiation is in the infrared portion of the spectrum. The actual emission of earth's infrared radiation was measured in 1970 and in 1997 using satellite data. This work was performed by John Harris and his colleagues at Imperial College, London and reported in Nature, Vol. 410, Page 355. 28 Infrared signatures of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and fluorocarbons were measured. Comparisons of these measurements show the clear signature of global warming.

The earth has an average temperature of about 20 degrees Celsius (293 Kelvin). It emits most of its energy in the infrared portion of the spectrum. The emission covers a broad range of wavelengths centered at a wavelength of about 10 micrometers. Carbon dioxide is opaque at these wavelengths. Its presence, along with water vapor, in the atmosphere reduces the amount of heat the earth can eliminate. The increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leaves the solar input of energy nearly unaffected, but reduces the amount of energy the earth can eliminate. The effect on the earth is much the same as a person feels when putting on a sweater or coat; they become warmer. M'30

Other gases contribute to the warming process. Water vapor is the main greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide is the second major contributor to the warming of the earth. The effect of carbon dioxide has a positive feed back effect. When added carbon dioxide raises the temperature a small amount, it increases the amount of water vapor in the air, causing further warming. Freons, nitrous oxide and methane aid in holding in the heat. We already work hard to reduce or eliminate Freon emissions. Methane is released in quantity from virtually every oil field and significant leakage from pipeline distribution systems is observed. Termination of the use of fossil fuels including, natural gas, will greatly reduce the atmospheric warming from methane. Methane is also produced by many life forms from bacteria is swamps to the digestive systems of animals. Methane hydrates are found in the tundra. If the far north warms excessively, it will cause the release of some of this methane adding another positive feedback.

There have been many debates concerning mow much carbon dioxide is needed to cause a measurable change in the temperature of the earth. Complex computer models have been used to calculate the

Bolin, Bert, "The Carbon Cycle", Scientific American, Vol. 223, No. 3, September, 1970, Page 124

Bazzar, Fakhri A., and Fajer, Eric D., "Plant Life in a C02 Rich World", Scientific American, Vol. 266, No. 1, January, 1992, Page 68

Revelle, Roger, "Carbon Dioxide and World Climate", Scientific American, Vol. 247, No. 2, August 1982, Page 35

Editors, "In Brief- Hot Stuff', In New Scientist, March 17, 2001 Page 27

Hileman, Bette, "Global Warming" Chemical and Engineering News, March 13, 1989, Page 25

Newell, Reginald E., "The Global Circulation of Atmospheric Pollution", Scientific American, Vol. 224, No. 1, January 1971, Page 35

temperature increase. The models including the heat from the sun and heat transport between the earth, atmosphere, and oceans and the heat radiated to space. These calculations agree: the earth will become warmer and the largest increases in temperature will occur at the North and South Poles. They do not agree with regard to how fast the effect will occur or how high the temperature will rise.31 On the optimistic side, some models indicate an average temperature rise of 1 to 2 degrees Celsius by 2050 with a 5-degree rise at the poles. Other models show an average temperature increase of 5 degrees with a 20 degrees rise at the poles as soon as 2030. Whichever of these is correct, any temperature increase will alter the weather.32 Because there is so little agreement on the details of the warming, all the comments here regarding how much heating there will be and when it will occur are speculations of the author based on reading the conflicting data.

A temperature increase will result in warmer winters and summers. In the near term, it will also cause increased instability in the weather. This will be experienced as increasingly strong cold fronts push further south more often, with the attendant increase in violent weather. This is driven by the requirement to transport more thermal energy from the temperate and tropical zones to the polar zones. These shifts in weather patterns can cause local shifts in climate. Looking at the details, some places may become warmer and drier, others warmer and wetter. It is also possible for some locations to become cooler and wetter or drier as the world weather system seeks a new balance with more energy retained on the surface. If these shifts affect the major food producing regions of the earth in a detrimental way, they will have profound effects on all aspects of human life from where hunger is a problem, to which nations are most powerful.33'34

Changes in the weather patterns will affect all crop producing regions of the world. If the weather in the mid-section of the United States changes it may be difficult to grow the traditional crops. This will require farmers to substantially alter their machinery inventory. The equipment will have to be re-optimized to plant and harvest the new crops optimum for the weather in the area. This will cause economic dislocation and reduced levels of food production as the farm economy shifts to produce the new and unfamiliar. If the weather continues to shift, it will be increasingly difficult to keep pace with the changes. The inability to keep up with the pace of change will be a further drag on productivity.

The effect of arctic warming on the ocean circulation is of great concern to those living in Europe.35,36 The Gulf Stream transports a large amount of heat from the Caribbean Sea to Europe. This is why Western Europe is so much warmer than Siberia, which is a similar distance from the North Pole.

When the Arctic Ocean freezes, the ice contains no salt. The salt stays in the surrounding water making it dense. The density causes it to sink. As it sinks and flows back south along the ocean bottom, it makes room for the water from the Gulf Stream. If the artic gets too warm, the Gulf Stream may stop flowing. This will leave Western Europe with a climate similar to Siberia.

Wigley, T. M. L„ and Raper, S. C. B., "Interpretation of High Projections for Global-Mean Wanning" Science, Vol. 293, No. 5528, July 20, 2001, Page 451

32 Editors "The Great Climate Debate", Scientific American, Vol. 263, No. 1, July 1990, Page 36

33 Schneider, Stephen, "Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century", Sierra Club Publication, 1989

34 Kerr, Richard A. "Warmth, Chill May Follow", Science, Vol. 255, January 17, 1992, Page 281

35 Barnett, Tim P., Pierce, David W., Schnur, Reiner, "Detection of Anthropogenic Climate Changes in the World's Oceans", Science, Vol. 292, No. 5515, April 13, 2001, Page 270

36 Levitus, Sydney, et. el. "Anthropogenic Warming of Earth's Climate system", Science, Vol. 292, No. 5515, April 13, 2001, Page 267

The weather has been unusual for the last 5 to 10 years. There has been a long drought in the African Sahel region. The United States has experienced a series of record warm summers and winters as well as a few unusually cold winters. Cold fronts have carried freezing temperatures into central Florida two winters in a row nearly destroying the northernmost sections of the citrus belt. The ice pack between Newfoundland and Greenland has broken up later and formed earlier than usual during several recent winters. Data taken from the Japanese instrument, ASTER on NASA's Terra spacecraft shows a world wide melting of glaciers.37 The Snows of Kilimanjaro are melting at rapid rate and are predicted to be totally gone in 2015.38 In India the monsoon rains have been early, late or missing in several recent years.

The El Nino current warms the eastern Pacific Ocean every 5 to 10 years. The warming disrupts the fish population over thousands of square kilometers. During 1983-1984, it set records for warmth and duration. Over the last 100 years, the eight hottest years have occurred since 1977. In order, from the year that just broke the 100-year record to the hottest ever: 1988, 1987, 1979, 1978, 1980,1989, 1991, 1990, 2000, 1998, 2001 and 1999. The people who model weather emphasize that this does not absolutely prove the weather is becoming hotter. This string of hot years could be a chance occurrence, however; the probability is low.

While there may be no absolute proof linking this string of hot years to the increase in carbon dioxide, this is exactly the type of pattern expected as the weather becomes warmer and more unstable from the increase in carbon dioxide. 39'40 Current climate models show the effects of humanity are real. 41 For more details on global warming, see web reference.42

More ominous than the changes in the average temperature are the changes expected from the increases in temperature in the Polar Regions. There are about 27 million cubic kilometers of ice at the poles. If it all melted it would raise the sea level by 80 to 120 meters. If this happens it will be a worldwide disaster

Annual-mean Global near-surface (1.5 m) temperature were predicted by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SY UK, The predictions were compared to the actual measured temperatures for the period 1861 to 2000. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured temperatures. This agreement lends creditability to their predictions for the future. Their model shows that the average temperature will be +0.7 and +0.9 in 2020 and up by almost +2 degrees Celsius by 2050. The plot shown in Figure 1.2 is based on author's interpolation of the data presented by the Hadley Centre.

Figures 1.3 through 1.8 show the future of Eastern North America if we continue to add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Figure 1.3 shows the U. S coastline as it is today. Figure 1.4 shows the coastline with a 1-meter rise in seal level. This is likely to occur between 2050 and 2100. This will be the result of the melting of most of the high mountain glaciers and small bits of the edges of Greenland and the Antarctic. Figure 1.5 shows the coastline with a 3-meter rise in sea level. This is likely to occur

Samuel, Eugenie, "Total Meltdown", New Scientist, Vol. 170, No. 2294, Page 13 and http://visibleearth.nasa,gov/Sensors/Terra

38 Alverson, Keith, "A Global Paleoclimate Observing System", Science, Vol. 293, No. 5527, July 6, 2001, Page 47

39 Woodwell, George M., "The Carbon Dioxide Question", Scientific American, Vol. 238, No. 1, January 1978, Page 34

40 Hileman, Bette, "Web of Interactions Makes it Difficult to Untangle Global Warming Data", Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 70, No. 17, April 27, 1992, Page 7

41 Stott, P. A., Tett, S. F. B„ Jones, G. S„ Allen, M. R„ Mitchell, J. F. B„ Jenkins, G. J., "External Control of 20lh Century Temperature by Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings", Science, Vol. 290, 15 December 2000, Page 2133


between 2090 and 2150. It will be the result of the loss of much of Greenland ice and more reduction at the edges of the Antarctic. Figure 1.6 shows the coast with a 10-meter rise in the sea level. This will likely occur between 2120 and 2200. It will be the result of the loss of all the ice in the Northern hemisphere and parts of the West Antarctic ice cap. Figure 1.7 shows the coast with a 30-meter rise in the sea level. This may occur some time after 2200 with the significant melting of the edges of the Antarctic ice cap. Figure 1.8 shows the coastline with a 100-meter rise in the seal level. It will be the result of the loss of all the arctic and Antarctic ice. It will likely occur some time after 2300.

Figure 1.2 A Smoothed Average of Predicted Temperature Rise

Predicted Temperature Measured Temperature

Figure 1.2 A Smoothed Average of Predicted Temperature Rise

If we continue to add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at an increasing rate, these increases in the sea level will occur sooner. If we stop, burning fossil fuels completely the worst effects will be pushed off much further into the future and possible prevented altogether.

It will take a large temperature increase and a number of years to melt all the ice, so we can take the easy way out and say it may never happen, or if it does, it will be the concern of our distant descendants. This approach may not be good enough, even for procrastinators. A sea level increase of only a meter will cause severe problems for coastal areas. If we continue to pump carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and the thermal models projecting large temperature increases are correct, a 1 or 3 meter rise is likely to occur within the next 50 years.

Look at the map of the world on the inside of the covers and the map of Europe shown at the back of the book. When the sea rises, the Dutch would lose their battle to keep the sea from their farmland. England will become a small group of islands. Denmark will cease to exist. Across the remainder of the world huge tracts of the best farmland will vanish as the sea advanced inland and up the world's rivers. The South Atlantic Ocean would move 1200 to 1600 kilometers up the Amazon River. The Amazon forests and the Argentine Pampas are reduced by half. Northern Europe is dramatically changed. Denmark and most of Northern Germany is gone, drowned by the North Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea. Russia will have a warm water port very close to Moscow. Tourists will need Scuba Gear to see Venice, London and St. Petersburg. Australia will have a new inland sea. In the end, the full 80 to 120 meters of water would cover a large percentage the major cities. Most of them are located on seacoasts at sea level. The list of lost cities would include New York, Tokyo, London, Shanghai, Sao Palo, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Osaka, Calcutta, Bombay, Jakarta, Hong Kong, and Leningrad. In North America, the only large cities to survive will be Chicago and Mexico City.

Look closely at Figure 1.8. At some time, in the future all the seacoast cities will be inundated. Considering today's population only in the United States, possibly as many 150 million Americans will have to be relocated. Again, look at the map on the inside of the front cover. It shows that world wide the relocations will involve billions of individuals and all their belongings and support systems. You will need the scuba gear you used for Venice, London and St. Petersburg to visit the monuments in Washington D. C. The Egyptian Pyramids will be islands. In North America Toronto, Canada, Burlington, Vermont, Cairo, Illinois, along with many other unsuspecting cities and towns will become seaports. The rest of the world will be similarly affected. This will make the world a rather a different place. The folks of the next millennium will curse us for the changes.

One of the scenarios for the melting of ice that has attracted much interest involves the West Antarctic Ice Pack. The alarming concern is the possibility the West Antarctic Ice Pack will melt in a period as short as a few months. This short time will make relocation of people or building dikes essentially impossible. 43,44'45 The West Antarctic area is called Lesser Antarctica on some maps. Here the ice appears to be grounded below sea level. It is postulated that a small temperature rise may cause this section to break loose and melt at sea. It represents only about 3% to 5% of the total ice, but its melting will increase the sea level by about 2 to 3 meters. Satellites have monitored iceberg formation around Antarctica for a number of years. In 1986, satellites detected two unusually large icebergs drifting into the Waddell Sea. These icebergs were larger than any seen in the past. They could be the harbinger of more massive melting.

In October 1987 an iceberg, 40 by 160 kilometers broke away from the Ross Ice Shelf. This iceberg is more than twice the size of the State of Rhode Island, or twice the size of Long Island or about 70 % the size of Cyprus in the Mediterranean. The thickness of the iceberg is not known, but 0.2 to 0.5 kilometers is likely. If it had been wholly above sea level and about 500 meters thick it would have raised the sea level about 9 millimeters when it floated free. This was not observed so apparently much of it was already floating. In August 1991, satellites observed an iceberg the size of Connecticut (about 13,000 square kilometers) floating free in the Waddell Sea. This iceberg was probably floating before it broke free and may have little impact of the sea level.

The course of Antarctic melting is complex. In some areas, much ice has disappeared and in a few others, the ice cover has increased. There is evidence that the melting and warming has changed some of the circumpolar ocean currents. Study and modeling is ongoing and results that are more definitive will slowly emerge.4<"47

When small and large icebergs break up, they present a serious problem to south Atlantic shipping. By themselves, these icebergs may be of little consequence. However, if their creation is a harbinger of

43 Radok, Uwe, "The Antarctic Ice", Scientific American, Vol. 253, No. 2 August 1985, Page 98

44 Editors, "An Icy Warning of Global Warming", Newsweek, December 28, 1987, Page 65

45 Editors, "Keeping Tabs on a Big Berg", Science, Vol. 254, November 29, 1991, Page 1290

46 Vaughn, David G., Marshall Gareth J., Connolley, William M., King, John C., "Devil in the Detail" Science, Vol. 293, No. 5536, September 7, 2001, Page 1777

47 Krajick, Kevin, "Tracking Icebergs for Clues to Climate Change", Science, Vol. 292, No. 5525, June 22, 2001, Page 2244

sustained melting, severe coastal flooding will begin within the next decade. With luck, (for current generations) the melting may take hundreds of years; however, the loss of land caused by our current fossil fuel system is our bequest to some future generation.48

Other subtle influences have been noted. Data suggests that the growing season has increased by about 7 days since 1960. Shifts in the time of flowering have shifted about one week earlier in the Mediterranean. In northern Spain butterflies appear 11 days earlier than in 1952. In New York State frog calling has been reported to occur about 10 days earlier today, than in 1912. In the United Kingdom bird surveys indicate that egg laying has shifted 9 days earlier than in 1971. In Nenana Alaska, the breakup of the ice in the Tenana River has occurred 5.5 days earlier since 1990. 49 These influences are not hard scientific data that will convince critics. They are of interest because they are precisely the type of effects one would expect from global warming.50

The Inuit people of the Canadian' far north Province of Nunavut are experiencing global warming today.51 Many of the Inuit live north of the artic circle. They have noticed that the snow is no longer suitable for construction of igloos because it melts and refreezes causing it to loose its insulating properties. Families start out to their summer hunting camps on snowmobiles, and find that the snows are gone and are replaced with mud. The fir on Caribou clothing becomes clogged with frost because of the high humidity. For years, meat was safely cashed at well-established places along trails. Today it rots in places where it had been previously been safe for years. Lakes are draining into the sea when the permafrost melts. Sea ice is breaking up earlier than usual. This carries the seals beyond the reach of the hunters. Again, these effects adumbrate global warming.

The melting of the arctic has a second and more troubling effect on global warming. The measure of the amount of light and energy reflected by a planet, or other surface, is called the albedo. The ice and snow at the poles has a high albedo and reflects much of the solar energy back into space. As the ice and snow pack melts it exposes dark earth and the albedo is reduced. The low albedo causes more solar energy to be adsorbed. This is a positive feed back. A little warming causes a little ice to melt, exposing dark earth, adsorbing more solar energy causing even more ice to melt. Global warming begets global warming.

There has been worldwide discussion of the global warming threat during the year 2000 and 2001. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has prepared a report saying that both the temperature was increasing faster than thought and there was more uncertainty regarding predictions for the future.52 This is the bad news.

The good news is that when we develop the will to change we can be successful. Many of our efforts to reduce over all pollution are working. The labors of the United States and Canadian to reduce acid rain are having some success. Switching power plants to Natural Gas has reduced the sulfur emissions and careful control of the combustion process has reduced the oxides of nitrogen. The forests are slightly recovering from past excess acidity but much more needs to be done before the forests fully recover.53

Editors "Ice Cubes for Penguins - Is Antarctic Ice Shelf Crumbling?" Newsweek, April 3, 1995

49 Sagarin, R., and Micheli, F., "Climate change In Nontraditional Data Sets", Science, Vol. 294, No. 5543, October 26, 2001, Page 911

50 Penuelas, J., and Filella, I., "Responses to a Warming World", Science, Vol. 294, No. 5543, October 26, 2001, Page 793

51 Armstrong, Sue, "Ask The Experts", New Scientist, Vol. 172, No. 2315, November 3, 2001, Page 39

52 Kerr, Richard A. "Rising Global Temperature, Rising Uncertainty", Science, Vol. 292, April 13, 2001, Page 192

53 Krajick, Kevin, "Long-term Data Show Lingering Effects from Acid Rain", Science, Vol. 292 April 13, 2001, Page 195

The 25-year, effort to reduce the emissions from automobiles has greatly benefited the air quality over major cities. Even with this success, more needs to be done. None of the successful efforts has had a large impact on the emission of carbon dioxide. Many of the pollution control schemes used on automobiles actually slightly increase the emission of carbon dioxide. Burning natural gas verses coal reduces the sulfur emissions of power plants. It also slightly reduces the emission of carbon dioxide because natural gas has the least carbon and the most hydrogen of any of the fossil fuels. Unfortunately, increased use of natural gas will also increase the quantity that can escape into the atmosphere. Methane, the major component of natural gas is a potent green house gas.

The following 6 maps show the progression of the ocean rise if nothing is done to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. These maps are limited to the eastern portion of North America. They are some what misleading in that they seem to make the problem look less daunting than it really is. A quick glance at the one meter rise map seems to show that little change has taken place. Look more closely.

The Everglade swamp is gone. The United States is engaged in spending $10 billion to regenerate the original condition of the Everglades. Obviously this investment is futile if rising sea levels are going to inundate the area in the next 30 to 50 years. New Orleans is gone, as is the most of the surrounding land. New Orleans is a significant sea port. Its loss will affect the economy of the whole country. The outer banks of North Carolina are gone. Their loss will significantly impact the economy of North Carolina because they are a major east coast vacation destination. These problems will impact the lives of people living today.

These maps show the impact on the eastern United States. Similar levels of disruption will occur throughout the world. These maps and the maps on the inner and outer covers show the huge problem we may pass on to future generations. You must decide if it is moral to pass they level of planetary destruction on to future generations.

Polar Ice Melt MapPolar Ice Melt MapPolar Ice Melt Map



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