T rc

Fig. 11. The energy conversion efficiency of solar driven water splitting to generate H2 as a function of temperature at AM0 insolation, with the system minimum bandgap determined at pH2o = 1 bar.3 The maximum photoelectrolysis efficiency is shown for various indicated values of nphot.

Hydrogen Heaters

Fig. 12. The energy conversion efficiency of solar driven water splitting to generate H2 as a function of temperature at AM0 insolation, with the system minimum bandgap determined at PH20 = 500 bar.3 The maximum photoelectrolysis efficiency is shown for various indicated values of nphot.

Fig. 12. The energy conversion efficiency of solar driven water splitting to generate H2 as a function of temperature at AM0 insolation, with the system minimum bandgap determined at PH20 = 500 bar.3 The maximum photoelectrolysis efficiency is shown for various indicated values of nphot.

Photoelectrolysis Hydrogen

Fig. 13. Vh2o, measured in aq. saturated or molten NaOH, at 1 atm.90 CO2 is excluded by argon purge. The molten electrolyte is prepared from heated, solid NaOH with steam injection. O2 anode is 0.6-cm2 Pt foil. IR and polarization losses are minimized by sandwiching 5 mm from each side of the anode, two interconnected Pt gauze (200 mesh, 50 cm2 = 5 cm x 5 cm x 2 sides) cathodes. Inset: At 25 °C, 3 electrode values at 5 mV/s versus Ag/AgCl, with either 0.6-cm2 Pt or Ni foil, and again separated 5 mm from two 50-cm2 Pt gauze acting as counter electrodes.

Fig. 13. Vh2o, measured in aq. saturated or molten NaOH, at 1 atm.90 CO2 is excluded by argon purge. The molten electrolyte is prepared from heated, solid NaOH with steam injection. O2 anode is 0.6-cm2 Pt foil. IR and polarization losses are minimized by sandwiching 5 mm from each side of the anode, two interconnected Pt gauze (200 mesh, 50 cm2 = 5 cm x 5 cm x 2 sides) cathodes. Inset: At 25 °C, 3 electrode values at 5 mV/s versus Ag/AgCl, with either 0.6-cm2 Pt or Ni foil, and again separated 5 mm from two 50-cm2 Pt gauze acting as counter electrodes.

It is also noted that Eg > 3.0 eV is in adequate for efficient use of the solar spectrum. Representative results from Fig. 12 for solar water splitting to H2 systems from AMI.5 insolation include a 50% solar energy conversion for a photoelectrolysis system at 638 °C with pH2O = 500; pH2 = 1 bar and nphot = 0.32.

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