Find the overall heat transfer coefficient of the construction shown in Figure 6.2 if components 1 and 3 are brick 10 cm in thickness and the center one is stagnant air 5 cm in thickness. Additionally, the wall is plastered with 25 mm plaster on each side.


Using the data shown in Tables A5.4 and A5.5 in Appendix 5, we get the following list of resistance values:

1. Outside surface resistance = 0.044.

7. Inside surface resistance = 0.12.

Total resistance = 1.18 m2-K/W or U = 1/1.18 = 0.847 W/m2-K.

In some countries minimum U values for the various building components are specified by law to prohibit building poorly insulated buildings, which require a lot of energy for their heating and cooling needs.

Another situation usually encountered in buildings is the pitched roof shown in Figure. 6.3.

Using the electrical analogy, the combined thermal resistance is obtained from or which gives


ceiling roof





= combined overall heat transfer coefficient for the pitched roof (W/m2-K).


= overall heat transfer coefficient for the ceiling per unit area of the ceiling



= overall heat transfer coefficient for the roof per unit area of the roof



= ceiling area (m2).


= roof area (m2).

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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