M c

For N identical collectors connected in series with the flow rate set to the single panel flow rate,


FrUl series FR1UL1

If the collectors are connected in series and the flow rate per unit aperture area in each series line of collectors is equal to the test flow rate per unit aperture area, then no penalty is associated with the flow rate other than an increased pressure drop from the circuit.

Example 4.1

For five collectors in series, each 2 m2 in area and FR1UL1 = 4 W/m2-°C at a flow rate of 0.01 kg/s, estimate the correction factor. Water is circulated through the collectors.


0.01 X 4180

The factor



This example indicates that connecting collectors in series without increasing the working fluid flow rate in proportion to the number of collectors results in significant loss of output.

4.1.3 Standard Requirements

Here, the various requirements of the ISO standards for both glazed and unglazed collectors are presented. For a more comprehensive list of the requirements and details on the test procedures, the reader is advised to read the actual standard.

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