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3. Sensible heat convection and radiation from internal objects.

4. Ventilation and infiltration.

5. Latent heat gains generated within the space.


The thermal load is the rate at which energy must be added or removed from a space to maintain the temperature and humidity at the design values.

The cooling load differs from the heat gain mainly because the radiant energy from the inside surfaces, as well as the direct solar radiation passing into a space through openings, is mostly absorbed in the space. This energy becomes part of the cooling load only when the room air receives the energy by convection and occurs when the various surfaces in the room attain higher temperatures than the room air. Hence, there is a time lag that depends on the storage characteristics of the structure and interior objects and is more significant when the heat capacity (product of mass and specific heat) is greater. Therefore, the peak cooling load can be considerably smaller than the maximum heat gain and occurs much later than the maximum heat gain period. The heating load behaves in a similar manner as the cooling load.

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