Every Home Can Use Solar Stirling Engine For Free Energy

Solar Stirling Plant

Revolutionary Invention! This Is A New Method Of Generating Free Energy. Create Massive Amounts Of Energy, Unseen By Other Renewable Energy Devices Such As Solar Panels Or Wind Turbines. Continue reading...

Solar Stirling Plant Overview

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Author: John Redford
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I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

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Stirling Solar Power Generators

Stirling Plant Engine

In addition to SEGS, ISCCS, PV, and updraft tower methods for collecting solar energy, Stirling solar dish systems are also used (Figure 1.38). These units focus the Sun's energy onto H2 in sealed Stirling engines. As the H2 is heated to 732 C (1,350 F), it expands and drives the pistons of the engine. Stirling engines are used on submarines because they are quiet (no combustion takes place). In solar applications, their main advantage is their high efficiency (30 ), which is nearly double that of the best PV collectors. These closed systems do not need to be refilled, only their mirrors need washing every couple of weeks. The operation can be fully automated including start-up in the morning, shutdown in the evening, tracking the Sun, and remote monitoring over the Internet. The Stirling engine contains a fixed quantity of gas (H2) that is moved back and forth between the hot and the cold ends of the engine. As the gas is moved, it expands and contracts, and this change in volume is...

Piston engine technology

In its most basic form, the piston engine comprises a cylinder sealed at one end and open at the other end. A disc or piston which fits closely within the cylinder is used to seal the open end and this piston can move backwards and forwards within the cylinder. This it does in response to the expansion and contraction of the gas contained within the cylinder. The outside of the piston is attached via a hinged lever to a crankshaft. Movement of the piston in and out of the cylinder causes the crankshaft to rotate and this rotation is used to derive motive energy from the piston engine. The manner in which the gas within the cylinder is caused to expand or contract defines the type of piston engine. In spark- or compression-ignition engines, valves are employed to admit a mixture of fuel and air into the sealed piston chamber where it is burnt to generate energy. Thus these engines are called internal combustion engines. In contrast the gas within a Stirling engine is caused to expand...

Queries On Solar Power Generated Stirling Engine

Www. stirlingenergy. com says one of its dishes with a 25 kW Stirling engine at its focus can generate 60 000 kWh y in a favourable desert location. They could be packed at a concentration of one dish per 500 m2. That's an average power of 14 W m2. They say that solar dish Stirling makes the best use of land area, in terms of energy delivered.

Stirling Engine

Free Energy Engine

A high-performance Stirling engine shuttles a working fluid, such as hydrogen gas, between two chambers (a). The cold chamber blue) is separated from the hot chamber (orange) by a regenerator that maintains the temperature difference between them. Solar energy from the receiver heats the gas in the hot chamber, causing it to expand and move the hot piston (b). This piston then reverses direction, pushing the heated gas into the cold chamber (c). As the gas cools, the cold piston can easily compress it, allowing the cycle to start anew (d). The movement of the pistons drives a turbine that generates electricity in an alternator. announced that it was planning to build two large solar-thermal power plants in southern California. The company signed a 20-year power purchase agreement with Southern California Edison, which will buy the electricity from a 500-MW solar plant to be constructed in the Mojave Desert. Stretching across 4,500 acres, the facility will include 20,000 curved dish...

Piston engines

System Engine Block

There are two primary types of piston engine for power generation, the diesel engine and the spark-ignition gas engine. Of these the diesel engine is the most efficient, reaching close to 50 energy conversion efficiency. The spark-ignition engine burning natural gas can achieve perhaps 42 efficiency but it is much cleaner than the diesel. Indeed it is impossible to obtain authorisation to use a diesel engine for continuous power generation service in some parts of the world. There are four sources of heat in a piston engine the engine exhaust, the engine jacket cooling system, the oil cooling system and the turbocharger cooling system (if fitted). Engine exhaust can provide low- to medium-pressure steam and the engine jacket cooling system can provide low-pressure steam. However the most normal CHP application would generate hot water rather than steam. If all four sources of heat are exploited, roughly 70-80 of the energy in the fuel can be utilised. Piston engine power plants are...

Stirling engines

Whereas fuel combustion takes place within the cylinders of an internal combustion engine, the heat energy used to drive a Stirling engine is applied outside the cylinders which are completely sealed. The engine was designed by a Scottish Presbyterian minister, Robert Stirling, who received his first patent in 1816. The original engines used air within the cylinders and were called air engines but modern Stirling engines often use helium or hydrogen. A normal Stirling engine has two cylinders, an expansion cylinder and a compression cylinder. The two are linked and heat is applied to the expansion cylinder while the compression cylinder is cooled. Careful balancing of the system allows the heat energy to be converted into rotational motion as in an internal combustion engine. The great advantage of the Stirling engine is that the heat energy is applied externally. Thus the energy can, in theory, be derived from any heat source. Stirling engines have been used to exploit solar energy...

Pyrolisation gasification and anaerobic digestion

Pyrolysis Process Making Charcoal

Most updraft gasifiers operate at atmospheric pressure. One interesting variation inserts a gas combustor above the gasifier, which burns the hot producer gas as it leaves. The flue gas is then piped directly to the heater head of a Stirling engine, best described as an external combustion piston engine (see Chapter 14). This in turn drives an electrical generator. Conventional spark ignition internal combustion piston engines, i.e. the type of engine that is mass produced, cheap, reliable and rugged, can easily be converted to run on clean producer gas. Power output drops significantly - by up to 50 - thanks to the lower calorific value of the producer gas compared to petroleum products. Producer gas can also co-fuel the even more rugged and reliable compression ignition internal combustion piston engine - better known as a Diesel engine. To ensure effective ignition, only 80 or less of the diesel fuel can be replaced by producer gas, but this, and...

Engine size and speed

The speed at which a piston engine operates will depend on its size. In general small units will operate at high speed and large units at low speed. However since in most situations a piston-engine-based power unit will have to be synchronised to an electricity grid operating at 50 or 60 Hz, the engine speed must be a function of one or other of these rates. Thus a 50 Hz high-speed engine will operate at 1000, 1500 or 3000 rpm while a 60 Hz machine will operate at 1200, 1800 or 3600 rpm. In addition to standby service or continuous output base-load operation, piston engine power plants are good at load following. Internal combustion engines operate well under part load conditions. For a gas-fired spark-ignition engine, output at 50 load is roughly 8-10 lower than at full load. The diesel engine performs even better, with output barely changing when load drops from 100 to 50 .

Cogeneration trigeneration and beyond

Stirling Engine 55kw

Using one combustion process to generate both hot water and electricity is known as either combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration . Cogeneration is perhaps the most appropriate appellation, as it fits neatly with the use of the term trigeneration for installations where the heat generated also powers an absorption cooler (see Chapter 13). Some medium-sized trigeneration installations also produce steam, and the term quadgen-eration is coming into use for these. Any form of hydrocarbon fuel could in theory be used, but for the small- to medium-sized installation the most common are biomass, natural gas, syngas, biogas and producer gas (see Chapters 7 and 11) although biofuels such as rape-seed oil are an alternative. Basic biomass is burnt in a furnace, and the heat produced is used to generate electricity either by raising steam to power either a reciprocating steam engine or steam turbines or perhaps to directly heat a Stirling engine (see below). Gas can also be used to raise...

Living on other countries renewables

In all these countries, I think the most promising renewable is solar power, concentrating solar power in particular, which uses mirrors or lenses to focus sunlight. Concentrating solar power stations come in several flavours, arranging their moving mirrors in various geometries, and putting various power conversion technologies at the focus - Stirling engines, pressurized water, or molten salt, for example - but they all deliver fairly similar average powers per unit area, in the ballpark of 15 W m2.

Technological Trajectories

Gear, 1890), which facilitated applications at low speeds, and Curtiss' velocity compounding (1898), which permitted still smaller sizes (Forbes and Dijksterhuis 1963, p. 462). The internal combustion piston engine of Nikolaus Otto started a different trajectory, as did the gas turbine.

Pistonenginebased power plants

Piston engines or reciprocating engines (the two terms are often used interchangeably to describe these engines) are used throughout the world in applications ranging from lawn mowers to cars, trucks, locomotives, ships, and for power and combined heat and power generation. The number in use is enormous the US alone produces 35 million each year. Engines vary in size from less than 1 kW to 65,000 kW. They can burn a wide range of fuels including natural gas, biogas, LPG, gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, heavy fuel oil and even coal. The power generation applications of piston engines are enormously varied too. Small units can be used for standby power or for combined heat, and power in homes and offices. Larger standby units are often used in situations where a continuous supply of power is critical in hospitals or to support highly sensitive computer installations such as air traffic control. Many commercial and industrial facilities use medium-sized piston-engine-based combined heat and...

Distributed Generation Technologies

In DG applications, traditional technologies can be used, such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and, in large installations, steam turbines and combined-cycle turbines. Other kinds of technologies such as microturbines, Stirling engines, fuel cells, or renewable energies, including solar power, geothermal power, or wind power can also be utilized (Figure 5.1). 5.1.5 Stirling Engines Stirling engines (Figure 5.4) are a class of reciprocating piston engines and are classed as external combustion engines, invented in 1816 by Robert Stirling. They constitute an efficient thermodynamic machine for the direct conversion of heat into mechanical work with a theoretical efficiency of 40 . Stirling engines were commonly used prior to beginning of the twentieth century. As steam engines improved and the competing compact Otto cycle engine was invented, Stirling engines lost favor. Recent developments in DG and solar thermal power have revived interest in Stirling engines. As a...

Solar dish collectors

The most popular type of engine for use with a solar dish is a sterling engine. This is a piston engine (see Chapter 6) but a piston engine in which the pistons are part of a completely closed system. The energy source, heat, is applied externally. Consequently this is perfectly suited to solar dish applications. The solar dish is the most efficient of all the solar thermal technologies. The best recorded solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency is 30 , but the Stirling engine is theoretically capable of 40 efficiency. This is of importance because of the area needed for a solar power plant. While parabolic trough systems require 2.2-3.4 ha for each megawatt of generating capacity, solar dishes need 1.2-1.6 ha.4

Gaps from Tectonic Movement

The mystique of DP was enhanced at the time by analogies to the computer, software, Internet, and telecom revolutions taking place in the late 1990s. DP advocates compared central stations to mainframe computers and landline telephones. DP, on the other hand, was a robust network of intelligent devices communicating with each other, all the while empowering consumers to take responsibility for their energy destiny. Some purveyors of DP devices such as fuel cells, microturbine generators, photovoltaic solar cells, and even Stirling engines that make use of lower temperature heat sources, basked in an aura reserved at that time for dotcoms and telecoms. They were certainly on the dance cards of the investor community.

Electricity Generation

Electricity can be generated for on-site use or for sale to a power grid. Different technologies can be used to generate the electricity, including internal combustion engines, turbines, microturbines, stirling engines (external combustion engines), organic Rankine cycle engines, and fuel cells.

The Hydrogen Air Fuel Cell

The reason current automobiles are inefficient is that most of the time an automobile power plant is operating at a small fraction of its potential power output. For example, an auto with a 75-kilowatt (100 hp) engine only uses about 5 to 7 kilowatts for cruising at a constant speed of 100 kilometers per hour. The peak power potential of an engine is only used during acceleration. The peak efficiency of a piston engine occurs near the operational conditions of peak power. The efficiency of an internal combustion engine is greatly reduced from its peak value when it is operated at part load, as when cruising. As a result, under most operating conditions, an automobile engine is operating well off peak efficiency. To produce maximum power output the internal combustion engine must be operated at several thousand revolutions per minute. This results in the need for a complex transmission and clutch arrangement to allow the automobile to start into motion and to match the engine speed...

Environmental considerations

Piston engine power units generally burn fossil fuels and the environmental considerations that need to be taken into account are exactly the same considerations that affect all coal-, oil- and gas-fired power plants the emissions resulting from fuel combustion. In the case of internal combustion engines the main emissions are nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Diesel engines, particularly those burning heavy diesel fuel will also produce particulate matter and some sulphur dioxide. The most serious exhaust emissions from a piston engine are nitrogen oxides. Engine modifications that reduce the combustion temperature of the fuel, such as the use of a pre-combustion chamber and lean fuel mixture described above, offer the best means of reducing these emissions. Natural gas engines designed to burn a very lean fuel (excess air) provide the best performance. Diesel engines present a greater problem but water injection can reduce emission levels by...

Solar thermal energy systems

Provide a source of high temperature heat. The use of a large number of mirrors over a wide area can provide a relatively low-cost source of concentrated energy, suitable for heating water or other fluid to a high temperature. This high temperature heat can then be used either to run a hot-air, or Stirling engine, or to provide steam for use in a conventional steam-generating plant, both of which are used to drive an electric generator. Of course, this type of system can only be used to provide a source of thermal energy during daylight hours, although some large systems incorporate a thermal storage system so that they can continue to generate electricity for some time during cloudy periods, or even at night. If a source of firm electricity is required then some form of back-up system may also be required for stand-alone applications. In large-scale demonstration plants built to date in the USA, a hybrid system using natural gas as a back-up fuel has been used to provide continuous...

Looking Back to Look Forward

Power and heat cogeneration, the growth of which is often restricted by the lack of a grid-bound heat market, can, with the aid of a Stirling engine, for example, become a three-step power heat power generation system which enables more electricity to be made from the surplus heat for the producer's own requirements or to feed into the local networks, thereby creating new local and regional synergies.

Energy efficiency vs energy intensity

Although the measure of E GDP is an imperfect measure of energy intensity, and aggregation of individual energy efficiencies is fraught with difficulties, the rest of this chapter will discuss energy intensity for aggregated energy use and energy efficiency for individual technologies and activities. This is for two reasons. Firstly, this chapter examines the role of energy efficiency in determining how much carbon-free power is required for an abatement policy to respond to anthropogenic global climate change. For this purpose, a molecule of carbon is the same whether emitted from a steel mill or a residential Stirling engine in either Arizona or Angola, and thus some measure of aggregation is needed for comparison, prediction and discussion. Secondly, the use of E GDP, with its limitations clearly understood, allows flexibility to expand on the importance of lifestyles, economic factors, political decisions, and social processes in determining how energy is used and how vital the...

Solar Thermal Electric Energy

The Solar Dish Stirling Electric Generating Module at Huntington Beach, California, has 82 curved glass mirrors arranged to form a parabolic collection surface with a total area of 90 square meters. On a clear day, this unit will produce 25-KWe (Kilo Watt electric). There is a similar plant at Santa Rosa substation in Palm Springs, California. It uses an 87 square meter parabolic collector and a Stirling engine to produce electricity. This installation has set records of 30 peak and 20 continuous for the conversion of sunlight to electricity during cloud free daylight hours.

Solar energy in building design

Figure 11.17 A concentrating solar power (CSP) system for electricity generation, that consists of a solar thermal array of a number of dish-shaped mirrors each focusing radiation on a receiver attached to a Stirling engine (see bottom left) that converts heat into electricity. Figure 11.17 A concentrating solar power (CSP) system for electricity generation, that consists of a solar thermal array of a number of dish-shaped mirrors each focusing radiation on a receiver attached to a Stirling engine (see bottom left) that converts heat into electricity.

Microcombined heat and power CHP

It is interesting how two nineteenth century technologies, the Stirling engine and the fuel cell, are only now coming into their own. Invented by Robert Stirling in 1816, the engine that bears his name is described as an 'external combustion engine'. This is because heat is applied to the outside of the unit to heat up a gas within a sealed cylinder. The heat source is at one end of the cylinder whilst the cooling takes place at the opposite end. The internal piston is driven by the successive heating and cooling of the gas. When the gas is heated it expands, pushing down the piston. In the process the gas is cooled and then pushed to the heated top of the cylinder by the returning piston, once again to expand and repeat the process. Because of advances in piston technology and in materials like ceramics from the space industry and high temperature steels allowing temperatures to rise to 1200 C, it is now considered a firm contender for the micro-heat-and-power market. Because there...

Offshore devices

A wave power float pump developed in Denmark takes a slightly different approach. In this case a float at the surface is attached to a rod, which bears in turn on a shaft (like a crankshaft), attached to a piston-pump device. Movement of the float up and down causes the rod to rotate the (crank) shaft, turning the vertical motion into rotary motion from which electricity can be extracted, exactly as in a piston engine.

Biomass heating

Biomass Combustion Systems

Biomass can be burnt to produce either hot air or hot water. It can be combined with other technologies to form a cogeneration or trigeneration facility (see Chapter 14). Traditionally most of the heat from the biomass was used to generate steam, which drove turbines that drove electricity generators. Surplus heat was used for space heating cooling, often on a district basis. This was only effective on the larger scale. A recent development replaces the turbines with a Stirling engine, best described as an external combustion piston engine (see Chapter 14). Such installations can be independent of national energy grids.

CHP technology

Most types of power generation technology are capable of being integrated into a CHP system. There are obvious exceptions such as hydropower, wind power and solar photovoltaic. But solar thermal power plants can produce excess heat and geothermal energy is exploited for CHP applications. Fuel cells are probably one of the best CHP sources while conventional technologies such as steam turbines, gas turbines and piston engine plants can all be easily adapted. The type of heat required in a CHP application will often narrow the choice. If high-quality steam is demanded then a source of high-temperature waste heat will be needed. This can be taken from a steam-turbine-based power plant, it can be generated using the exhaust of a gas turbine and it can be found in a high-temperature fuel cell. Other generating systems such as piston engines are only capable of generating low-quality steam or hot water. The way in which a CHP plant is to operate is another important consideration. Is it...

Financial risks

The technology used in the construction of all types of piston engines is mature and the nature of the processes involved are well understood. Improvements are continually made but these are minor in nature. Overall the performance and reliability of a piston engine should fall within well-established boundaries. By far the greatest risk attached to the operation of a piston engine power plant is related to fuel supply. Oil prices can be particularly volatile, but gas prices are likely to become subject to the same movements in price in the future. The development of a large piston engine power plant will usually include a long-term fuel supply agreement. However the operation of many smaller units will depend on the purchase of fuel at the current market price. This should always be taken into account when planning a project. There is evidence that oil and gas supplies will face increasing pressure over the next few decades. This is likely to have an adverse effect on piston engine...

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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