References

Solar Power Design Manual

Do It Yourself Solar Energy

Get Instant Access

Benz, N., Gut, M., Rub, W., 1998. Solar process heat in breweries and dairies. In: Proceedings of EuroSun 98 on CD ROM, Portoroz, Slovenia.

Benz, N., Gut, M., Beikircher, T., 1999. Solar process heat with non-concentrating collectors for food industry. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

Blanco, J., Malato, S., Fernandez, P., Vidal, A., Morales, A., Trincado, P., et al., 1999. Compound parabolic concentrator technology development to commercial solar detoxification applications. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

FCTec, 2008. Fuel cell test and evaluation center, U.S. Ministry of Defense. Available from: www.fctec.com/.

Goswami, D.Y., 1999. Recent developments in photocatalytic detoxification and disinfection of water and air. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

Grasse, W., 1998. Solar PACES Annual Report, DLR, Cologne, Germany.

Hurtado, P., Kast, M., 1984. Experimental Study of Direct In-Situ Generation of Steam in a Line Focus Solar Collector. SERI, Golden, CO.

Kalogirou, S., 2003. The potential of solar industrial process heat applications. Appl. Energy 76 (4), 337-361.

Kalogirou, S., Lloyd, S., Ward, J., 1997. Modelling, optimization and performance evaluation of a parabolic trough collector steam generation system. Sol. Energy 60 (1), 49-59.

Kreetz, H., Lovegrove, K., 1999. Theoretical analysis and experimental results of a 1 kWchem ammonia synthesis reactor for a solar thermochemical energy storage system. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

Lovegrove, K., Luzzi, A., Kreetz, H., 1999. A solar driven ammonia based thermochemi-cal energy storage system. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

Mehos, M., Turchi, C., Pacheco, J., Boegel, A.J., Merrill, T., Stanley, R., 1992. Pilot-Scale Study of the Solar Detoxification of VOC-Contaminated Groundwater, NREL/TP-432-4981, Golden, CO.

Murphy, L.M., Keneth, E., 1982. Steam Generation in Line-Focus Solar Collectors: A Comparative Assessment of Thermal Performance, Operating Stability, and Cost Issues. SERI/TR-1311, Golden, CO.

Norton, B., 1992. Solar Energy Thermal Technology. Springer-Verlag, London.

Norton, B., 1999. Solar process heat: distillation, drying, agricultural and industrial uses. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

Norton, B., 2001. Solar process heat. In: Gordon, J. (Ed.), Solar Energy: The state of the art. James and James, London, pp. 477-496.

Palumbo, R., Rouanet, A., Pichelin, G., 1995. Solar thermal decomposition of TiO2 at temperatures above 2200 K and its use in the production of Zn and ZnO. Energy 20 (9), 857-868.

Peterson, R.J., Keneth, E., 1982. Flow Instability During Direct Steam Generation in Line-Focus Solar Collector System, SERI/TR-1354, Golden CO.

Schweiger, H., Mendes, J.F., Benz, N., Hennecke, K., Prieto, G., Gusi, M., Goncalves, H., 2000. The potential of solar heat in industrial processes. A state of the art review for Spain and Portugal. In: Proceedings of Eurosun'2000, Copenhagen, Denmark on CD ROM.

Sethi, V.P., Sharma, S.K., 2007. Survey of cooling technologies for worldwide agricultural greenhouse applications. Sol. Energy 81 (12), 1447-1459.

Spate, F., Hafner, B., Schwarzer, K., 1999. A system for solar process heat for decentralized applications in developing countries. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

Steinfeld, A., Larson, C., Palumbo, R., Foley, M., 1996. Thermodynamic analysis of the co-production of zinc and synthesis gas using solar process heat. Energy 21 (3), 205-222.

U.S. Department of Energy, 2000. Fuel Cell Handbook, fifth ed. Available from: www. fuelcells.org/info/library/fchandbook.pdf.

Yehesket, J., Rubin, R., Berman, A., Karni, J., 2000. Chemical kinetics of high temperature hydrocarbons reforming using a solar reactor. In: Proceedings of Eurosun'2000 on CD ROM, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Zarza, E., Hennecke, K., Coebel, O., 1999. Project DISS (direct solar steam) update on project status and future planning. In: Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress on CD ROM, Jerusalem, Israel.

to the richness of the river, various disciplines of science, such as astronomy and mathematics, as well as law, justice, currency, and police protection, were created there at a time when no other human society held this knowledge or sophistication.

Energy is as important as water for the development of a good standard of life because it is the force that puts in operation all human activities. Water by itself is also a power-generating force. The first confirmed attempts to harness water power occurred more than 2000 years ago, at which time the energy gained was mainly used to grind grain (Major, 1990).

The Greeks were the first to express philosophical ideas about the nature of water and energy. Thales of Militus (640-546 B.C.), one of the seven wise men of antiquity, wrote about water (Delyannis, 1960) that it is fertile and molded (can take the shape of its container). The same philosopher said that seawater is the immense sea that surrounds the earth, which is the primary mother of all life. Later on, Embedokles (495-435 B.C.) developed the theory of the elements (Delyannis, 1960), describing that the world consists of four primary elements: fire, air, water, and earth. With today's knowledge, these elements may be translated to energy, atmosphere, water, and soil, which are the four basic constituents that affect the quality of our lives (Delyannis and Belessiotis, 2000).

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), one of the greatest philosophers and scientists of antiquity, described in a surprisingly correct way the origin and properties of natural, brackish, and seawater. He also described accurately the water cycle in nature—a description that is still valid. In fact, the water cycle is a huge solar energy open distiller in a perpetual operational cycle.

Aristotle wrote that seawater becomes sweet when it turns into vapor, and the vapor does not form saltwater when it condenses again. In fact, Aristotle proved this experimentally.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment