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to the richness of the river, various disciplines of science, such as astronomy and mathematics, as well as law, justice, currency, and police protection, were created there at a time when no other human society held this knowledge or sophistication.

Energy is as important as water for the development of a good standard of life because it is the force that puts in operation all human activities. Water by itself is also a power-generating force. The first confirmed attempts to harness water power occurred more than 2000 years ago, at which time the energy gained was mainly used to grind grain (Major, 1990).

The Greeks were the first to express philosophical ideas about the nature of water and energy. Thales of Militus (640-546 B.C.), one of the seven wise men of antiquity, wrote about water (Delyannis, 1960) that it is fertile and molded (can take the shape of its container). The same philosopher said that seawater is the immense sea that surrounds the earth, which is the primary mother of all life. Later on, Embedokles (495-435 B.C.) developed the theory of the elements (Delyannis, 1960), describing that the world consists of four primary elements: fire, air, water, and earth. With today's knowledge, these elements may be translated to energy, atmosphere, water, and soil, which are the four basic constituents that affect the quality of our lives (Delyannis and Belessiotis, 2000).

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), one of the greatest philosophers and scientists of antiquity, described in a surprisingly correct way the origin and properties of natural, brackish, and seawater. He also described accurately the water cycle in nature—a description that is still valid. In fact, the water cycle is a huge solar energy open distiller in a perpetual operational cycle.

Aristotle wrote that seawater becomes sweet when it turns into vapor, and the vapor does not form saltwater when it condenses again. In fact, Aristotle proved this experimentally.

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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